Adhesion in Pharmaceutical, Biomedical, and Dental Fields

 
 
Wiley-Scrivener (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 15. Juni 2017
  • |
  • 432 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-32379-2 (ISBN)
 
The phenomenon of adhesion is of cardinal importance in the pharmaceutical, biomedical and dental fields. A few eclectic examples will suffice to underscore the importance/relevance of adhesion in these three areas. For example, the adhesion between powdered solids is of crucial importance in tablet manufacture. The interaction between biodevices (e.g., stents, bio-implants) and body environment dictates the performance of such devices, and there is burgeoning research activity in modifying the surfaces of such implements to render them compatible with bodily components. In the field of dentistry, the modern trend is to shift from retaining of restorative materials by mechanical interlocking to adhesive bonding.
This unique book addresses all these three areas in an easily accessible single source. The book contains 15 chapters written by leading experts and is divided into four parts: General Topics; Adhesion in Pharmaceutical Field; Adhesion in Biomedical Field; and Adhesion in Dental Field. The topics covered include:
- Theories or mechanisms of adhesion.
- Wettability of powders.
- Role of surface free energy in tablet strength and powder flow behavior.
- Mucoadhesive polymers for drug delivery systems.
- Transdermal patches.
- Skin adhesion in long-wear cosmetics.
- Factors affecting microbial adhesion.
- Biofouling and ways to mitigate it.
- Adhesion of coatings on surgical tools and bio-implants.
- Adhesion in fabrication of microarrays in clinical diagnostics.
- Antibacterial polymers for dental adhesives and composites.
- Evolution of dental adhesives.
- Testing of dental adhesives joints.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Kashmiri Lal Mittal was employed by the IBM Corporation from 1972 through 1993 Currently, he is teaching and consulting worldwide in the broad areas of adhesion as well as surface cleaning. He is the editor of more than 135 books and the Founding Editor of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives.
Frank Etzler earned his PhD in physical chemistry from the University of Miami. He is currently an Associate Professor of Pharmaceutics in the School of Pharmacy at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine (LECOM).
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Part 1 General Topics
  • 1 Theories and Mechanisms of Adhesion in the Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Dental Fields
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.1.1 Adherend Material Properties Relevant to Adhesion
  • 1.1.2 Length Scale of Adherend-Adhesive Interactions
  • 1.2 Mechanisms of Adhesion
  • 1.2.1 Mechanical Interlocking Theory
  • 1.2.2 Electrostatic Theory
  • 1.2.3 Wettability, Surface Free Energy, Thermodynamic Adhesion Theory
  • 1.2.4 Diffusion Theory
  • 1.2.5 Chemical (Covalent) Bonding Theory
  • 1.2.5.1 Hydrogen Bonding Theory
  • 1.2.6 Acid-Base Theory
  • 1.2.7 Weak Boundary Layers Concept
  • 1.2.8 Special Mechanism of Elastomeric-Based Adhesives
  • 1.3 Summary
  • References
  • 2 Wettability of Powders
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Different Forms of Wetting
  • 2.3 Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Surfaces
  • 2.4 Contact Angle Measurement in Wettability Studies of Powdered Materials
  • 2.5 Contact Angle and Surface Free Energy
  • 2.6 Surface Free Energy Determination of Powdered Solids by Thin Layer Wicking Method
  • 2.7 Surface Free Energy Determination of Powdered Solids by Imbibition Drainage Method
  • 2.8 Summary
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • Part 2 Adhesion in the Pharmaceutical Field
  • 3 Tablet Tensile Strength: Role of Surface Free Energy
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.1.1 Overview
  • 3.1.2 Densification of Powders under Pressure
  • 3.1.3 Measurement of Tablet Tensile Strength
  • 3.1.4 The Ryshkewitch-Duckworth Equation
  • 3.1.5 Surface Science of Adhesion
  • 3.1.6 A Model to Predict the Tensile Strength of Tablets from Individual Components
  • 3.2 Applicability of the Proposed Model to Pharmaceutical Materials
  • 3.2.1 Experimental Details
  • 3.2.2 Ryshkewitch-Duckworth Equation as a Predictor of the Tensile Strength of Binary Mixtures
