Invertebrate Learning and Memory

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 18. Juni 2013
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  • 600 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-398260-5 (ISBN)
 

Understanding how memories are induced and maintained is one of the major outstanding questions in modern neuroscience. This is difficult to address in the mammalian brain due to its enormous complexity, and invertebrates offer major advantages for learning and memory studies because of their relative simplicity. Many important discoveries made in invertebrates have been found to be generally applicable to higher organisms, and the overarching theme of the proposed will be to integrate information from different levels of neural organization to help generate a complete account of learning and memory.

Edited by two leaders in the field, Invertebrate Learning and Memory will offer a current and comprehensive review, with chapters authored by experts in each topic. The volume will take a multidisciplinary approach, exploring behavioral, cellular, genetic, molecular, and computational investigations of memory. Coverage will include comparative cognition at the behavioral and mechanistic level, developments in concepts and methodologies that will underlie future advancements, and mechanistic examples from the most important vertebrate systems (nematodes, molluscs, and insects). Neuroscience researchers and graduate students with an interest in the neural control of cognitive behavior will benefit, as will as will those in the field of invertebrate learning.


  • Presents an overview of invertebrate studies at the molecular / cellular / neural levels and correlates findings to mammalian behavioral investigations
  • Linking multidisciplinary approaches allows for full understanding of how molecular changes in neurons and circuits underpin behavioral plasticity
  • Edited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field around the globe - the broadest, most expert coverage available
  • Comprehensive coverage synthesizes widely dispersed research, serving as one-stop shopping for comparative learning and memory researchers
1569-7339
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
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  • Niederlande
Elsevier Science
  • 56,96 MB
978-0-12-398260-5 (9780123982605)
012398260X (012398260X)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Invertebrate Learning and Memory
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1 Beyond the Cellular Alphabet of Learning and Memory in Invertebrates
  • Introduction
  • Beyond the Cellular Alphabet: Circuit and Network Levels of Analysis, the Necessary Step
  • Do Invertebrates have Cognitive Abilities?
  • Reference
  • 2 Concepts of Invertebrate Comparative Cognition
  • 2 Action Selection
  • Introduction
  • Behavioral Modules
  • Outcome Expectation
  • The Active Brain
  • Action Selection
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 3 Cognitive Components of Insect Behavior
  • Introduction
  • Acting Upon the Environment: Exploration, Instrumental Learning, and Observational Learning
  • Expectation
  • Generalization, Categorization, and Concept Learning
  • Memory Processing
  • Insect Intelligence and Brain Structure
  • Miniature Brains
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 4 Exploring Brain Connectivity in Insect Model Systems of Learning and Memory
  • Introduction
  • Insect Brains are Small
  • Methods of Analyzing Insect Microcircuits
  • Sparse Neuron Reconstruction
  • Genetic Techniques to Explore Neural Connectivity
  • High-Throughput, Dense Reconstructions of Brain Circuitry
  • Estimates of Synaptic Connectivity Using the Light Microscope
  • 3D Microscopy Volume Imaging with the Light Microscope
  • Bioinformatics
  • Discussion and Outlook
  • References
  • 5 'Decision Making' in Larval Drosophila
  • Introduction
  • Architecture of the Chemobehavioral System
  • A Working Hypothesis of Memory Trace Formation
  • Molecular Coincidence Detection and the AC-cAMP-PKA Cascade
  • Memory Trace and Synapsin Function
  • The Decision to Behaviorally Express a Memory Trace-or Not
  • Independence of Innate Olfactory and Innate Gustatory Behavior
  • A Circuit for Decision Making?
