A Companion to Greek Architecture

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 13. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 616 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-32760-9 (ISBN)
 
A Companion to Greek Architecture provides an expansive overview of the topic, including design, engineering, and construction as well as theory, reception, and lasting impact.
* Covers both sacred and secular structures and complexes, with particular attention to architectural decoration, such as sculpture, interior design, floor mosaics, and wall painting
* Makes use of new research from computer-driven technologies, the study of inscriptions and archaeological evidence, and recently excavated buildings
* Brings together original scholarship from an esteemed group of archaeologists and art historians
* Presents the most up-to-date English language coverage of Greek architecture in several decades while also sketching out important areas and structures in need of further research
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Somerset
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 112,64 MB
978-1-118-32760-9 (9781118327609)
1118327608 (1118327608)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • List of Illustrations
  • Glossary
  • List of Maps
  • Notes on Contributors
  • Introduction
  • REFERENCES
  • PART I: Invention, Design, and Construction
  • CHAPTER 1: Landscape and Setting
  • Approaches
  • Physical Geography
  • Climate and Microclimate
  • Ground Cover and Zoning
  • From Relief to Landscape
  • Agriculture, Gardens, and Groves
  • Mineral Resources
  • Ancient Responses: Affective, Artistic, and Architectural
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 2: Early Greek Temples
  • From the House of Rulers to the House of the Gods
  • The Emergence of the Greek Temple: Protogeometric Cult Buildings
  • The Birth of the Panhellenic Sanctuaries and the Development of the Temples
  • Altars, Cult Bases, Votives, and Dining Facilities
  • The Early Use of the Peristyle
  • The Peristyle in the Early Archaic period
  • The Temple of Apollo at Soros
  • Temples as Hestiatoria
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 3: Monumentality and Foreign Influence in Early Greek Temples
  • Monumental Scale
  • Peristyle
  • Stone Construction
  • Tile Roofs
  • Architectural Orders
  • Moldings
  • Foreign Influence: Egypt and the Near East
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 4: Origins and Design of Terracotta Roofs in the Seventh Century BCE
  • Introduction
  • The First Terracotta Roof Systems
  • Tile Manufacture and Technical Innovation
  • Conclusions
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 5: The Greek East
  • The Major Works
  • The Kroisos Temple
  • The Tunnel of Eupalinos
  • Intercultural Context
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 6: The Greek West
  • Introduction
  • The Geometric and Orientalizing Periods
  • The Early and Middle Archaic Periods
  • The Late Archaic Period
  • The Early Classical Period
  • The High Classical Period
  • The Late Classical and Hellenistic Periods
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 7: The Use of Geometry by Ancient Greek Architects
  • Geometry in Greece
  • Practical Applications in Greek Architectural Design
  • Tools and Drawings
  • Examples of Geometry in Use
  • Vitruvius' Use of the Greek Tradition of Applied Geometry
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 8: How Buildings Were Constructed
  • Literary Sources and Building Inscriptions
  • Monumental Building Practices
  • Construction Materials
  • Quarrying and Transportation of Building Materials
  • Site Preparation and Foundations
  • Wall Construction
  • The Arch
  • Architectural Design
  • Refinements
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • PART II: Temples and Sanctuaries
  • CHAPTER 9: "Internationalism" in Architecture
  • History and Topography of Olympia
  • Architecture at Olympia
  • Foundation I: The Treasury of Sikyon
  • Foundation II: The Treasury of Syracuse
  • Foundation IV: The Treasury of Epidamnos
  • Foundation IX: The Treasury of Selinous
  • Foundation X: The Treasury of Metapontum
  • Foundation XI: The Treasury of Megara
  • Foundation XII: The Treasury of Gela
  • Unattributed Architectural Elements
  • Philippeion
  • Internationalism at Olympia
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 10: Prestige in Greek Sanctuaries
  • Introduction
  • Prestige: The Story So Far
  • The Structure Itself
  • The Space around the Structure
  • The Experience of the Structure Over Time
  • Conclusions
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 11: The Periclean Acropolis
  • The Persian War and the Acropolis
  • Ruins as Monuments: The Acropolis North Wall
  • The Propylaia and the Temple of Athena Polias
  • The Mycenaean Era and the Periclean Acropolis
  • The Archaic Tradition of Procession
  • Non-Processional Uses of the Ionic Order
  • Ionic as Direct Address to the City
  • The Monumental Effect of the Periclean Acropolis
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 12: Color and Carving
  • Color
  • Relief Sculpture
  • Sculpture in the Round