  • 3.2.3 Dependence on Processing Parameters
  • 3.2.4 Direct Evidence for the Role of Surface Free Energy
  • 3.3 Discussion
  • 3.4 Summary
  • 3.5 Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 4 Role of Surface Free Energy in Powder Behavior and Tablet Strength
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Surface Free Energy
  • 4.3 Role of Surface Free Energy in Solid Wetting
  • 4.4 Role of Surface Free Energy in Powder Flow
  • 4.5 Role of Surface Free Energy in Powder Tableting
  • 4.6 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 5 Mucoadhesive Polymers for Drug Delivery Systems
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.1.1 Assessment of Mucoadhesive Interactions
  • 5.2 Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 5.2.1 Benefits of Mucoadhesive Drug Delivery Systems
  • 5.3 Mucoadhesive Polymers
  • 5.3.1 Properties of an Ideal Mucoadhesive Polymer
  • 5.3.2 Classification of Mucoadhesive Polymers
  • 5.3.2.1 First-Generation Polymers
  • 5.3.2.2 Second-Generation Polymers
  • 5.4 Summary
  • References
  • 6 Transdermal Patches: An Overview
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Factors Affecting Skin Absorption
  • 6.3 Passive Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems
  • 6.4 Types, Structural Components and Materials Used to Design Passive TDDS
  • 6.4.1 Backing Membrane
  • 6.4.2 Reservoir Layer
  • 6.4.3 Permeation Enhancers
  • 6.4.4 Drug & Skin Contact Adhesive Layer
  • 6.4.5 Disposable Release Liner Layer
  • 6.5 Active Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems
  • 6.6 Production of Transdermal Patches
  • 6.7 Biopharmaceutical Concerns
  • 6.8 Pharmacokinetics of Transdermal Absorption
  • 6.9 Manufacture, Design and Quality Control
  • 6.10 Commercialized Patches
  • 6.11 Regulatory Aspects
  • 6.11.1 Stability Assessment
  • 6.11.2 Safety Assessment
  • 6.11.3 Efficacy Assessment
  • 6.12 Summary and Future Prospects
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 7 Film-Forming Technology and Skin Adhesion in Long-Wear Cosmetics
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Long-Wear Foundation: An overview
  • 7.3 Effect of Skin Substrate on Adhesion
  • 7.3.1 Skin
  • 7.3.2 Skin Surface Free Energy
  • 7.3.3 Friction of the Skin
  • 7.3.4 Skin Elasticity
  • 7.3.5 Sebum and Sweat
  • 7.3.6 Trans-Epidermal Water Loss (TEWL)
  • 7.4 Long-Wear Technologies in Cosmetic Applications
  • 7.4.1 Review of Silicone Technology
  • 7.4.2 Use of Silicone in Long-Wear Cosmetic Products
  • 7.4.2.1 MQ Resin Technology
  • 7.4.2.2 T-propyl Silsesquioxane in Cosmetics
  • 7.4.2.3 Silicone Acrylate in Foundation
  • 7.5 Summary and Prospects
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Part 3 Adhesion in the Biomedical Field
  • 8 Factors Affecting Microbial Adhesion
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.1.1 General
  • 8.1.2 Impact of the Environment on Bacterial Adhesion
  • 8.1.3 Adhesion to Specific Surfaces
  • 8.1.4 Implication for Human Health
  • 8.1.5 Factors Affecting Bacterial Adhesion
  • 8.2 Surface Characterization
  • 8.3 Bacterial Adhesion to Material Surfaces
  • 8.4 Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 9 Factors Influencing Biofouling and Use of Polymeric Materials to Mitigate It
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Origin of Biofouling
  • 9.3 Prevention of Micro-Organisms Adhesion
  • 9.3.1 Key Parameters Important in the Prevention of Adhesion
  • 9.3.2 Effect of Surface Composition: Hydrophilic/Superhydrophilic Substrates
  • 9.3.3 Effect of Surface Composition: Hydrophobic Substrates
  • 9.3.4 Effect of Surface Composition: Amphiphilic Surfaces
  • 9.3.5 Effect of Surface Composition: Contra-Hydrophilic Surfaces
  • 9.4 Influence of Mechanical Properties
  • 9.5 Influence of Surface Topography
  • 9.6 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 10 Coatings on Surgical Tools and How to Promote Adhesion of Bio-Friendly Coatings on Their Surfaces
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Coatings on Various Surgical Tools and Implants in Different Fields of Operative Care to Patients
  • 10.2.1 Neurology
  • 10.2.1.1 Surgical Tools in Neurology
  • 10.2.1.2 Medical Implants in Neurology
  • 10.2.2 Cardiology
  • 10.2.2.1 Surgical Tools in Cardiology
  • 10.2.2.2 Cardiological Medical Implants