  • Aspects of Decision Making
  • Options
  • Dimensions and Conflict
  • Time and Certainty
  • Pride, Blame, and Person
  • Offline Processing
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Note Added in Proof
  • References
  • 3 Developments in Methodology
  • 6 Optophysiological Approaches to Learning and Memory in Drosophila melanogaster
  • Introduction: Strategies to Determine Neuronal Substrates Underlying Learning and Memory
  • Disruptive Alterations: Ablation, Mutation, and Block of Synaptic Transmission
  • Detectability: Optical Imaging Using DNA-Encoded Fluorescence Probes
  • Mimicry: Optogenetic and Thermogenetic Activation of Neurons
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 7 Computational Analyses of Learning Networks
  • Introduction
  • Olfactory Learning in Insects
  • Nonassociative and Associative Learning in Gastropods
  • Olfactory Learning Limax
  • Classical Conditioning of Feeding Behavior in Lymnaea
  • Classical Conditioning of Phototaxic Behavior in Hermissenda
  • Nonassociative and Associative Learning in Defensive Withdrawal Reflexes of Aplysia
  • Nonassociative Synaptic Plasticity
  • Associative Synaptic Plasticity
  • Incorporating the ADHF Learning Rule into Different Network Architectures
  • Predicting Enhanced Training Protocols for the Induction of Long-Term Facilitation and Long-Term Sensitization
  • Examining the Role(s) of a Positive Feedback Loop in the Consolidation of Long-Term Memory
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 8 Issues in Invertebrate Learning Raised by Robot Models
  • Introduction
  • Robot Models of Invertebrate Learning
  • What is Associated with What in Classical Conditioning?
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 Mechanisms from the Most Important Systems
  • 4.1 Nematodes/Caenorhabditis elegans
  • 9 Mechanosensory Learning and Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Introduction to Caenorhabditis Elegans Learning and Memory
  • Characteristics of Short-Term Tap Habituation
  • Development of Tap Habituation
  • Circuitry Underlying Tap Habituation
  • Neurotransmitters Involved in Tap Habituation
  • Locus of Plasticity in Tap Habituation
  • Genes that Play a Role in Tap Habituation
  • Long-Term Memory for Tap Habituation
  • Context: Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 10 Molecular and Cellular Circuits Underlying Caenorhabditis elegans Olfactory Plasticity
  • Caenorhabditis Elegans Olfactory System
  • Caenorhabditis Elegans Olfactory Plasticity
  • Larval Stage Olfactory Plasticity: Olfactory Imprinting
  • Adult Stage Olfactory Plasticity
  • Olfactory Adaptation
  • Early Adaptation
  • Short-Term Versus Long-Term Adaptation
  • Context Modulation of Adaptation
  • Olfactory Conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Garcia'S Effect
  • Other Food-Dependent Effects on Olfactory Plasticity
  • Aging-Dependent Changes in Olfactory Plasticity
  • Effects of Insulin Signaling
  • Effects of Restriction of Food Intake Levels
  • Effects of Other Mechanisms
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 11 Thermosensory Learning in Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Caenorhabditis Elegans Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Plasticity in C. Elegans
  • Thermotaxis in C. Elegans
  • Neural Circuit for Thermotaxis
  • Thermosensory Signaling
  • AFD Themosensory Neurons Memorize Cultivation Temperature: the Sensory Neuron Acts as a Memory Device
  • Associative Learning between Temperature and Food
  • Regulation of Associative Learning by Insulin and Monoamine Signaling
  • Information Flow from AFD and AWC to AIY
  • RIA Interneuron as an Integrator and Locomotion Controller
  • Conclusion and Perspective
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 12 Age-Dependent Modulation of Learning and Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Introduction
  • Classification of Learning and Memory
  • Reduced Plasticity but Well-Retained 'Old Memory'
  • Two Phases of AMI
  • Early Behavioral Markers of AMI
  • Late Markers of AMI
  • Other Behavioral Markers
  • Aging-Related Changes in Associative Learning and Memory
  • Endocrine Disturbance as a Cause of Early AMI
  • Serotonin as a Cause of Behavioral Aging in Early Phase
  • Insulin/IGF-1 Pathway
  • Other Factors that Affect AMI
  • Neural Regulation of Memory and AMI
  • Midlife Crisis Theory and Epigenetic Changes
  • Epigenetics and AMI
  • Perspectives
  • References
  • 13 Salt Chemotaxis Learning in Caenorhabditis elegans
  • Salt Chemotaxis in Caenorhabditis Elegans
  • Salt Chemotaxis Learning: The Behavior
  • The Role of ASE Neurons in Salt Chemotaxis Learning
  • The Insulin/Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway
  • The Gq/Diacylglycerol/Protein Kinase C Pathway
  • Other Genes Acting in ASER
  • The EGL-8/Diacylglycerol/Protein Kinase D Pathway Acting in ASEL
  • Involvement of Other Sensory Neurons
  • Roles of Interneurons
  • Changes in Neuronal Activities Caused by Learning
  • How is the Starvation Signal Transmitted?
