Experiencing Climate Change in Bangladesh

Vulnerability and Adaptation in Coastal Regions
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 10. September 2015
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  • 176 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-803422-4 (ISBN)
 

Experiencing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Vulnerability and Adaptation in Coastal Regions provides a conceptual and empirical framework for understanding the vulnerability of coastal communities in Bangladesh to multiple stressors and presents the process by which rural households adapt their livelihoods.

The livelihoods of the poor people in many developing countries are disproportionately vulnerable to multiple shocks and stresses. The effects of climate change interacting with these livelihood disturbances further amplify human vulnerability. Future climate change is likely to aggravate this precarious situation.

This book offers a solid framework for analyzing the process and components of adaptation of rural livelihoods to a changing hydro-climatic environment and presents empirical evidence of livelihood adaptation at the local level.

The book creates a knowledge-base for the small island developing states (SIDS) experiencing similar socio-economic and climatic conditions. Also fills a market need by providing a conceptual framework, case studies, and reflections on lessons learned from policy responses for vulnerability reduction and adaptation to climate variability, extremes, and change.


  • Presents an analyses-based adaptation to climate change in a holistic way that takes into account social, economic, and environmental stressors and their interrelationships
  • Examines synergy between disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, and social protection in the context of Bangladesh
  • Provides examples of successes and failures in climate change adaptation invaluable for developing countries in similar situations
  • Fills a market need by providing a conceptual framework, case studies, and reflections on lessons learned from policy responses


