Emotion Measurement

 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. April 2016
  • |
  • 750 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100509-5 (ISBN)
 

Emotion Measurement reviews academic and applied studies in order to highlight key elements of emotions which should be considered in the development and validation of newer commercial methods of emotion measurement. The goal of the book is practical, but the approach will be both academic and applied. It is aimed primarily at sensory scientists and the product developers they work alongside who require knowledge of measuring emotion to ensure high levels of consumer acceptability of their products.

The book begins with a review of basic studies of emotion, including the theory, physiology, and psychology of emotions - these are the standard studies of which food and sensory scientists as well as product developers need to be aware. The next section highlights methods for studying emotions on a relatively basic level. The book then moves to practical applications, with chapters on emotion research in food and beverage, as well as in a range of product and clinical settings. Finally, there is a treatment of cross-cultural research on emotions. This is critical because much of the newer commercial research is aimed at markets around the world, requiring methods which work in many cultures. The book ends with an integrative summary of the material presented.


  • Serves as the first book on the market on emotion measurement aimed at sensory scientists and production development practitioners working in commercial R and D
  • Also useful for psychologists with an interest in emotion
  • Brings together applied and academic strands of emotion measurement research for the first time
  • Focuses on cross-cultural studies of emotions, which is currently lacking from most of the literature in the field
  • Englisch
  • Cambridge
Elsevier Science
  • 16,85 MB
978-0-08-100509-5 (9780081005095)
0081005091 (0081005091)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Emotion Measurement
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • I. Basic Studies of Emotion
  • 1 Theoretical Approaches to Emotion and Its Measurement
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 What is an emotion?
  • 2.1 Definitions
  • 2.1.1 The complexity of defining emotion
  • 2.1.2 The multicomponent character of emotion
  • 2.2 Emotion components
  • 2.2.1 Is emotion an expression?
  • Darwin's early work
  • Basic emotion theories
  • Measuring emotional expressions
  • 2.2.2 Is emotion an action tendency?
  • States of action readiness
  • Measuring action tendencies
  • 2.2.3 Is emotion a bodily reaction?
  • The James-Lange versus Cannon-Bard debate
  • James and Lange's peripheralist approach
  • Cannon and Bard's centralist approach
  • The consequences of this debate for models of emotion
  • Measuring bodily reactions and bodily feeling
  • 2.2.4 Is emotion a feeling?
  • Dimensional theories of emotion
  • Measuring feeling
  • 2.2.5 Is emotion a cognition?
  • The Zajonc/Lazarus debate
  • Appraisal theories of emotion
  • Measuring appraisal
  • 3 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 2 Navigating the Science of Emotion
  • 1 Preliminary observations
  • 2 To essentialize or not to essentialize? That is the question
  • 3 The classical view of emotion
  • 3.1 Measurement implications
  • 3.2 Drawbacks to using the classical view's measurement model
  • 4 The construction approach to emotion
  • 4.1 The theory of constructed emotion
  • 4.2 Measurement implications
  • 4.3 Drawbacks to using the construction approach's measurement model
  • 5 A cautionary note: Beware of lurking essentialism
  • 6 Conclusions
  • Appendix A
  • References
  • 3 The Role of the Senses in Emotion
  • 1 From senses to emotions
  • 1.1 Touch
  • 1.2 Smell
  • 1.3 Taste
  • 1.4 Hearing
  • 1.5 Sight
  • 2 Modulation during human development
  • 3 Multisensory integration
  • 3.1 Smell, taste, touch, and visual associations
  • 3.2 Audio-visual associations in adults: Voice, faces, and cultural differences
  • 4 Conclusions and perspectives: from senses to emotions and from emotions to senses
  • References
  • 4 The Psychophysiology of Emotions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Re-representation of neural function and the psychophysiology of emotion