  • Molecular Pathways for memory retention
  • Long-Term Memory
  • Experience-Dependent Salt Chemotaxis in Fed Animals
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 4.2 Mollusks
  • 4.2.1 Gastropods
  • 14 A Systems Analysis of Neural Networks Underlying Gastropod Learning and Memory
  • Introduction
  • Behavior and Model Networks
  • Aplysia Gill-Siphon Defensive Withdrawal Reflex
  • Hermissenda Statocyst-Mediated Behaviors
  • Lymnaea Feeding
  • The Complexity of Gastropod Learning
  • Synaptic Mechanisms for Learning
  • Aplysia Gill-Siphon Withdrawal Reflex: Multiple Types of Learning in the Same Network
  • Nonassociative Learning: Habituation and Sensitization
  • Role of Intrinsic Polysynaptic Pathways in Habituation and Sensitization
  • Associative Learning: Classical Conditioning
  • Hermissenda Phototaxic Behavior: Associative Learning with Two Reflexive Responses
  • Lymnaea and Aplysia Feeding: Associative Learning in CPG-Driven Rhythmic Networks
  • Nonsynaptic Cellular Mechanisms for learning
  • Changes in Input Resistance
  • Changes in Membrane Potential
  • Changes in the Threshold for Plateau Formation
  • Changes in Endogenous Bursting Properties
  • Discussion and Conclusions
  • A Multisite Mechanism for Gastropod Learning
  • Interactions between Inhibitory and Excitatory Synaptic Mechanisms are Important for Memory Formation
  • Issues Concerning the Role of Nonsynaptic Mechanisms in Gastropod Learning
  • Why is the Circuit-Level Organization Underlying Memory so Complex in Gastropods?
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 15 Comparison of Operant and Classical Conditioning of Feeding Behavior in Aplysia
  • Introduction
  • Feeding Behavior in Aplysia and its Underlying Neural Circuit
  • Feeding Behavior is Modified by Associative Learning
  • Associative Paradigm for Learning that Food is Inedible
  • Appetitive Classical Conditioning
  • Appetitive Operant Conditioning
  • Cellular Analysis of Appetitive Classical and Appetitive Operant Conditioning of Feeding
  • Neuronal Correlates of Classical and Operant Conditioning
  • Classical and Operant Conditioning of Feeding can be Expressed in Vitro
  • Decision-Making Neuron B51
  • B51 Neuronal Plasticity in Operant and Classical Conditioning: Common Site but Different Changes
  • Comparison of the Molecular Mechanisms of Operant and Classical Conditioning
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 16 Mechanisms of Short-Term and Intermediate-Term Memory in Aplysia
  • Introduction
  • Simple Forms of Learning in Aplysia
  • Short-Term Plasticity
  • The Relationship Between Short- and Long-Term Plasticity, and the Discovery of Intermediate-Term Plasticity
  • Mechanisms of Induction, Maintenance, and Expression of Intermediate-Term Facilitation
  • Site-Specific Sensitization
  • 10-Min 5-HT
  • Pre- and Postsynaptic Mechanisms of Intermediate-Term Plasticity
  • Homosynaptic Potentiation
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Sensitization and Dishabituation
  • 1- and 10-Min 5-HT
  • Recruitment of Synaptic Proteins
  • Spontaneous Transmitter Release is Critical for the Induction of Intermeditate- and Long-Term Facilitation
  • Spontaneous Transmitter Release from the Presynaptic Neuron Recruits Postsynaptic Mechanisms of Intermediate- and Long-Term...