Dr Salim Momtaz is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Newcastle, Australia. He teaches in the area of Sustainable Resource Management. He received his BSc and MSc degrees in Geography from the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. He did a PhD in Regional Planning and Development from the University of London under a Commonwealth Scholarship, working under the supervision of Professor Richard Munton. His academic career started at the University of Dhaka in 1986. Salim moved to Australia in 1994 as an independent migrant. From 1995 to 1998 Salim taught Geography and Environmental Studies at Central Queensland University. He joined the University of Newcastle in 1999 where he has been teaching since. He had a stint in the US teaching Environmental and Social Impact Assessment at Georgetown University, Washington D.C., as a Visiting Professor. He received Rotary International Ambassadorial Fellowship to teach and conduct research in Bangladesh. Salim's current research interests include development and environment, climate change adaptation, environmental governance, and social impact assessment. Salim led the team that conducted one of the first social impact assessment studies in Australia titled 'Independent Social Impact Assessment: Proposed Castle Hope Dam and Awoonga Dam, Queensland'. Salim published five books and many articles in international journals. He was a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee, Netherlands Government Research Organization, between 2007 and 2010. Salim currently lives in a coastal outer suburb of Sydney, Australia with his wife and two daughters.
  • Englisch
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 2,88 MB
978-0-12-803422-4 (9780128034224)
012803422X (012803422X)
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  • Front Cover
  • Experiencing Climate Change in Bangladesh: Vulnerability and Adaptation in Coastal Regions
  • Copyright
  • PREFACE
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • CONTENTS
  • LIST OF FIGURES
  • LIST OF TABLES
  • ABOUT THE AUTHORS
  • LIST OF ACRONYMS
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
  • 1.2 INVESTIGATIVE QUESTIONS
  • 1.3 LAYOUT OF THE BOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Adaptation in Climate Change Discourse: A Conceptual Framework
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 ADAPTATION IN THEORY
  • 2.2.1 Evolution of Approaches to Adaptation
  • 2.2.2 A Conceptual Framework of Adaptation to Climate Change
  • 2.2.2.1 Climate Stimuli
  • 2.2.2.2 System Definition
  • 2.2.2.3 Adaptive Responses
  • 2.3 KEY CONCEPTS IN CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STUDIES
  • 2.3.1 Vulnerability to Climate Change
  • 2.3.2 Resilience Framework in Climate Change Adaptation
  • 2.3.3 Maladaptation
  • 2.4 PROCESS OF ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 2.4.1 Strength of Belief as Motivation to Climate Change Adaptation
  • 2.4.2 Socio-Cognitive Model of Adaptation to Climate Change
  • 2.5 ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE IN LIVELIHOOD FRAMEWORK
  • 2.5.1 Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA)
  • 2.5.1.1 The Role of Assets
  • 2.5.1.2 Vulnerability Context
  • 2.5.1.3 The Role of Institution and Structures
  • 2.5.1.4 Livelihood Strategies and Outcomes
  • 2.5.2 Adapting Livelihood Approaches to Climate Change
  • 2.5.3 A Conceptual Framework for Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability?and Change
  • 2.5.3.1 Access to Livelihood Assets
  • 2.5.3.2 Climate Risk Perception
  • 2.5.3.3 Embedding Climate Risk Management into Livelihood Strategies
  • 2.5.3.4 Institutional Context
  • 2.5.3.5 Climate-Resilient Livelihood Outcomes
  • 2.5.3.6 Feedback Mechanisms
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Study Design and Data Sources
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 SELECTION OF FIELD RESEARCH METHODS
  • 3.3 STUDY DESIGN
  • 3.3.1 Climate Variability and Extremes as a Proxy for Climate Change
  • 3.3.2 Sustainable Livelihoods Approach: Evaluation Framework for Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Change
  • 3.3.3 Institutional Analysis Framework
  • 3.4 CASE STUDY
  • 3.4.1 Scoping the Case Study Area
  • 3.4.2 Selection of Case Study
  • 3.4.3 Selection of Communities
  • 3.4.4 Selection of Sample Households
  • 3.5 FIELD DATA COLLECTION
  • 3.5.1 Secondary Information Review
  • 3.5.2 Introductory Community Visit
  • 3.5.3 Household Survey
  • 3.5.4 Focus Group
  • 3.5.4.1 Hazard Mapping
  • 3.5.4.2 Seasonal Calendar
  • 3.5.5 Key Informant Interview
  • 3.5.6 Climate Data Collection
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - The Research Setting
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 COASTAL BANGLADESH
  • 4.2.1 Physical Setting
  • 4.2.2 Socio-Economic Context
  • 4.2.2.1 Population
  • 4.2.2.2 Poverty and Unemployment
