The philosophy of utilitarianism can trace its origins back thousands of years to the ancient Chinese philosophy of logic attributed to the Mohist School. Today it is most famously associated with the 18th century English philosopher Jeremy Bentham, and his disciple John Stuart Mill. The basic principle of utilitarianism is that one's actions should be guided towards outcomes that create the greatest good for the greatest numbers of people, or in other words towards the maximization of utility, or happiness. This simple guiding principle creates a host of challenging moral dilemmas. Arguably one of the most important political thinkers of the modern era, John Stuart's Mill's influence on Western civilization cannot be overstated. In his classic exposition "Utilitarianism", first published as a series of three articles in "Fraser's Magazine" in 1861, we are provided great insight into John Stuart Mill's philosophical world view. This includes a biographical afterword.