  • The Parthenon
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 13: Attic Sanctuaries
  • Geography and Politico-Spatial Organization
  • Panathenian Sanctuaries
  • Deme Sanctuaries
  • Conclusions
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 14: Inscribing Construction
  • Introduction
  • Building by Committee
  • Syngraphai
  • Works in Progress
  • Accounting
  • Inscriptions: Paper, Chisel, and Stone
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 15: The Interiors of Greek Temples
  • Light in the Interiors
  • Organization of Space
  • The Articulation and Placement of Interior Columns
  • Interior Stairs, Attics, and Basements
  • Cult Images
  • Reflecting Pools
  • Paintings and Votive Statues
  • Furnishings
  • Dedicated Vessels, Money, and Gold
  • Temples as Museums
  • Security
  • Rituals inside Temples
  • Visitors
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 16: Scale, Architects, and Architectural Theory
  • Scale Representation, Vision, and Architects
  • Construction Phases of the Didymaion
  • Theory, Nature, and Architecture
  • Metrology and Modularity in the Didymaion
  • Scale and Planning
  • Architects and Theory
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • PART III: Civic Space
  • CHAPTER 17: Urban Planning and Infrastructure
  • Urban Planning
  • Stoas
  • Roads and Streets
  • Water Supply and Fountains
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 18: Protection and Trade
  • Early Greek Walled Cities
  • Circuits and Masonry Techniques in the Archaic Period
  • Transition in Design of Circuits in the Classical Period
  • The Late Classical Period on the Greek Mainland
  • Hellenistic Fortifications
  • Harbors
  • Ship Sheds
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 19: The Architecture of Greek Houses
  • Construction and Materials
  • Houses and the Urban Environment
  • The Planning and Layout of the Greek House
  • Developments in the Late Classical and Hellenistic Periods
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 20: Hellenistic Royal Palaces
  • Basileia
  • The Palace at Vergina
  • The Palace at Pella
  • Alexander's Mobile Palace: the "Tent of One Hundred Couches"
  • The Palace at Alexandria
  • The Ptolemaic River Boat Palace
  • The Palace at Demetrias
  • The Palace at Pergamon
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 21: The Greek Agora
  • Origins
  • City Planning and Urban Design
  • Stoas
  • Fountains and Water
  • Civic Life and Politics
  • Commerce
  • Cult, Religion, and Festivals
  • Athletic Competition
  • Military Activity
  • Memorial Display and Public Honors
  • Conclusions
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 22: Athletics
  • Introduction
  • Footraces: Dromos and Stadion
  • Training and Wrestling: Gymnasia and Palaistrai
  • Equestrian Events: the Hippodrome
  • Conclusions
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 23: Greek Baths
  • Introduction
  • History of the Study of Greek Baths
  • Early Greek Baths
  • Western Greek Baths
  • Greek Baths in Egypt
  • Later Hellenistic Baths in Greece
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 24: Bouleuteria and Odeia
  • Bouleuteria
  • Odeia
  • Two Athenian Odeia
  • Enigmatic Buildings
  • Setting
  • Seating Capacity
  • Roofing
  • Summary
  • Further Research
  • Compendium
  • Appendix: Recently Excavated and/or Published Bouleuteria/Odeia
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 25: The Greek Theater
  • Form: Space, Plan, and Design
  • Function: Use and Purpose
  • Economy, Geometry, and Multiplicity: Moving beyond Dramatic Performance
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 26: Commemorating the Dead
  • Grave Markers
  • Tombs and Tomb Paintings
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • PART IV: Reception
  • CHAPTER 27: The Spread of Greek Architecture
  • Pre-Hekatomnid Caria
  • Pre-Hekatomnid Labraunda
  • Hekatomnid Caria
  • The Hekatomnid Sanctuary at Labraunda
  • Andron B
  • North Stoa
  • Temple
  • Andron A
  • Oikoi
  • South and East Propyla
  • Doric Building, "Magazine Building," and East Stoa
  • Architectural Significance and Impact
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 28: Pergamon and Pergamene Influence
  • Pergamon and Its Phases of Construction
  • The Pergamene Aesthetics of Space
  • The Royal District
  • The Great Altar
  • Pergamene Architecture outside Pergamon
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 29: New Directions in Hellenistic Sanctuaries
  • The Offset Axis: The Sanctuary of Athena Lindia, Rhodes
  • The Bent Axis: The Sanctuary of Asklepios at Kos
  • The Intentionally Circuitous: The Sanctuary of the Great Gods on Samothrace
  • Smaller-Scale Urban and Suburban Precincts: Priene, Megalopolis, and Pergamon
  • Hellenistic Interventions in the Old Sanctuaries: Stoas and Votive Monuments
  • Hellenistic Directions in Sacred Architectural Sculpture
  • Responses to the Larger Hellenistic World: The Sanctuaries of Foreign Gods and Sanctuaries in Foreign lands
  • Conclusions
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 30: Three Seaside Wonders
  • Seven Sights or Seven Wonders?