  • 4.2.2.3 Livelihood Characteristics
  • 4.2.2.4 Agriculture and Structure of Land Distribution
  • 4.2.2.5 Shrimp Farming
  • 4.2.2.6 Fishing
  • 4.2.2.7 Institutional Environment
  • 4.2.2.8 Role of NGOs
  • 4.2.3 Characteristics of the Climate
  • 4.2.4 Biophysical Hazards and Key Impacts
  • 4.2.4.1 Waterlogging and Drainage Congestions
  • 4.2.4.2 Salinity Intrusion
  • 4.2.4.3 Tropical Cyclone and Storm Surge
  • 4.2.5 Potential Impacts of Climate Change
  • 4.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA
  • 4.3.1 Geography of the Study Area
  • 4.3.2 Socio-Economic Features
  • 4.3.2.1 Population Dynamics
  • 4.3.2.2 Health and Education Facilitates
  • 4.3.2.3 Other Public Services
  • 4.3.2.4 Road Infrastructure
  • 4.3.2.5 Livelihood Activities
  • 4.3.2.6 Farming
  • 4.3.2.7 Fisheries
  • 4.3.2.8 Agriculture
  • 4.3.2.9 Extraction of Sundarbans Forest Resources
  • 4.3.2.10 Seasonal Migration
  • 4.3.3 Current Vulnerability to Hydro-Climatic Exposure
  • 4.3.3.1 Water and Soil Salinity
  • 4.3.3.2 Tropical Cyclone
  • 4.3.3.3 Land Erosion
  • 4.4 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - Household Assets and Capabilities
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 LIVELIHOOD CAPITALS
  • 5.2.1 Human Capital
  • 5.2.1.1 Household Size
  • 5.2.1.2 Education
  • 5.2.1.3 Health
  • 5.2.1.4 Technical Training
  • 5.2.2 Physical Capital
  • 5.2.2.1 Housing
  • 5.2.2.2 Access to Safe Water
  • 5.2.2.3 Production Equipment
  • 5.2.2.4 Cyclone Shelters
  • 5.2.3 Natural Capital
  • 5.2.3.1 Land
  • 5.2.3.2 Livestock
  • 5.2.4 Financial Capital
  • 5.2.4.1 Income
  • 5.2.4.2 Loan
  • 5.2.5 Social Capital
  • 5.2.5.1 Participation in Community Organization
  • 5.2.5.2 Contact with NGOs
  • 5.3 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  • 5.3.1 Human Capital
  • 5.3.2 Physical Capital
  • 5.3.3 Natural Capital
  • 5.3.4 Financial Capital
  • 5.3.5 Social Capital
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Local People's Perceptions of Climate Change
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 HYDRO-CLIMATIC VARIABILITY AND EXTREME CLIMATE EVENTS
  • 6.2.1 Temperature and Precipitation Variability
  • 6.2.2 Tropical Cyclones Making Landfall Over the Coastal Area
  • 6.3 LOCAL PERCEPTIONS OF CHANGES IN CLIMATE
  • 6.4 COMPARISON BETWEEN LOCAL ACCOUNTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND METEOROLOGICAL INFORMATION
  • 6.5 PERCEPTIONS OF RISKS CONCERNING CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 6.6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Climate Disturbances and Change: Strategies for Adaptation
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 LIVELIHOOD DIVERSIFICATION FOR ADAPTATION AND INCREASING SECURITY
  • 7.3 CHANGING LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATIC HAZARDS AND OTHER STRESSORS
  • 7.3.1 Shift to Aquaculture-Based Livelihood Strategies
  • 7.3.2 Incorporation of Traditional Practices into Commercial Aquaculture
  • 7.3.3 Adoption of New Species as a Risk-Spreading Strategy
  • 7.4 COPING STRATEGIES IN SHRIMP AQUACULTURE
  • 7.5 ADAPTATION TO SALINITY INTRUSION IN RICE PRODUCTION
  • 7.6 USE OF CLIMATE INFORMATION
  • 7.7 ADAPTATION TO SALINITY ENCROACHMENT IN DRINKING WATER RESOURCES
  • 7.8 IMPROVEMENT OF SHELTERS: HOUSEHOLDS' RESPONSE TO TIDAL FLOOD
  • 7.9 MIGRATION
  • 7.10 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Change: The Role of Policies and Institutions
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 8.2 INSTITUTIONAL INTERVENTIONS IN FACILITATING ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
  • 8.3 SOCIAL SAFETY NETS: PUBLIC RESPONSES TO COPE WITH LIVELIHOOD DISTURBANCES
  • 8.3.1 Supporting Households to Cope with Climate Hazards
  • 8.3.1.1 Renewal of Livelihoods in the Postdisaster Situation
  • 8.3.1.2 Supporting Risk-Spreading Strategies through Employment in Public Works
  • 8.3.1.3 Building Resilience of the Vulnerable Groups to Sustain Shocks and Stresses
  • 8.3.2 Limit to SSNs to Benefit Vulnerable Communities
  • 8.4 ROLE OF NGOS IN PROMOTING LIVELIHOOD ADAPTATION
  • 8.5 NATIONAL CLIMATE POLICY AND LIVELIHOOD ADAPTATION AT THE LOCAL LEVEL
  • 8.6 ADAPTING DEVELOPMENT PLANS AND SECTORAL POLICIES
  • 8.7 DISCUSSION
  • 8.8 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Conclusion
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.1.1 Summary of the Major Findings
  • 9.1.2 Policy Options and Recommendations
  • 9.1.2.1 Using a Sustainable Livelihood Approach
  • 9.1.2.2 Integrating Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management
  • 9.1.2.3 Safety Nets Should Remain a Key Policy Priority for Vulnerable Households
  • 9.1.2.4 Public Investment for Society's Adaptations
  • 9.1.2.5 Major Attention Should Be Paid to Integrated Coastal Management
  • REFERENCE
  • GLOSSARY OF TERMS
  • INDEX
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Back Cover
Chapter 2