  • 10.2.3 Orthopedics
  • 10.2.3.1 Surgical Tools for Orthopedic Care
  • 10.2.3.2 Medical Implants for Orthopedic Care
  • 10.2.4 Dentistry
  • 10.2.4.1 Surgical Tools Related to Dentistry
  • 10.2.4.2 Medical Implants Related to Dentistry
  • 10.2.5 Ophthalmology
  • 10.2.5.1 Surgical Tools Related to Ophthalmology
  • 10.2.5.2 Medical Implants Related to Ophthalmology
  • 10.3 Promotion of Adhesion of Bio-Friendly Coatings on Surfaces of Tools and Implants
  • 10.3.1 Bio-Friendly Coatings
  • 10.3.2 Adhesion
  • 10.3.3 Methods Used for Promotion of Adhesion
  • 10.4 Summary
  • References
  • 11 Techniques for Deposition of Coatings with Enhanced Adhesion to Bio-Implants
  • 11.1 Bio-Implants: An Introduction
  • 11.1.1 Adhesion of Coatings to Implants
  • 11.2 Deposition Methods for Enhanced Adhesion of Coatings on Implants
  • 11.2.1 Radio-Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering
  • 11.2.1.1 Adhesion Strength
  • 11.2.2 Plasma Spraying Process
  • 11.2.2.1 Adhesion Strength
  • 11.2.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition
  • 11.2.3.1 Adhesion Strength
  • 11.3 Summary
  • References
  • 12 Relevance of Adhesion in Fabrication of Microarrays in Clinical Diagnostics
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Protein Microarrays
  • 12.2.1 Fabrication Techniques
  • 12.2.2 Adhesion of Probes in Protein Microarray Fabrication
  • 12.2.2.1 Protein Microarray on Glass
  • 12.2.2.2 Protein Microarray on Gold Substrate
  • 12.2.2.3 Protein Microarrays on Polymer Substrate
  • 12.2.2.4 Protein Microarrays on other Substrates
  • 12.2.2.5 Microarrays Fabrication: Substrate Selection and Modifications
  • 12.3 DNA Microarrays
  • 12.3.1 Adhesion of Probes in DNA Microarray Fabrication
  • 12.3.1.1 Immobilization by Physical Adsorption
  • 12.3.1.2 Covalent-Assisted Immobilization
  • 12.3.1.3 Immobilization by Streptavidin-Biotin Interactions
  • 12.3.1.4 Immobilization by Nanocones
  • 12.3.1.5 Selection of Support Material
  • 12.4 Antibody Microarrays
  • 12.4.1 Fabrication Techniques for Antibody Microarrays
  • 12.4.2 Role of Adhesion in Antibody Immobilization
  • 12.5 Summary
  • References
  • Part 4 Adhesion in the Dental Field
  • 13 Antibacterial Polymers for Dental Adhesives and Composites
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Major Damage from Oral Biofilm Formed: The Acid Production
  • 13.3 The Chemistry of Current Dental Adhesives and Composites
  • 13.4 The Need for Treatments Targeting Oral Cariogenic Biofilms
  • 13.5 Classification of Antibacterial Polymers for Dental Materials
  • 13.5.1 Non-Covalent Incorporation of Antibacterial Agents into Monomers
  • 13.5.2 Inherently Antibacterial Polymers
  • 13.6 Mechanisms of Action of Antibacterial Monomers
  • 13.7 Antibacterial Properties of Dental Adhesives and Composites Containing Antibacterial Monomers
  • 13.8 Considerations of Mechanical Properties
  • 13.9 Summary and Prospects
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 14 Dental Adhesives: From Earlier Products to Bioactive and Smart Materials
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Adhesion to Dental Substrates
  • 14.2.1 Fundamentals
  • 14.2.2 Principles/Concepts of Adhesion
  • 14.2.3 Bonding to Enamel
  • 14.2.4 Bonding to Dentin
  • 14.2.5 Adhesive Systems
  • 14.3 Adhesive Strategies
  • 14.3.1 Etch-and-Rinse Adhesive Systems
  • 14.3.2 Self-Etch Adhesive Systems
  • 14.3.3 Universal/Multi-Mode Adhesives
  • 14.4 Limitations in Bonding to Dental Substrates
  • 14.5 Strategies to Reduce Bond Strength Degradation - Current Advances
  • 14.5.1 Protease Inhibitors
  • 14.5.1.1 Cationic Agents
  • 14.5.1.2 Cross-Linking Agents
  • 14.5.1.3 Zinc Methacrylate
  • 14.5.1.4 Polyphenols
  • 14.5.2 Reinforcing Compounds
  • 14.5.2.1 Nanoparticles
  • 14.5.2.2 Nanotubes
  • 14.5.3 Remineralizing Agents
  • 14.5.3.1 Fluoride
  • 14.5.3.2 Bioactive Particles
  • 14.5.3.3 Apatite Crystallites
  • 14.6 Summary and Prospects
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 15 Testing of Dental Adhesive Joints
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Various Bond Strength Tests
  • 15.2.1 Tensile Strength
  • 15.2.2 Shear Strength
  • 15.2.2.1 Limitations of Tensile and Shear Strength Results
  • 15.2.3 Fracture Mechanics
  • 15.2.4 Statistical Evaluations
  • 15.3 Summary
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

