Bioadhesives in Drug Delivery

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. Mai 2020
  • |
  • 432 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-64025-7 (ISBN)
 
Understanding the phenomenon of bioadhesion i.e. its theories or mechanism(s) are of critical importance in developing optimum bioadhesive polymers (used in bioadhesives). Such bioadhesive polymers are the key for exhibiting the process of bioadhesion, controlled/sustained release of drugs, and drug targeting. The use of bioadhesives restricts the delivery system to the site of interest and thus offers a useful and efficient technique for targeting a drug to the desired location for a prolonged duration. This book addresses the various relevant aspects of bioadhesives in drug delivery in an easily accessible and unified manner. The book containing 12 chapters written by eminent researchers from many parts of the globe is divided into three parts: Part 1: Fundamental Aspects; Part 2: Bioadhesive Formulations; Part 3: Drug Delivery Applications.

The topics covered include: Theories and mechanisms of bioadhesion; bioadhesive polymers for drug delivery applications; methods for characterization of bioadhesiveness of drug delivery systems; bioadhesive films and drug delivery applications; bioadhesive nanoparticles; and bioadhesive hydrogels and applications ocular biodhesive drug delivery systems; buccal bioadhesive drug delivery systems; gastrointestinal bioadhesive drug delivery systems ; nasal bioadhesive drug delivery systems; vaginal drug delivery systems; pulmonary bioadhesive drug delivery systems.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
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  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
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  • 10,94 MB
978-1-119-64025-7 (9781119640257)
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Kashmiri Lal Mittal was employed by the IBM Corporation from 1972 through 1993. Currently, he is teaching and consulting worldwide in the broad areas of adhesion as well as surface cleaning. He has received numerous awards and honors including the title of doctor honoris causa from Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Lublin, Poland. He is the editor of more than 130 books dealing with adhesion measurement, adhesion of polymeric coatings, polymer surfaces, adhesive joints, adhesion promoters, thin films, polyimides, surface modification, surface cleaning, and surfactants. Dr. Mittal is also the Founding Editor of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives.

Inderbir Singh Bakshi obtained his PhD from Punjabi University, Patiala, India and is now working as Professor of Pharmaceutics at the College of Pharmacy, Chitkara University, Patiala, India. He has 17 years' experience in both industry and academia and has published 75 research/review articles in national & international journals, 3 books, 10 book chapters and seven patents (applied).

Jasjeet Kaur Narang is an Associate Professor in the Department of Pharmaceutics, Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar, India. She obtained her M. Pharm and PhD from Jamia Hamdard University, New Delhi in 2001 and 2007 respectively. She did her post-doctorate work at the University of Montreal, Canada. She has published about 90 research articles in both international and national journals, authored three books and contributed many book chapters.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Part 1 Fundamental Aspects
  • Chapter 1 Introduction, Theories and Mechanisms of Bioadhesion
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.1 Historical Perspective
  • 1.1.2 Bioadhesion in Biological Systems
  • 1.1.3 Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive
  • 1.1.4 Factors Affecting Mucoadhesion
  • 1.1.4.1 Molecular Weight of Polymer
  • 1.1.4.2 Concentration of Polymer Used
  • 1.1.4.3 Flexibility of Polymer Chains
  • 1.1.4.4 Swelling
  • 1.1.4.5 pH at Polymer-Mucus Interface
  • 1.1.4.6 Mucin Turnover Rate
  • 1.1.4.7 Stereochemistry
  • 1.2 Bioadhesive Interactions
  • 1.3 The Mechanistic Approach to Bioadhesion
  • 1.4 Factors Controlling Bioadhesion
  • 1.4.1 Chemical Interactions
  • 1.4.1.1 Mussel Adhesion
  • 1.4.1.2 Cell Adhesion to Biomaterials
  • 1.4.2 Surface Morphology Effects
  • 1.4.3 Physiological Factors
  • 1.4.4 Physical and Mechanical Factors
  • 1.4.4.1 Wetting Phenomenon
  • 1.4.4.2 Interpenetration
  • 1.5 Theories of Bioadhesion
  • 1.5.1 Wetting Theory
  • 1.5.2 Diffusion Theory
  • 1.5.3 Electronic Theory
  • 1.5.4 Adsorption Theory
  • 1.5.5 Fracture Theory
  • 1.6 Stages of Mucoadhesion
  • 1.7 Modulation of Mucoadhesion
  • 1.8 Adhesion Promoters
  • 1.9 Surface Free Energy Analysis of Bioadhesion
  • 1.10 Molecular Biology in Bioadhesion
  • 1.11 Bioadhesives from Marine Sources
  • 1.12 Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 1.13 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Bioadhesive Polymers for Drug Delivery Applications
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.1.1 Drug Delivery
  • 2.2 Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 2.2.1 Some Advantages of the Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 2.2.2 The General Need for Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 2.3 Mechanism of Bioadhesion
  • 2.4 Requirements for an Ideal Bioadhesive/ Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 2.5 Factors Affecting Bioadhesion/Mucoadhesion
  • 2.5.1 Polymer Related Factors
  • 2.5.1.1 Molecular Weight
  • 2.5.1.2 Chain Length
  • 2.5.1.3 Flexibility
  • 2.5.1.4 Cross-Linking
  • 2.5.1.5 Presence of Functional Groups
  • 2.5.1.6 Concentration of Active Polymer
  • 2.5.2 Environmental Factors
  • 2.5.2.1 pH and Charge on the Polymer
  • 2.5.2.2 Degree of Hydration
  • 2.5.2.3 Initial Contact Time
  • 2.5.2.4 Applied Pressure
  • 2.5.2.5 Swelling
  • 2.5.2.6 Ionic Strength
  • 2.5.2.7 Mucus Gel Viscosity
  • 2.5.3 Physiological Factors
  • 2.5.3.1 Mucin Turnover
  • 2.5.3.2 Disease States
  • 2.6 Bioadhesive Polymers for Drug Delivery Applications
  • 2.6.1 Polymers
  • 2.6.1.1 Natural Polymers
  • 2.6.1.2 Synthetic Polymers
  • 2.6.2 Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive Polymers
  • 2.6.3 Classification of Mucoadhesive Polymers
  • 2.6.3.1 Classification Based on the Origin of the Polymer
  • 2.6.3.2 Classification Based on Aqueous Solubility of the Polymer
  • 2.6.3.3 Classification Based on the Type of Charge on the Polymer
  • 2.6.4 Natural Polymers
  • 2.6.4.1 Chitosan
  • 2.6.4.2 Starch
  • 2.6.4.3 Gelatin
  • 2.6.4.4 Alginates
  • 2.6.4.5 Hyaluronic Acid
  • 2.6.5 Synthetic Polymers
  • 2.6.5.1 Cellulose Derivatives
  • 2.6.5.2 Polyacrylates
  • 2.6.5.3 Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)
  • 2.6.6 Classification Based on Aqueous Solubility of the Polymer
  • 2.6.6.1 Water-Soluble Polymers
  • 2.6.6.2 Water-Insoluble Polymers
  • 2.6.7 Classification Based on the Type of Charge on the Polymer
  • 2.6.7.1 Cationic Polymers
  • 2.6.7.2 Anionic Polymers
  • 2.6.7.3 Non-Ionic Polymers
  • 2.7 Prospects of Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive Polymers in Bioadhesive Drug Delivery
  • 2.8 Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 3 In Vitro, Ex Vivo and In Vivo Methods for Characterization of Bioadhesiveness of Drug Delivery Systems
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Mechanisms of Bioadhesion
  • 3.3 Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems (BDDS)