Adaptation in Climate Change Discourse


A Conceptual Framework


Abstract


This chapter reviews the current literature in the field of climate change and livelihoods to set out a conceptual framework to guide the research. It discusses the history and the concepts of adaptation, and provides an overview of the adaptation models. The chapter then proposes a conceptual framework on the livelihood adaptation process.

Keywords


Adaptation; Adaptive capacity; Climate change; Global warming; Livelihood adaptation; Vulnerability

Contents

2.1 Introduction 8

2.2 Adaptation in Theory 9

2.2.1 Evolution of Approaches to Adaptation 9

2.2.2 A Conceptual Framework of Adaptation to Climate Change 10

2.2.2.1 Climate Stimuli 10

2.2.2.2 System Definition 10

2.2.2.3 Adaptive Responses 11

2.3 Key Concepts in Climate Change Adaptation Studies 13

2.3.1 Vulnerability to Climate Change 13

2.3.2 Resilience Framework in Climate Change Adaptation 14

2.3.3 Maladaptation 15

2.4 Process of Adaptation to Climate Change 16

2.4.1 Strength of Belief as Motivation to Climate Change Adaptation 16

2.4.2 Socio-Cognitive Model of Adaptation to Climate Change 17

2.5 Adaptation to Climate Change in Livelihood Framework 18

2.5.1 Sustainable Livelihoods Approach (SLA) 19

2.5.1.1 The Role of Assets 20

2.5.1.2 Vulnerability Context 20

2.5.1.3 The Role of Institution and Structures 20

2.5.1.4 Livelihood Strategies and Outcomes 21

2.5.2 Adapting Livelihood Approaches to Climate Change 22

2.5.3 A Conceptual Framework for Livelihood Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change 23

2.5.3.1 Access to Livelihood Assets 24

2.5.3.2 Climate Risk Perception 24

2.5.3.3 Embedding Climate Risk Management into Livelihood Strategies 24

2.5.3.4 Institutional Context 24

2.5.3.5 Climate-Resilient Livelihood Outcomes 25

2.5.3.6 Feedback Mechanisms 25

References 25

2.1. Introduction


There is substantial evidence that the climate is changing (Cubasch et al., 2013). Historical greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have already "committed" the earth to some level of warming (Adger et al., 2007), and the global mean temperature will probably exceed 2 °C against 1900 level over the next decades, regardless of mitigation measures (Parry et al., 2009). Global warming beyond this threshold level (2 °C against 1900 level) is considered to be dangerous, in that this could interfere with the climate system and risk very large impacts on multicentury time scales (Parry et al., 2009; Smith et al., 2009). These changes are leading to environmental impacts such as global average sea level rise, changes in temperature and precipitation extremes, and changes in tropical cyclones. Many of these changes will lead to multiple socio-economic impacts such as altering today's yields, earning, health and physical safety and, ultimately, the paths and levels of future development (World Bank, 2010). Although climate change will affect everyone, it is expected to have a disproportionate effect on those who live in poverty in developing countries (POST, 2006). In the effort to grapple with the challenge of global climate change, adaptation is unavoidable, as the most restricted measures to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) at this stage would not be sufficient to avoid the impacts of climate change (Berrang-Ford et al., 2011). Some suggest that the challenge of adaptation is not new, as societies have adapted to climate change over the course of human history. Empirical studies show that many individuals and communities within a society show clear signs of buffering their livelihoods in the face of disturbance and having the capacity to adjust their livelihood pathways to moderate the effects of climate change (Osbahr et al., 2008; Thomas, 2008). The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature in the field of climate change and livelihoods, and to set out a conceptual framework to guide the research. In the next section, the concept of adaptation in climate change discourse is introduced, including a brief history of this concept. Other, related concepts explored to complement the adaptation framework include vulnerability, resilience, and maladaptation. This chapter provides an overview of the adaptation models built on the different theoretical perspectives that provide a foundation to understand the adaptation process taking place in socio-ecological systems under climate change risks. The chapter begins with a discussion of the concepts of the livelihood approach, which is then integrated with approaches to climate change adaptation in order to understand the conceptual and methodological linkage between adaptation and livelihood systems. Finally, a conceptual framework on the livelihood adaptation process is proposed, by combining insights from both adaptation livelihood frameworks, which is then used to structure the research underpinning this book and to answer the research questions presented in Chapter 1.