  • 3 Re-representation of function: the psychophysiology of emotion
  • 3.1 Examples from cardiovascular autonomic measures of emotion
  • 4 Electrodermal skin response
  • 5 Neuroendocrine factors
  • 6 Psychophysiological relations in emotion research
  • 7 Conclusions
  • References
  • II. Methods for Studying Emotions
  • 5 Behavioral Measures of Emotion
  • 1 Behaving emotionally
  • 2 Hulk. Emotional! The different dimensions of emotions
  • 3 The historical role of behavior to identify emotions
  • 4 The role of behavior in emotions
  • 4.1 To recognize emotions
  • 4.2 To classify emotions
  • 4.3 To measure emotions
  • 5 Behave yourself! Measuring emotions based on behavior
  • 5.1 Vocal and verbal characteristics
  • 5.2 Facial characteristics
  • 5.3 Body expressions and postures
  • 5.4 Multimodal methods and systems
  • 5.4.1 Vocal and facial manifestations
  • 5.4.2 Facial and body manifestations
  • 5.4.3 Body and vocal manifestations
  • 5.4.4 Facial, body, and vocal manifestations
  • 6 Products and behavioral characteristics of emotions
  • 7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 6 Measuring Emotions in the Face
  • 1 Basic facial anatomy
  • 2 Direct measurement of facial behaviors and facial expressions of emotion
  • 2.1 The FACS and its derivatives
  • 2.2 The MAX and System for Identifying Affect Expressions by Holistic Judgment
  • 2.3 Facial EMG
  • 3 Indirect methods of measuring facial behaviors
  • 3.1 Observer judgments
  • 3.2 Communication approaches
  • 3.3 Summary
  • 4 An example: measurement of facial expressions of emotion in consumer research using FACS-based systems
  • 4.1 Brief methods
  • 4.2 Sample results
  • 4.2.1 Emotion classifications
  • 4.2.2 Expression intensities
  • 4.2.3 Full versus partial expressions
  • 4.2.4 Expression duration
  • 4.2.5 Blends involving nonenjoyment smiles
  • 4.2.6 Differences among product categories
  • 4.2.7 Differences between self-report and facial expressions of emotion
  • 4.3 Summary
  • 5 Conclusion
  • References
  • 7 Lists of Emotional Stimuli
  • 1 Comparing different types of emotional stimuli
  • 2 Emotional words
  • 3 Emotional images
  • 4 Emotional faces
  • 5 Emotional film clips
  • 6 Future avenues
  • 7 Conclusion
  • References
  • 8 Measurement of Consumer Product Emotions Using Questionnaires
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 What are emotions?
  • 1.2 Objectives of this chapter
  • 2 Emotion lexicons and questionnaires used in product evaluation
  • 2.1 English emotion lexicons
  • 2.1.1 Richin's consumption emotions set
  • 2.1.2 Laros and Steenkamp's hierarchical model of emotions
  • 2.1.3 Thomson and Crocker's classification/lexicon of feelings
  • 2.2 Non-English lexicons
  • 2.3 Product- and domain-specific emotion questionnaires
  • 2.3.1 The Geneva Emotion and Odor Scale (GEOS) and ScentMove
  • 2.3.2 The EsSense Profile® method and EsSense25
  • 2.3.3 EmoSemio
  • 2.3.4 PrEmo: The product emotion measurement instrument (Desmet, et al., 2000)
  • 2.3.5 Other product- and meal-specific, English language lexicons and questionnaires
  • 2.4 Non-English product emotion questionnaires
  • 3 The effect of different response formats
  • 3.1 Basic scalar formats
  • 3.2 Best-Worst Scaling
  • 3.3 Other scaling and specialized formats for consumer product emotion research
  • 3.3.1 Multiple-choice formats
  • 3.3.2 Single-item questionnaires
  • 3.3.3 Temporal dominance of emotions
  • 3.3.4 Future formats for obtaining emotion data through questionnaires
  • 3.4 Reliability of scale methods
  • 3.5 Comparison of data collected by CATA, RATA, rating scale formats
  • 4 Effect of stimulus formats
  • 5 Conclusions
  • References
  • 9 Sentiment Analysis: Detecting Valence, Emotions, and Other Affectual States from Text
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Challenges in sentiment analysis
  • 3 Sentiment analysis tasks
  • 3.1 Detecting sentiment of the writer, reader, and other entities
  • 3.2 Detecting sentiment from different textual chunks
  • 3.3 Detecting sentiment towards a target
  • 3.3.1 Detecting sentiment towards aspects of an entity
  • 3.3.2 Detecting stance
  • 3.4 Detecting semantic roles of emotion
  • 4 Detecting subjectivity, valence, and emotions in sentences and tweets