  • 3.3.1 BDDS for Cutaneous Application
  • 3.3.2 BDDS for Buccal Application
  • 3.3.3 BDDS for Peroral Application
  • 3.3.4 BDDS for Vaginal Application
  • 3.3.5 BDDS for Nasal Application
  • 3.3.6 BDDS for Ocular Application
  • 3.4 Methods for Testing Bioadhesive Property of BDDS
  • 3.4.1 In Vitro/Ex Vivo Tests
  • 3.4.1.1 Bioadhesion Strength Tests
  • 3.4.1.2 In Vitro Methods for Characterization of Bioadhesion at the Molecular Level
  • 3.4.2 In Vivo Methods
  • 3.4.2.1 Radiolabelled BDDS Transit Studies
  • 3.4.2.2 Gamma Scintigraphy
  • 3.4.2.3 In Vivo Detachment Tests
  • 3.5 Summary
  • References
  • Part 2 Bioadhesive Formulations
  • Chapter 4 Bioadhesive Films for Drug Delivery Systems
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Theories of Bioadhesion
  • 4.3 Bioadhesive Film-Forming Agents
  • 4.4 Drug Delivery Applications of Bioadhesive Films
  • 4.4.1 Topical and Transdermal Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.1.1 Patches
  • 4.4.1.2 Film-Forming Systems
  • 4.4.2 Mucosal Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.2.1 Buccal Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.2.2 Vaginal Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.2.3 Rectal Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.2.4 Ocular Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.2.5 Nasal Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.3 Oral Drug Delivery
  • 4.4.3.1 Orodispersible Films (ODFs)
  • 4.4.3.2 Sublingual Films
  • 4.4.3.3 Oral Colon-Specific Drug Delivery
  • 4.5 Current and Novel Bioadhesive Film Fabrication Techniques
  • 4.5.1 Solvent Casting
  • 4.5.2 Extrusion
  • 4.5.3 Rolling
  • 4.5.4 2D Printing
  • 4.6 Evaluation of Bioadhesive Films
  • 4.6.1 Bioadhesive Strength
  • 4.6.2 Tensile Strength Measurement
  • 4.6.3 Morphology and Thickness
  • 4.6.4 Moisture Content
  • 4.6.5 Permeation
  • 4.6.6 Swelling
  • 4.6.7 Irritation
  • 4.6.8 Stability
  • 4.6.9 Drug Loading and Drug Entrapment Efficiency
  • 4.7 Summary
  • 4.8 Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Redox-Responsive Disulphide Bioadhesive Polymeric Nanoparticles for Colon-Targeted Drug Delivery
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Mechanism of Disulphide Bond Formation
  • 5.3 Disulphide Polymers for Colon Drug Delivery
  • 5.4 Colon-Targeted Drug Delivery (CTDD)
  • 5.4.1 Condition of the Colon for Drug Delivery
  • 5.4.2 Approaches for Colon Drug Delivery
  • Limitations of CTDD
  • 5.5 Nanoformulations of Disulphide Polymers
  • 5.5.1 Thiolated Pectin Polymers
  • 5.5.2 Thiolated Sodium Alginate (TSA) Polymers
  • 5.5.3 Thiolated Chitosan (TCS) Polymers
  • 5.5.4 Thiolated Hyaluronic Acid Polymers
  • 5.5.5 Thiolated Dextran Polymers
  • 5.5.6 Other Thiolated Polymers
  • 5.6 Summary
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Bioadhesive Hydrogels and Their Applications
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.1.1 Bioadhesive Polymer
  • 6.1.2 Hydrogels
  • 6.1.3 Bioadhesive Hydrogels
  • 6.2 Bioadhesive Hydrogel Films
  • 6.3 Bioadhesive Hydrogels for Gastrointestinal Delivery
  • 6.4 Bioadhesive Hydrogels Administered through Injection
  • 6.5 Bioadhesive Hydrogels for Vaginal Delivery
  • 6.6 Bioadhesive Hydrogels for Rectal Delivery
  • 6.7 Mucoadhesive Hydrogels Based Nanoparticles
  • 6.8 Patents and Future Perspectives
  • 6.9 Summary
  • References
  • Part 3 Drug Delivery Applications
  • Chapter 7 Ocular Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems and Their Applications
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Eye
  • 7.2.1 Anatomy and Function of the Eye
  • 7.2.2 Structure of Cornea
  • 7.3 Various Bioadhesive/Mucoadhesive Polymers for Ocular Delivery
  • 7.3.1 Chitosan as Ocular Bioadhesive