  • The Mausoleum of Halikarnassos (circa 350 BCE)
  • The Colossus of Rhodes
  • The Lighthouse of Alexandria
  • A Wonderful Afterlife
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 31: From Hellenistic to Roman Architecture
  • Chronology
  • Geography and Culture
  • Materials and Techniques
  • Architectural Type and Style
  • Patronage and Purpose
  • Theory and Meaning
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 32: Hellenistic Architecture in Italy: Consuetudo Italica
  • The Late Republic
  • The Power Culture of Senatorial Patronage
  • Public Patronage in Rome
  • Patronage: Centralized and Dispersed, Senatorial and Municipal
  • Architect and Builder
  • The Etrusco-Italic Tradition
  • New Models from Greece
  • The Discipline of the Greek Orders: The Hellenized Late Republican Temple
  • The Discipline of the Greek Orders: The Articulated Wall
  • The Ordering of Large Spaces: Basilica and Porticus
  • From Hellenistic to Roman
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 33: French Architectural Thought and the Idea of Greece
  • Eighteenth- and Nineteenth-Century French Views on Greek Architecture
  • The Rustic Hut
  • Evidence from Greek Buildings
  • From Travel to Archaeology
  • The Autonomy of Greece
  • Visual Experience of Form
  • Polychromy
  • Motion in Architecture
  • Conclusions
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 34: The Reception of Greek Architecture in Eighteenth-Century Britain
  • Introduction
  • Setting the Scene: Hagley Hall
  • The Neoclassical Mood
  • Antiquarianism and National Identity
  • Appropriating Ancient Greece
  • The Birth of the Greek Revival
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • CHAPTER 35: Ancient Ruins and Their Preservation
  • Memory and its Preservation: Past and Present
  • Greece and the Preservation of Its Historical Remains
  • From an Empirical Approach to an Ideological One
  • The Ideology behind Modern Anastylosis
  • A Case Study: the East Porch of the Parthenon
  • Background to Decisions Governing the Restoration of the East Porch
  • Procedural and Historical Concerns
  • Preservation of Historical Evidence
  • Historical Inconsistency
  • Which Historical Phase to Restore?
  • A New Approach to the Pronaos Restoration
  • Epilogue
  • FURTHER READING
  • REFERENCES
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

List of Illustrations


Figure 2.1 Eretria, first half of the eighth century bce, plan. Source: adapted from Verdan 2013, pl. 7. Figure 2.2 Kalapodi, South temples. Architectural phases of South temples. Source: DAI, courtesy W.-D. Niemeier. Figure 2.3 Aerial view of the temple at Kythnos. The "adyton" in the middle. [North at the top] (photo K. Xenikakis, 2014) Source: A. Mazarakis Ainian. Figure 2.4 Eretria, second half of the eighth century bce, plan. Source: adapted from Verdan 2013, pl. 8. Figure 2.5 Nikoleika, temple, reconstruction. Source: adapted from Kolia 2011, fig. 46. Figure 2.6 Soros, Sanctuary of Apollo, topographical plan. Source: A. Mazarakis Ainian, G. Chiotis. Figure 3.1 Archaic Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia, restoration shown at southwest corner. Broneer 1971: 41, fig. 54. Source: Courtesy the Trustees of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 3.2 Temple of Demeter and Kore at Sangri, Naxos. Source: B. Barletta. Figure 3.3 Old Tholos at Delphi, reconstruction. Source: Pomtow 1911: 197, fig. 25. Figure 3.4 Silhouettes of moldings, clockwise from top left: half-round above a fillet, hawksbeak, cavetto with crowning fascia, ovolo. Source: B. Barletta. Figure 4.1 "Roof 1," Olympia, schematic reconstruction. (The width of the roof is unknown but was probably greater than the eight tiles rendered here.) Source: P. Sapirstein. Figure 4.2 Proto-Corinthian roof, Corinth, schematic reconstruction. (Black-painted tiles have been omitted. The original width of the roof was greater than eight tiles.) Source: P. Sapirstein. Figure 4.3 Aphaia Sanctuary, Aigina, Early Argive roof, schematic reconstruction. (The checkered pattern of red and black tiles is hypothetical, as are the hatched areas. The original width of the roof was greater than eight tiles.) Source: P. Sapirstein. Figure 4.4 Heraion at Olympia, Laconian roof, schematic reconstruction. (The restoration of hatched areas is uncertain. The original roof was about eight times wider than shown here, almost 19?m across the façade.) Source: P. Sapirstein. Figure 4.5 Mon Repos, Corfu, Northwest Greek roof, schematic reconstructions. (The restoration of hatched