  • 4.1 Detecting subjectivity
  • 4.2 Detecting valence
  • 4.3 Automatically detecting and analyzing emotions
  • 5 Capturing term-sentiment associations
  • 5.1 Manually generated term-sentiment association lexicons
  • 5.1.1 Real-valued sentiment scores from manual annotations
  • 5.2 Automatically generated term-sentiment association lexicons
  • 6 Modeling the impact of sentiment modifiers
  • 6.1 Negation
  • 6.2 Degree adverbs, intensifiers, modals
  • 7 Sentiment in figurative and metaphoric language
  • 8 Multilingual sentiment analysis
  • 9 Summary and future directions
  • References
  • 10 Conceptual Profiling
  • 1 Background
  • 1.1 The case for conceptual profiling
  • 1.2 The need for something different
  • 1.3 Duality of Reward Hypothesis
  • 1.4 Liking in the context of "totality of reward"
  • 1.5 Predicting emotional outcomes from conceptual associations: A new idea
  • 2 Conceptual profiling methodology
  • 2.1 Concept description
  • 2.1.1 Use of words and the issue of counterintuitiveness
  • 2.1.2 Concept description-developing a conceptual lexicon
  • 2.2 Quantification of degree of conceptual association
  • 2.2.1 Best-worst scaling
  • 2.2.2 Bullseye method
  • 3 Conceptual profiling-examples and case studies
  • 3.1 Conceptual profiling of color
  • 3.1.1 Impact of color on feelings and behavior
  • 3.1.2 Experimental procedures in brief
  • 3.1.3 Yellow versus purple
  • 3.1.4 Commonality
  • 3.1.5 Further comment on the use of words
  • 3.2 Conceptual profiling of unbranded products
  • 3.2.1 Category effect versus sensory-specific effect
  • 3.2.2 Minimizing the dominance of "category effect"
  • 3.3 Brand-product conceptual consonance
  • 3.3.1 Rationale for a derived index of fit-to-brand
  • 3.3.2 Case studies-derived index of fit to brand
  • 4 Overview
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 11 Short-term Time Structure of Food-related Emotions: Measuring Dynamics of Responses
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 The architecture of emergent emotion processes
  • 1.2 Affective chronometry
  • 1.3 Temporal dynamics of emotions and its measurement-key considerations
  • 1.3.1 Focus
  • 1.3.2 Type of measure-channel of information
  • 1.3.3 Timeframe and duration
  • 1.3.4 Sampling type
  • 2 Measuring temporal dynamics of emotions
  • 2.1 Measuring dynamics in subjective emotion experiences-the experiential system
  • 2.1.1 Time-intensity profiles of emotion episodes
  • 2.1.2 Temporal Dominance of Emotions
  • 2.2 The (neuro)physiological and expressive systems
  • 2.2.1 Measuring dynamics in facial expressions
  • 2.2.2 Measuring temporal dynamics in facial expressions
  • 2.2.3 Combining (neuro)physiological measures and facial expressions-temporal dynamics
  • 3 Implications and future recommendations
  • References
  • 12 Measurement of Affective Responses to Exercise: From "Affectless Arousal" to "The Most Well-Characterized" Relationship ...
  • 1 History from the perspective of psychology
  • 2 History from the perspective of exercise science
  • 3 The dependence of the research process on measurement
  • 4 The importance of knowing your measure
  • 4.1 Understanding the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
  • 4.2 Understanding the Profile of Mood States (POMS)
  • 4.3 Understanding the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS)
  • 5 Three-step approach to measurement
  • 6 Step 1: Decide whether you wish to study core affect, emotion, or mood
  • 6.1 What is core affect?
  • 6.2 What is emotion?
  • 6.3 What is mood?
  • 6.4 So, what should I study?
  • 7 Step 2: Choose the most appropriate theoretical framework for the chosen construct
  • 8 Step 3: Select the psychometrically strongest measure based on the chosen theoretical framework
  • 9 A research exemplar: The three-step approach to measurement in action
  • 10 Conclusion and synopsis of current evidence
  • References
  • 13 Methodological Issues in Consumer Product Emotion Research Using Questionnaires
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The effect of word list length (number of emotions) and order of presentation
  • 2.1 The effect of emotion word list length
  • 2.1.1 Direct comparisons of emotion questionnaires with different list lengths
  • 2.1.2 Is there an optimal length of emotion questionnaires?