Chapter 1
Theories and Mechanisms of Adhesion in the Pharmaceutical, Biomedical and Dental Fields


Douglas J. Gardner

University of Maine, Advanced Structures and Composites Center, Orono, ME., U.S.A

Corresponding author: douglasg@maine.edu

Abstract


Adhesion is an important attribute of material behavior in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and dental fields that influences the interactions among different substances in the human body, and it is also important as it plays an important role in various processes, including, but not limited to, the manufacture of drugs, medical devices and dental care. Adhesive bonding is an important area focusing on the creation of joined substrates and composite materials. Based on the wide variety of adhesive bonding situations, the concept of adhesion can be broadly applied across different material types and interactions. Mechanisms of adhesion fall into two broad areas: those that rely on mechanical interlocking or entanglement and those that rely on charge interactions. There are seven accepted theories of adhesion. These are: mechanical interlocking; electrostatic theory; adsorption (thermodynamic) or wetting theory; diffusion theory; chemical bonding theory; acid-base theory; and theory of weak boundary layers. In addition, elastomeric-based adhesives exhibit a characteristic adhesion behavior described as tackiness or stickiness that aids in the creation of an almost instantaneous adhesive bond. This chapter provides an overview of adhesion theories and mechanisms relative to applications in the pharmaceutical, biomedical and dental fields.

Keywords: Adhesion, mechanisms, theories, adhesives, bonding, mechanical interlocking, electrostatic, adsorption, wetting, diffusion, chemical, acid-base, weak boundary layers, tackiness

1.1 Introduction


Adhesion mechanisms in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and dental fields are similar to those encountered in other fields of materials science. However, the biggest challenge is that the adhesion mechanisms will typically occur in or will be influenced by the environment of the human body. The primary challenges facing adhesion in the environment of the human body include: creation of an adhesive bond in contact with various bodily fluids, blood, saliva, etc.; durability of an adhesive bond when exposed to various bodily fluids; the biochemical onslaught related to the body's immune response and cellular regeneration; and exposure to inherent bodily microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi. Common examples of adhesion in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and dental fields include the manufacture of respiratory inhalants such as albuterol; the application of medical bandages such as Band-aids® used to cover wounds; and the use of denture adhesives to secure false teeth. It is the goal of this Chapter to provide an overview of the current theories and mechanisms of adhesion with reference to applications in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and dental fields.

1.1.1 Adherend Material Properties Relevant to Adhesion


In the adhesion science and technology community, most materials to be adhesively bonded or glued are referred to as adherends. Adherends in the human body being bonded are usually in a solid form while adhesives are typically in the liquid form (Table 1.1).

Table 1.1 Examples of adherend and adhesive types in the human body.