  • 7.3.2 Starch (Drum-Dried Waxy Maize Starch, Pregelatinized Starch)
  • 7.3.3 Sodium Hyaluronate (SH) as Ocular Bioadhesive
  • 7.3.3.1 Functions of Sodium Hyaluronate
  • 7.3.3.2 Viscoelasticity
  • 7.3.3.3 Contact Angle
  • 7.3.3.4 Adherence to the Mucin Layer (Mucoadhesivity)
  • 7.3.3.5 Water Retention
  • 7.3.3.6 Healing of Superficial Keratitis
  • 7.3.3.7 Free Radical Scavenging
  • 7.3.4 Alginate Based Ocular Bioadhesive
  • 7.3.4.1 General Properties of ALGs
  • 7.3.5 Gellan Gum as Ocular Bioadhesive
  • 7.3.6 Albumin
  • 7.3.7 Collagen Based Ocular Bioadhesive
  • 7.3.8 Xanthan Gum
  • 7.3.9 Guar Gum
  • 7.3.10 Gelatin
  • 7.3.11 Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide (Xyloglucan)
  • 7.3.12 Arabinogalactan
  • 7.3.13 Gum Cordia
  • 7.3.14 Bletilla Striata Polysaccharide (BSP)
  • 7.3.15 Locust Bean Gum (Carob Bean Gum)
  • 7.3.16 Carrageenan
  • 7.4 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Buccal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems and Their Applications
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 Advantages of a Buccal Bioadhesive System
  • 8.1.2 Disadvantages of a Buccal Bioadhesive System
  • 8.1.3 Ideal Characteristics of a Bioadhesive Dosage Form
  • 8.1.4 Structure of Buccal Mucosa
  • 8.2 Theories of Bioadhesion
  • 8.2.1 Diffusion Theory
  • 8.2.2 Adsorption Theory
  • 8.2.3 Wetting Theory
  • 8.2.4 Electronic Theory
  • 8.2.5 Fracture Theory
  • 8.3 Factors Affecting Bioadhesion
  • 8.3.1 Bioadhesive Polymer Related Factors
  • 8.3.1.1 Molecular Weight of Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.1.2 Cross-Linking of Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.1.3 Concentration of Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.1.4 Mucoadhesive Polymer Chain Length
  • 8.3.1.5 Flexibility of Mucoadhesive Polymer Chain
  • 8.3.1.6 Charge on Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.1.7 H-Bonding of Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.1.8 Spatial Configuration of Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.1.9 Swelling of Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 8.3.2 Environment Related Factors
  • 8.3.2.1 pH
  • 8.3.2.2 Saliva
  • 8.3.2.3 Salivary Gland
  • 8.3.2.4 Hydration
  • 8.3.2.5 Mucin Turnover
  • 8.3.2.6 Rate of Renewal of Mucoadhesive Cells
  • 8.3.2.7 Disease State
  • 8.3.2.8 Buccal Membrane Properties
  • 8.4 Mechanism of Buccal Absorption
  • 8.5 Buccal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 8.5.1 Solid Buccal Bioadhesive Dosage Forms
  • 8.5.1.1 Buccal Tablets
  • 8.5.1.2 Microspheres
  • 8.5.1.3 Lozenges
  • 8.5.1.4 Wafers
  • 8.5.1.5 Gels
  • 8.5.1.6 Patches
  • 8.5.2 Liquid Dosage Forms
  • 8.6 Quality Control Tests of Buccal Bioadhesive Dosage Forms
  • 8.6.1 Moisture Absorption Test
  • 8.6.2 Swelling and Erosion Tests
  • 8.6.3 Tensile Strength and Elongation at Break
  • 8.6.4 Surface pH
  • 8.6.5 In-Vitro Bioadhesive Strength Measurement Test
  • 8.6.6 Residence Time
  • 8.6.6.1 Ex-Vivo Residence Time
  • 8.6.6.2 In-Vivo Residence Time
  • 8.6.6.3 Permeation Test
  • 8.6.6.4 Absorption Test
  • 8.7 Marketed Formulations
  • 8.8 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Gastrointestinal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems and Their Applications
  • Abbreviations
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 The Mucus Layer
  • 9.3 Gastrointestinal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 9.3.1 Solid Bioadhesive Formulations
  • 9.3.1.1 Tablets
  • 9.3.1.2 Bioadhesive Microparticles/Nanoparticles
  • 9.3.1.3 Bioadhesive Patches
  • 9.3.2 Semisolid Bioadhesive Formulations
  • 9.3.3 Liquid Bioadhesive Formulations
  • 9.3.3.1 Suspensions
  • 9.3.3.2 Bioadhesive Liquids