areas is uncertain. The original width of the roof was greater than 13 tiles.) Source: P. Sapirstein. Figure 4.6 Band anathyrosis: on the rabbeted shelves of Protocorinthian tiles (left), and on the joint face of the architrave from the Temple of Artemis, Corfu (right). On the tile, the raised lip runs along the free edge of the cover (left: FP 329, Corinth Museum, view of underside.) Source: P. Sapirstein. Figure 5.1 Archaic Temple of Artemis ("Kroisos Temple") at Sardis, restored ground plan showing alternative reconstructions of adyton and opisthodomos in the east. Source: J. Senseney, adapted from Ohnesorg 2007: pl. 36. Figure 5.2 Sanctuary of Apollo, Didyma, Hellenistic-Roman period, restored ground plan including columns planned but never erected. Source: J. Senseney. Figure 5.3 Sanctuary of Apollo, Didyma, view from northeast. Source: J. Senseney. Figure 5.4 Sanctuary of Apollo, Didyma, view of frontal stairway ascending to stylobate, featuring panel-strips as found in the masonry of earlier Ionian temples as well as Lydian buildings. Source: J. Senseney. Figure 5.5 Tunnel of Eupalinos, Samos, showing tunnel in section, plan, and theoretical ideal plan with a detail of this ideal plan's convergence, according to Kienast. Source: J. Senseney, adapted from Kienast 1995: fig. 46a, foldout plans 3a and 3b. Figure 5.6 Tunnel of Eupalinos, Samos, proposed multistage process of excavation, with dotted lines indicating the north-south positions of the tunnel heads before the final maneuver toward convergence in stage 4. Source: J. Senseney, adapted from Kienast 1995: foldout plans 3a and 3b. Figure 6.1 Syracuse, Apollonion. Source: C. Marconi. Figure 6.2 Selinous, Temple C, pedimental gorgoneion, after Gàbrici 1935. Source: C. Marconi. Figure 6.3 Paestum, Temple of Athena. Source: C. Marconi. Figure 6.4 Paestum, So-called Temple of Poseidon. Source: C. Marconi. Figure 6.5 Akragas, Temple of Concord. Source: C. Marconi. Figure 7.1 Thorikos, Doric capital from the double Stoa, reused in the Athenian Agora, with partial guidelines for flutes preserved on bottom surface. Drawn by Argyris Petronotis. Courtesy American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Source: Agora Excavations, Athens. Figure 7.2 Temple of Athena, Pompeii, diagram of design process. Drawing by Rocco Leonardis. Figure 7.3 Temple of Concord, Akragas, diagram of design process. Drawing by Rocco Leonardis. Figure 7.4 Unfinished Temple, Segesta, diagram of design process. Drawing by Rocco Leonardis. Figure 7.5 The Parthenon, diagram of design process. Drawing by Rocco Leonardis. Figure 7.6 Temple of Apollo, Bassai, diagram of design process. Drawing by Rocco Leonardis. Figure 8.1 Ashlar wall construction. Source: N. Klein. Figure 8.2 Temple of Aphaia II, Aigina, view of interior. Source: N. Klein. Figure 8.3 The Parthenon, section through interior, cella wall, and colonnade. Source: N. Klein. Figure 8.4 Stoa of Eumenes, Athens, view of arched buttresses. Source: N. Klein. Figure 8.5 The Doric temple. Source: N. Klein. Figure 8.6 The Ionic temple. Source: N. Klein. Figure 8.7 Horizontal and vertical curvature in Doric architecture. Source: N. Klein. Figure 9.1 Treasury terrace, Olympia, plan. Source: N. Klein, adapted from Herrmann 1992. Figure 9.2 Treasury of Sikyon, Olympia. Source: N. Klein. Figure 9.3 Treasury of Megara, Olympia, corner geison and sima. Source: N. Klein. Figure 9.4 Treasury of Gela, Olympia, reconstruction of horizontal and raking simas. Source: N. Klein. Figure 9.5 Treasury of Gela, Olympia, geison. Source: N. Klein. Figure 10.1 General plan of sanctuary areas at Delphi. Source: M. Scott. Figure 10.2 Model of Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, with labels added. Source: M. Scott. Figure 10.3 Reconstruction of the Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi, by A. Tournaire (circa 1890). Source: M. Scott. Figure 11.1 Acropolis of Athens, view of north wall, with reused blocks from the Older Parthenon and Temple of Athena Polias. Source: M.M. Miles. Figure 11.2 Acropolis, detail of north wall, with reused blocks from the Temple of Athena Polias. Source: M.M. Miles. Figure 11.3 Athenian Acropolis, reconstruction. American School of Classical Studies, Archives in the Blegen Library, Gorham P. Stevens. Source: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Figure 11.4 Athenian Acropolis, plan. American School of Classical Studies, Archives in the Blegen Library, Gorham P. Stevens. Source: American School of Classical Studies at...

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