Adherend type Examples Adhesive type Examples Dense Solid Teeth Low and medium viscosity liquid Acrylate adhesives Porous Solid Bone Low viscosity liquid or viscous filled-adhesive Poly(methyl methacrylate) Soft Solid Skin Low viscosity liquid Cyanoacrylate adhesives for surgical sutures

The processes of joining materials through adhesive bonding to form a bonded assembly in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and dental fields are quite variable in terms of adherend types and bonding processes including the strength and durability requirements of the resulting adhesive bond. To better understand adhesive bonding processes, adhesion scientists have characterized adhesion mechanisms or theories based on the fundamental behavior of materials being bonded (adherends) as well as the adhesives used to bond the materials. Understanding adhesion requires a close familiarity with the bulk and surface material properties of the adherend and the material property characteristics of the adhesive being used. A list of general material property features to be considered in studying or assessing adhesion is shown in Table 1.2. Surface properties of interest related to adhesion include topography, surface thermodynamics, chemical functionality, hardness, and surface charge. Adhesive features to be considered include: molecular weight, rheology, curing characteristics, thermal transition of polymers, and viscoelasticity. For the bonded assembly, the ultimate mechanical properties, durability, and biological compatibility characteristics are of major importance. In addition, when considering adhesion in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and dental fields, one also needs to consider cell adhesion. Cellular adhesion is involved with the bonding of a cell to a surface, extracellular matrix or another cell using cell adhesion molecules [1]. Cell adhesion continues to receive considerable attention in the adhesion field.

Table 1.2 General materials related to adhesion and their assessment methods.

Material Assessment methods Adherend Topography, wettability, chemical functionality, hardness, surface charge Adhesive Molecular weight, rheology, curing characteristics, thermal transitions, viscoelasticity Bonded Assembly Mechanical properties, durability, creep behavior, biological compatibility

1.1.2 Length Scale of Adherend-Adhesive Interactions


The prevailing adhesion theories can be assembled into two types of interactions: 1) those that rely on interlocking or entanglement; and 2) those that rely on charge interactions. Furthermore, it is beneficial to know the length scale(s) over which the adhesion interactions occur. The comparisons of adhesion interactions relative to length scale are listed in Table 1.3. It is obvious that the adhesion interactions relying on interlocking or entanglement, mechanical and diffusion, can occur over larger length scales than the adhesion interactions relying on charge interactions. Most charge interactions involve interactions on the molecular level or nano length scale.

Table 1.3 Comparison of adhesion interactions relative to length scale.

Category of adhesion mechanism Type of interaction Length scale Mechanical Interlocking or entanglement 0.01-1000 µm Diffusion Interlocking or entanglement 10 nm-2 µm Electrostatic Charge 0.1-1 µm Covalent Bonding Charge 0.1-0.2 nm Acid-Base interaction Charge 0.1-0.4 nm Hydrogen Bonding Charge 0.235-0.27 nm Lifshitz-van der Waals Charge 0.5-1 nm

The length scale of adherend-adhesive interactions is also of importance in understanding adhesion mechanisms because although many practical aspects of adhesion occur on the macroscopic length scale (millimeter to centimeter), many of the basic adhesion interactions occur on a much smaller length scale (nanometer to micrometer) (Table 1.4). Wound protection using a Band-Aid® typically occurs on the cm length scale. Interactions between inhaler droplets in the lung occur on the millimeter length scale, and typical microscopic evaluation of the adherend-adhesive bondlines is performed at the 100 µm length scale. Bacteria are on the order of 0.5 to 5 µm in diameter. Nanoparticles are generally in the scale of 10 to 100 nm in diameter.

Table 1.4 Orders of scale for adherend-adhesive interactions in the pharmaceutical, biomedical and dental fields.*

Scale Test specimen or material characteristics for determining adherend-adhesive interactions 1 cm, 10 mm Wound protection using a Band-Aid® 10-3 meter, 1 mm Inhaler droplet interactions in the lung 10-4 meter, 100 µm Microscopic evaluation of adherend-adhesive bondline 10-6 meter, 1-4 µm Size of bacteria 10-7 meter, 100 nm Scale of nanoparticles

*Adapted from Gardner et al. [2].

1.2 Mechanisms of Adhesion


There are seven...

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