  • 2.2 Effects of emotion word order and order of emotion elicitation versus other product responses
  • 2.2.1 Effects of emotion word order
  • 2.2.2 Effects of emotion question order in product evaluations
  • 3 The effect of instructional set and frames of reference (contexts)
  • 3.1 Effect of instructions to participants regarding task completion
  • 3.1.1 Direct comparison of instructions that encourage versus discourage participant deliberation
  • 3.1.2 Direct comparison of instructions that elicit responses simultaneously or subsequent to tasting of samples
  • 3.2 Effect of consumption frames of reference
  • 3.2.1 Evoked consumption contexts in product emotion research
  • 3.2.2 Effects of appropriateness of evoked consumption context
  • 3.2.3 Effect of stimulus and consumption frames of reference
  • 3.3 Effects of other situational and consumption-related variables
  • 4 Respondent-based effects
  • 4.1 Effects of product users versus nonusers
  • 4.2 Effects of gender and age
  • 4.2.1 Gender effects
  • 4.2.2 Age effects
  • 4.3 Emotional intensity and private body consciousness
  • 4.3.1 Other psychosocial variables
  • 5 Effect of other experimental design elements
  • 5.1 Asking emotion questions before or after hedonic and/or sensory attribute tasks
  • 5.2 Effect of number of samples being assessed in emotion research
  • 5.3 Number of subjects required for emotion testing
  • 6 Consumer perceptions of product emotion research
  • 6.1 Self-reported task perceptions
  • 6.1.1 Qualitative insights regarding consumers' task perceptions
  • 6.1.2 Questions measuring perceived ease-of-task and tediousness-of-task
  • 6.2 Differences between task perceptions of CATA and rating emotion questionnaires
  • 7 Conclusions
  • References
  • III. Studying Emotions in Practice
  • 14 Emotions in Clinical Practice
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Clinical tools for the assessment of emotion
  • 2.1 Forms of therapist empathy
  • 2.2 A differentiated perspective on emotion in clinical practice
  • 3 Common assessment procedures in clinical practice
  • 3.1 Assessment of arousal
  • 3.2 Assessment of awareness
  • 3.3 Assessment of expression
  • 3.4 Assessment of regulation
  • 3.5 Assessment of emotion types
  • 4 Conclusions and perspectives
  • References
  • 15 Emotions Studied in Context: The Role of the Eating Environment
  • 1 Introduction, rationale, and overview of the chapter
  • 1.1 Eating scenarios, both at home and away from home
  • 1.2 Changes in eating habits, food, and meal consumption patterns
  • 1.2.1 Family meal structure
  • 1.2.2 Meal patterns and meal times
  • 1.2.3 Snacks versus meals
  • 1.2.4 Eating out versus at home
  • 2 Contextual factors: the environment
  • 2.1 The importance of the environment and emotions
  • 2.2 The appropriateness of the eating environment
  • 2.3 The environment influences
  • 2.3.1 Décor/ethnicity
  • 2.3.2 Odor
  • 2.3.3 Music
  • 3 Measuring emotions in the environment
  • 3.1 Choice of techniques in typical environment settings
  • 3.1.1 Interviews
  • 3.1.2 Laddering interviews and means-end chain analysis
  • 3.1.3 Questionnaires
  • 3.2 Sample and sample size in relation to the chosen technique
  • 3.3 Practicalities in measuring emotions
  • 3.3.1 Difficulties in isolating and controlling the variables to be studied
  • 3.3.2 Choice of location
  • 3.3.3 Subjects
  • 3.3.4 Reward
  • 4 Case studies
  • 5 Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • 16 Emotion-Driven Product Design
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Shades of pleasure
  • 3 Delights of distress
  • 4 Landscape of emotions
  • 5 Gateways to value
  • 6 Desires and dilemmas
  • 7 Context for emotion
  • 8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 17 Emotions of Odors and Personal and Home Care Products
  • 1 Relations between olfaction and emotional processing and importance of associative learning during life experiences
  • 2 What is measured? Emotion or feelings?