  • 9.4 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Nasal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems and Their Applications
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.1.1 Nasal Route of Administration
  • 10.1.2 Nasal Cavity
  • 10.1.3 Nasal Route for Brain Drug Delivery
  • 10.1.4 Nasal Route for Local and Systemic Drug Delivery
  • 10.2 Challenges in Nasal Drug Delivery Formulations
  • 10.2.1 Ideal Properties of a Nasal Drug Delivery Formulation
  • 10.2.2 Strategies Developed for Improving Nasal Drug Delivery
  • 10.3 Mucoadhesion
  • 10.3.1 Physiology of Nasal Mucus Layer and Barriers Posed by It
  • 10.3.2 Factors Affecting Mucoadhesion
  • 10.3.3 Mucoadhesive Polymers Used in Nasal Delivery Formulations
  • 10.3.3.1 Chitosan and Its Composites
  • 10.3.3.2 Cellulose Derivatives
  • 10.3.3.3 Poloxamer or Pluronic
  • 10.3.3.4 Polyacrylates
  • 10.3.3.5 Lectin Poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG) Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)(PLGA)
  • 10.3.3.6 Miscellaneous Mucoadhesive Agents
  • 10.4 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Vaginal Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems and Their Applications
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.1.1 Advantages of Vaginal Drug Delivery
  • 11.1.2 Limitations
  • 11.2 Vaginal Anatomy and Physiology
  • 11.2.1 Vaginal Anatomy
  • 11.2.2 Physiology of Vagina
  • 11.2.2.1 Epithelium
  • 11.2.2.2 Vaginal Fluid
  • 11.2.2.3 pH
  • 11.2.2.4 Microflora
  • 11.2.2.5 Cyclic Changes
  • 11.2.2.6 Enzymes
  • 11.3 Vaginal Absorption of Drug
  • 11.3.1 Drugs Administered by Vaginal Route
  • 11.4 Conventional Drug Delivery Systems for Vaginal Application
  • 11.4.1 Vaginal Rings
  • 11.4.2 Vaginal Tablets
  • 11.4.3 Suppositories and Pessaries
  • 11.4.4 Semisolid Formulations
  • 11.4.5 Limitations of Conventional Vaginal Formulations
  • 11.5 Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 11.5.1 Mucoadhesive Polymeric Platforms for Vaginal Drug Delivery
  • 11.5.1.1 Poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) Derivatives
  • 11.5.1.2 Cellulose Derivatives
  • 11.5.1.3 Natural Polymers
  • 11.5.1.4 New Generation Mucoadhesive Polymers
  • 11.5.2 Mucaodhesive Polymers as Enzyme Inhibitors and Permeation Enhancers
  • 11.5.3 Novel Mucoadhesive Formulations for Drug Delivery to Vagina
  • 11.5.3.1 Mucoadhesive Gels
  • 11.5.3.2 In Situ Gelling Systems
  • 11.5.3.3 Emulgels
  • 11.5.3.4 Vaginal Films
  • 11.5.3.5 Microparticulate Drug Delivery Systems
  • 11.5.3.6 Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery Systems
  • 11.6 Recent Advancements in Vaginal Drug Delivery Applications
  • 11.6.1 Vaginal Immunization
  • 11.6.2 Gene Therapy
  • 11.6.3 Mucus Penetrating Nanoparticles
  • 11.6.4 Personalized Medicine Using Additive Manufacturing Technology
  • 11.7 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Pulmonary Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems and Their Applications
  • 12.1 Introduction to Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems
  • 12.1.1 Deposition of Inhaled Particles
  • 12.1.2 Absorption of Inhaled Particles
  • 12.1.3 Challenges of Pulmonary Drug Delivery
  • 12.2 Bioadhesives in Pulmonary Drug Delivery Systems
  • 12.3 Development of Pulmonary Bioadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 12.3.1 Nanoparticles
  • 12.3.2 Microparticles
  • 12.3.3 Liposomes
  • 12.4 Progress and Clinical Challenges for Bioadhesive Drug Delivery with Future Prospects
  • 12.4.1 Technological Advancements
  • 12.5 Future Prospects and Summary
  • References
  • Index
  • Also of Interest
  • Check out these published and forthcoming related titles from Scrivener Publishing
  • EULA

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