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 17 Synaptic Mechanisms of Induction and Maintenance of Long-Term Sensitization Memory in Aplysia
  • Introduction
  • Long-Term Sensitization in Aplysia: Mechanisms of Induction
  • Comment on Cellular Locus of Inductive Processes
  • Biochemical and Molecular Mechanisms of Induction
  • Presynaptic Mechanisms of LTS and LTF
  • Structural Changes Underlying Long-Term Sensitization Memory
  • Postsynaptic and Trans-Synaptic Mechanisms
  • Maintenance of LTS Memory in Aplysia
  • CPEB and the Prion Hypothesis
  • PKM and the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory in Aplysia
  • Memory Reconsolidation in Aplysia
  • Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 18 Roles of Protein Kinase C and Protein Kinase M in Aplysia Learning
  • Introduction
  • The PKC Family
  • Isoforms of PKC in Aplysia
  • Differences in the Regulatory Domain Define Distinct Activators for PKC Isoforms
  • The Catalytic and C-Terminal Domains are Sites of Regulation of PKCs by Phosphorylation
  • The Hinge Domain and PKM Formation
  • Calpain Families in Aplysia
  • Isoform-Specific Roles of PKCs during Distinct Learning Paradigms
  • Activation and Roles of PKC Apl I
  • PKC Apl I as a Coincidence Detector
  • Role of MAP Kinases in PKC Apl I Activation
  • Activation of PKC Apl I by Calcium Entry Alone
  • Protein Kinase C Apl I Roles in Synaptic Plasticity
  • Activity-Dependent Facilitation
  • Site-Specific Sensitization versus Forward Conditioning
  • PKC Apl I and Operant Conditioning in B51 Cells
  • Activation and Roles of PKC Apl II
  • Activation of PKC Apl II by the Conjunction of DAG and PA
  • Is DAG Production the Rate-Limiting Step for PKC Activation?
  • Activation of PKC Apl II by Phosphorylation
  • PKC Apl II Responses Can Differentiate between Spaced and Massed Applications of 5-HT in Sensory Neurons
  • Protein Kinase C Apl II and Reversal of Depression
  • Protein Kinase C Apl II and Intermediate-Term Facilitation after Massed Application of 5-HT
  • PKC Apl II and Synapse Formation
  • Activation and Roles of PKC Apl III
  • Activation of PKC Apl III by Phosphorylation
  • A Possible Role for PKC Apl III in the Nucleus
  • Activation and Roles of PKMs
  • Activation of PKCs by Cleavage
  • The Role of PKMs in Maintaining Long-Term Facilitation and Long-Term Memory
  • The Role of PKMs in Maintaining an Increase in AMPA Receptors in Motor Neurons
  • The Role of PKMs in Intermediate Memory of Aversive Operant Conditioning
  • PKMs and Activity-Dependent Plasticity
  • Interaction of PKCs with Other Signal Transduction Pathways
  • PKC versus PKA Signaling: Synergy or Opposition?