2.2. Adaptation in Theory


2.2.1. Evolution of Approaches to Adaptation


The term "adaptation" is receiving increasing attention from people who are concerned about climate change. Although the term has proliferated recently in the context of climate change, the nontechnical meaning of this word came into use in the English language in the early seventeenth century (Orlove, 2009). Yet, the word has acquired specific meaning in particular disciplines. To comprehend how adaptation is defined and understood, both in current discourses and in policies, it is helpful to first trace the inception of this term and to investigate the conceptual evaluation of adaptation. According to dictionaries, "adapt" means to change something, to make it suitable for different conditions, and "adaptation" refers to the process of changing to suit different conditions. Adaptation appeared as a technical term first in evolutionary biology and was notably used by Darwin in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species (Orlove, 2009). According to Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, adaptation refers to the organic modification by which an organism or species becomes fitted to its environment. In biology, adaptation refers to: (1) physiological changes for adjusting to an immediate environment; (2) the process of becoming adapted, driven by genetic variations among individuals that enable an organism's survival and reproduction in a specific environment; and (3) development of a particular feature through evolution by natural selection for a specific function (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2011). Influenced by evolutionary biology, the concept of adaptation to human systems came into use, either explicitly or implicitly in a number of social science fields, from welfare economics and anthropology to human geography and political ecology. The concept of adaptation in the field of climate change evolved concurrently with the increasing concern about climate variability and change. Although there are a number of definitions of adaptation in the climate change literature, adaptation refers usually to an adjustment in a system in response to climatic stimuli. Efforts have been made to develop common definitions and a coherent conceptual framework of adaptation through the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The IPCC's Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX) has defined adaptation as the process of adjustment in natural and human systems to reduce damage or to exploit beneficial opportunities in response to real or expected climate and associated effects (IPCC, 2012). The IPCC conceptualizes adaptation in the context of the adaptive capacity and vulnerability of ecological-socio-economic systems to climate change.

2.2.2. A Conceptual Framework of Adaptation to Climate Change


Drawing on Smit et al. (2000), the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the IPCC identifies three major dimensions of adaptation that together offer a conceptual framework of adaptation (Smit et al., 2001).

2.2.2.1. Climate Stimuli

Berkhout et al. (2004) state that climate stimuli are those features of climate that have some influence on the behavior of a system. Other terms used to express climate stimuli include stresses, disturbances, events, hazards, and perturbations. Climate-related stimuli for which adaptation is undertaken include changes in average yearly weather conditions (e.g., temperature, precipitation), great variability within the range of normal climatic conditions (interannual variation), and changes in extreme events or catastrophic weather conditions such as floods, droughts, or storms (partly based on Smit et al., 2001).

2.2.2.2. System Definition

The SREX of the IPCC states that "adaptation occurs in natural and human systems" (IPCC, 2012, p. 5). The system of interest is also termed a "unit of analysis," "exposure unit," "activity of interest," or "sensitive system" (Smit et al., 2001). The...

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