  • Activation of PKA by PKC through AC
  • Inhibition of PKA by PKC
  • Inhibition of PKC by PKA
  • Activation of PKC by PKA
  • Inhibition of PKC Isoforms May Also Play a Role in Synaptic Plasticity
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 19 Multisite Cellular and Synaptic Mechanisms in Hermissenda Pavlovian Conditioning
  • Introduction
  • Pavlovian Conditioning and the CR Complex
  • Neural Network
  • Long-Term Memory Following Multitrial Conditioning
  • Sensory Neurons
  • Interneurons
  • Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Short-, Intermediate-, and Long-Term Memory Formation
  • One-Trial Conditioning
  • Second Messengers
  • Protein Kinase C
  • Extracellular Signal-Regulated Protein Kinase
  • Long-Term Memory Depends on Translation and Transcription
  • Proteins Regulated by Pavlovian Conditioning: Proteomic Analyses
  • Mechanisms of CS-US Associations in Sensory Neurons
  • Summary
  • References
  • 20 Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning in the Feeding System of Lymnaea
  • Introduction
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning in the Feeding System of Lymnaea
  • Reward Classical Conditioning of Feeding
  • Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • CREB and LTM after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • Nitric Oxide and LTM after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • Protein Kinase A, Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase, and LTM after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • NMDA Receptors and CaMKII after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • PACAP and LTM after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • cAMP-Dependent Molecular Cascades and Neuronal Plasticity Contributing to LTM after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • PKA, Protein Synthesis, and Memory Reconsolidation after Single-Trial Reward Conditioning
  • Aversive Classical Conditioning of Feeding
  • PKA, CREB, and LTM after Aversive Conditioning
  • C/EBP and LTM after Aversive Conditioning
  • Comparison of the Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Reward and Aversive Conditioning of Feeding
  • Cellular Mechanisms of Classical Conditioning in the Feeding System of Lymnaea
  • Cellular Mechanisms of Single-Trial Chemical Classical Conditioning of Feeding
  • Cellular Mechanisms of Multitrial Tactile Classical Conditioning of Feeding
  • Cellular Mechanisms of Aversive Classical Conditioning of Feeding to a Chemical CS
  • A Direct Comparison of the Circuit Mechanisms Underlying Reward and Aversive Conditioning of Feeding
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 21 Operant Conditioning of Respiration in Lymnaea
  • Introduction
  • Aerial Respiratory Behavior
  • Operant Conditioning of Aerial Respiratory Behavior
  • Ecologically Relevant Stressors and LTM Formation
  • What is Stressful for a Snail?
  • Resource Restriction
  • Social Stress
  • Thermal Stress
  • Anthropogenic Stress
  • Interaction between Stressors
  • Population Differences
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 22 Associative Memory Mechanisms in Terrestrial Slugs and Snails
  • Introduction
  • Learning Solutions to Lifestyle Challenges by Terrestrial Gastropods
  • Water Homeostasis
  • Temperature
  • Hunting Prey and Mates Using Slime Trails
  • Avoiding Toxic Plant Compounds
  • Homing Behavior
  • Complexity of Odor Conditioning
  • Neurogenesis May Contribute to Olfactory Learning
  • Procerebrum as an Olfactory Learning Center
  • Progress with Limax Odor Learning
  • Learning of Tentacle Position
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 4.2.2 Cephalopods
  • 23 Observational and Other Types of Learning in Octopus
  • Introduction
  • Complexity versus Simplicity: Examples from Octopuses
  • Locomotion
  • Mimicry
  • Smart versus Stupid: Learning and Other Forms of Behavioral Plasticity
  • Learning from Others in Octopuses: Experimental Evidence
  • Visual Discrimination
  • Problem Solving
  • Why Should Octopus Possess Social Learning Skills?
  • Are Gregarious Lifestyle and Long Life Span the Requirements for Social Learning to Occur?
  • Does Octopus Have a Strictly Solitary Lifestyle?
  • Possible Adaptive Meaning of Social Learning in Octopus and in Other Solitary and Fast Life History Species
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 24 The Neurophysiological Basis of Learning and Memory in Advanced Invertebrates
  • Introduction
  • The Cephalopod Nervous System
  • Anatomy of the Vertical Lobe System
  • Neurophysiology of Sfl Input to the Octopus Vertical Lobe
  • Neuronal Output from the Vertical Lobes of Octopus and Cuttlefish Demonstrates Activity-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation
  • Synaptic Plasticity in the Vertical Lobes of Octopus and Cuttlefish
  • What do the Vertical Lobes of Octopus and Cuttlefish Compute?
  • Mechanism of LTP Induction in the Octopus Vertical Lobe
  • Neuromodulation in the Vertical Lobe
  • Are the Octopus Vertical Lobe and its LTP Involved in Behavioral Learning and Memory?
  • A System Model for Octopus Learning and Memory
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 25 Learning, Memory, and Brain Plasticity in Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)
  • Introduction
  • The Cuttlefish Brain
  • Brain and Behavioral Plasticity in Adults
  • The 'Prawn in a Tube' Procedure
  • PT Procedure: Habituation or Associative Learning?
  • Nature of the Reinforcement of PT Learning
  • The Transparent Tube as a Learning Cue in the PT Procedure
  • Does PT Learning Rely on Tactile Information?
  • Stimulus Specificity of PT Learning
  • Memory Trace of PT Learning
  • Brain Correlates of PT Learning
  • Spatial Learning
  • Evidence for Spatial Skills in Cuttlefish
  • Strategy Used to Solve a Spatial Task
  • Spatial Cognition and Sexual Maturation
  • Brain Correlates of Spatial Learning
  • Other Learning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning
  • Developmental Perspectives
  • Behavior and Brain Development in Juveniles
  • Development of Long-Term Memory and Brain Correlates
  • Influence of Early Experience on Memory and Brain
  • Imprinting and Early Cognition
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 4.3 Crustacea
  • 26 A Multidisciplinary Approach to Learning and Memory in the Crab Neohelice (Chasmagnathus) granulata
  • Introduction: Crustaceans as Model Systems in Neurobiology
  • Learning and Memory in Crustaceans
  • The Crab Neohelice: Habitat and Habits
  • Crab Learning in the Laboratory
  • Context-Signal Memory
  • Important Attributes of CSM
  • Adaptive Value of CSM
  • Massed and Spaced Training Render Two Different Kinds of Memory
  • Anatomical Description of Brain Regions Involved in Crab's Visual Memory
  • In Vivo Physiological Characterization of Brain Interneurons
  • Characterization of the LG Neurons and their Role in the Crab Escape Response
  • LG Neurons and their Role in Visual Learning and Memory
  • Pharmacological and Molecular Characterization of CSM Formation and Processing
  • Role of Protein Kinase A in Memory Consolidation
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in CSM
  • Rel/NF-?B, a Key Transcription Factor in Consolidation of CSM
  • Epigenetic Mechanisms in CSM Formation
  • CSM Reconsolidation and Extinction: A Cornerstone in the Study of Memory Reprocessing
  • NF-?B and Memory Reconsolidation
  • NF-?B and Memory Extinction
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 4.4 Insects
  • 4.4.1 Drosophila
  • 27 Drosophila Memory Research through Four Eras
  • Introduction
  • The Genetics of Drosophila Learning
  • Drosophila Learning
  • The Olfactory Nervous System
  • Neural Circuits underlying learning and memory
  • Subcellular Signaling Dynamics
  • Memory Traces
  • Outlook
  • References
  • 28 Visual Learning and Decision Making in Drosophila melanogaster
  • Introduction
  • Drosophila Vision
  • Neural Superposition
  • Color Vision
  • Elementary Motion Detector
  • Motion Vision
  • Motion Perception is Independent of Color Vision
  • Classical and Operant Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning in Flight Simulator
  • Different Visual Memory Phases
  • Invariant Recognition and Memory Traces
  • Invariant Recognition
  • Visual Memory
  • Feature Extraction and Context Generalization
  • Feature Extraction
  • Context Generalization
  • Multisensory Perception and Cross-Modal Memory
  • Multisensory Perception
  • Cross-Modal Memory
  • Spatial Learning and Working Memory
  • Spatial Working Memory
  • Landmark Learning
  • Attention-Like Fixation Behavior and Visual Selective Attention
  • Attention-Like Fixation
  • Selective Attention
  • Decision Making
  • Perceptual Decision
  • Egg-Laying Site Choice
  • Choice Between Goal-Directed and Habitual Response
  • Salience-Based Decision
  • Computational Studies on Decision Making
  • Collective Learning and Social Decision
  • Perspectives
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4.4.2 Honeybees
  • 29 In Search of the Engram in the Honeybee Brain
  • The Concept of the Engram
  • The Olfactory Learning Paradigm
  • The Olfactory Pathway in the Bee Brain and Potential Locations of the Engram
  • The Antennal Lobe
  • Intrinsic Neurons of the Mushroom Body: Kenyon Cells
  • Extrinsic Neurons of the Mushroom Body
  • The Lateral Horn
  • Memory Traces in the Reward Pathway
  • The Distributed Nature of the Engram
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 30 Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning in the Primary Olfactory Center of the Honeybee Brain
  • Introduction
  • Studied Forms of Olfactory Learning in Honeybees
  • The Olfactory System
  • Odor Detection
  • Primary Processing: The Antennal Lobe
  • Higher Order Integration: Mushroom Bodies and Lateral Horn
  • Convergence between Olfactory and Reinforcement Pathways
  • Demonstrations of the Involvement of ALs and MBs in Olfactory Learning
  • The Search for Experience-Induced Plasticity in the Antennal Lobe
  • Peripheral Plasticity: ORNs
  • Functional Plasticity in the Antennal Lobe: ORNs, LNs, and PNs
  • Plasticity in ORNs
  • Plasticity in PNs
  • Structural Plasticity in the Antennal Lobe
  • Plasticity in Other Brain Areas
  • Where Do We Go from Here? The Multifactorial Quality of the Search for Neural Plasticity
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 31 Memory Phases and Signaling Cascades in Honeybees
  • Appetitive Olfactory Learning in Honeybees: Behavior and Neuronal Circuitry
  • Reward and Odor Stimuli Induce Fast and Transient Activation of the cAMP- and Ca2+-Dependent Signaling Cascades in the Ante...
  • The Link between Training Parameters and Memory Formation: The Specific Role of Second Messenger-Regulated Signaling Cascades
  • Satiation Affects Formation of Appetitive Memory via Molecular Processes during Conditioning
  • Midterm Memory Requires the Interaction of a Ca2+-Regulated Protease and Protein Kinase C
  • Mushroom Body Glutamate Transmission is Implicated in Memory Formation
  • Parallel Signaling Processes in the ALs and the MBs Contribute to Memory Formation
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 32 Pheromones Acting as Social Signals Modulate Learning in Honeybees
  • Introduction
  • Pheromones and their Roles
  • Pheromone Modulation of Learning Behavior
  • Coincidental or Adaptive?
  • Modes of Action
  • A Focus for Future Studies
  • References
  • 33 Extinction Learning and Memory Formation in the Honeybee
  • Extinction Resembles an Animal's Adaptation to a Fluctuating Environment
  • Classical Conditioning in Harnessed Honeybees
  • Spontaneous Recovery from Extinction Demonstrates the Existence of Two Memories
  • Reinstatement of the Extinguished Memory is Context Dependent
  • Extinction of a Consolidated Long-Term Memory
  • Consolidating Extinction Memory
  • Extinction Memory Formation Depends on Reward Learning
  • Reconsolidation of Reward Memory
  • Protein Degradation Constrains the Reward Memory
  • Epigenetic Mechanisms Impact on Memory Formation and the Resistance to Extinction
  • Extinction in Vertebrates and Honeybees: Conserved Behavior, Conserved Molecular Mechanisms, but Different Brains?
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 34 Glutamate Neurotransmission and Appetitive Olfactory Conditioning in the Honeybee
  • Introduction
  • Glutamate and Components of the Glutamate Neurotransmission in the Honeybee Nervous System
  • Architecture of the Glutamatergic Neurotransmission
  • Glutamatergic Neurotransmission is Important for Learning and Memory
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 35 Cellular Mechanisms of Neuronal Plasticity in the Honeybee Brain
  • Introduction
  • Cellular Physiology of Membrane Excitability
  • Synaptic Transmitters and their Receptors
  • Acetylcholine Receptors
  • GABA Receptors
  • Glutamate Receptors
  • Histamine Receptors
  • G Protein-Coupled Biogenic Amine Receptors
  • Cell Physiological Events Underlying Olfactory Learning
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 36 Behavioral and Neural Analyses of Punishment Learning in Honeybees
  • Introduction
  • Olfactory Conditioning of the Sting Extension Reflex
  • Olfactory Conditioning of Ser is a True Case of Aversive Learning
  • Olfactory Conditioning of Ser Leads to the Formation of Long-Term Memories
  • The Neural Basis of Aversive Learning
  • CS Signaling
  • US Signaling
  • Dopaminergic Neurons in the Bee Brain
  • Modularity of Reward and Punishment Systems in Honeybees
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 37 Brain Aging and Performance Plasticity in Honeybees
  • Social Caste, Social Environment, and Flexible Life Histories in the Honeybee
  • Behavioral Senescence in Honeybees
  • Heterogeneity of Behavioral Aging
  • Aging Interventions
  • Negligible Senescence
  • Underpinnings of Plastic Brain Aging
  • Free Radicals
  • Mitochondrial Aging and Lipofuscin
  • Tissue-Dependent Heterogeneity of Cellular Senescence
  • Immune Defenses and Aging
  • Proteome, Aging, and the Reversal of Aging Symptoms
  • Application-Oriented Research: Screening for Treatments that may Extend Life Span and Improve Health
  • Insects as Models to Study Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Disability
  • Identifying Compounds with Life-Extending and Life-Shortening Effects
  • Applied Approaches to Study Harmful Influences of Ecotoxic Compounds and Parasites on Honeybee Health
  • Synthesis
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4.4.3 Ants
  • 38 Learning and Recognition of Identity in Ants
  • Is Learning Involved in the Formation of the Nestmate Recognition Template?
  • Preimaginal Learning
  • Early Learning
  • Habituation and Sensory Adaptation
  • When Learning and Memory are Indispensable
  • Ant Queens
  • Ant Workers
  • Tools to Study Olfactory Learning and Memory in Ants
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 39 Bounded Plasticity in the Desert Ant's Navigational Tool Kit
  • The Major Transition in the Ant's Adult Lifetime
  • Path Integration
  • Calibrating the Path Integrator
  • Estimating Path Integration Errors
  • Flexible Use of Path Integration Vectors
  • Interplay between Path Integration and Landmark Guidance Routines
  • Location Memories, Site-Based Steering Commands, and Route Memories
  • Functional Adaptability within a Modular System of Navigation
  • Plasticity of the Adult Ant's Brain
  • Plasticity in Mushroom Bodies-Sensory Association Centers of the Insect Brain
  • Light-Triggered Rewiring of Mushroom Body Microcircuits
  • Sensory Experience, Age, and the Formation of Long-Term Memory
  • Outlook: Neuronal Basis of Behavioral Plasticity
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 40 Learning and Decision Making in a Social Context
  • Introduction
  • Social Learning through Teaching
  • Colony-Level Learning
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 4.4.4 Other Insect Species
  • 41 Olfactory and Visual Learning in Cockroaches and Crickets
  • Introduction
  • Olfactory and Visual Learning in Crickets
  • Experimental Procedure
  • Olfactory Learning in Crickets
  • Role of NO-cGMP Signaling in the Formation of Long-Term Memory
  • Roles of Dopaminergic and Octopaminergic Neurons in Acquisition and Memory Retrieval
  • Roles of Aminergic Neurons in Olfactory Memory Formation
  • Roles of Aminergic Neurons in the Formation of Memory for Visual Patterns and Colors
  • Participation of OA-ergic Neurons and DA-ergic Neurons in Appetitive and Aversive Memory Retrieval
  • Visual and Olfactory Learning in Cockroaches
  • Visual Place Learning
  • Olfactory Conditioning in Cockroaches
  • Salivary Conditioning
  • Conditioning of Salivation and of Activities of Salivary Neurons
  • Context-Dependent Discrimination Learning as Monitored by the Activity of Salivary Neurons
  • Participation of the Mushroom Body in Salivary Conditioning
  • Conclusion and Future Perspective
  • References
  • 42 Individual Recognition and the Evolution of Learning and Memory in Polistes Paper Wasps
  • Introduction
  • Evolution of Individual Recognition
  • Individual Recognition and Social Memory
  • Detailed Methods for Training Wasps
  • Specialized versus Generalized Visual Learning
  • References
  • Index

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