  • 3 Development of a methodology for measuring feelings in response to odors through verbal reports: a cross-cultural approac ...
  • 3.1 Methods from the literature and rationale of the approach
  • 3.2 Creation of the GEOS
  • 3.3 Extension to other cultures
  • 3.4 Functional significance of EOS feeling categories
  • 4 Different strategies for measuring odor-related feelings in sensory settings
  • 5 Different approaches for measuring expectations and contextual modulations of fragrance-elicited emotions
  • 6 Final recommendations for measuring feelings elicited by odors
  • 7 Conclusion
  • References
  • 18 Emotions Elicited by Foods
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Measuring emotions across the food experience
  • 2.1 Food purchase
  • 2.2 Food preparation
  • 2.3 Consumption
  • 2.4 Post-consumption
  • 3 Commercial applications of emotion testing
  • 3.1 Food name
  • 3.2 Food category
  • 3.3 Product formulation
  • 3.4 Emotional response to the brand
  • 3.5 Emotional response to the context or situation
  • 4 Caveats of measuring emotions elicited by foods and food experience
  • 4.1 Negative emotions associated with food
  • 4.2 New market category or new product testing
  • 4.3 Demographics
  • 5 Summary
  • References
  • 19 Emotion in Beverages
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Why study emotions related to beverages
  • 2.1 Negative emotions
  • 3 Cultural differences
  • 4 Context
  • 5 Product differences and choice of method
  • 5.1 Facial expression of emotions
  • 5.2 Physiological response
  • 5.3 Verbal emotion/affective feeling lists
  • 5.3.1 Generating lists
  • 5.3.2 Scaling method
  • 6 Practical considerations in measurement
  • 7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 20 The Emotion of Happiness
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Happiness defined
  • 3 Existing happiness measures
  • 4 State-based or momentary affect scales
  • 4.1 One-item mood scales
  • 4.2 PANAS
  • 5 Facial Action Coding System
  • 6 Global measures
  • 6.1 Single-item measures
  • 6.2 Satisfaction with life scale
  • 6.3 Subjective Happiness Scale
  • 7 Brief scale critiques
  • 8 Combining state and trait assessments
  • 8.1 Experience sampling method
  • 8.2 Day reconstruction method
  • 9 Conclusions and future directions
  • References
  • 21 Measurement of Disgust Proneness
  • 1 Measures of individual differences in disgust responding
  • 1.1 The Disgust Scale
  • 1.2 The Disgust Emotion Scale
  • 1.3 The Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale
  • 1.4 The Three Domains of Disgust Scale
  • 1.5 The Child Disgust Scale
  • 2 Behavioral assessment of disgust
  • 3 Measurement of individual differences of disgust: A critique
  • 3.1 Measurement differences
  • 3.2 Content overlap
  • 3.3 Cross cultural generalizability
  • 3.4 Distinct disgust domains
  • 3.5 Distinct disgust vulnerabilities
  • 4 Conclusions
  • References
  • 22 Studying Emotions in the Elderly
  • 1 General introduction
  • 2 Who are "the elderly"?
  • 3 Emotional ageing
  • 3.1 Emotional experience/expression
  • 3.2 Emotion regulation/control
  • 3.3 Emotion perception/recognition
  • 3.4 Emotional memory/attention
  • 3.5 Emotional aging-deterioration, preservation, or improvement?
  • 4 Emotion measurement in the elderly
  • 4.1 Self-reported emotion measures in the elderly population
  • 4.2 Physiological emotion measures in the elderly population
  • 4.3 Facial expression measures in the elderly population
  • 4.4 The assessment of mental health in older adults
  • 4.5 Measuring subjective well-being/happiness in the elderly
  • 5 Conclusions
  • References
  • IV. Cross-Cultural Studies of Emotions
  • 23 Translatability of Emotions
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 Theoretical approaches
  • 3 Universality versus variation in emotion vocabularies: an overview
  • 3.1 Cultural salience of "emotion" and specific emotion categories
  • 3.2 Alternative conceptualizations of emotions
  • 4 Translatability of individual emotion words
  • 4.1 Cross-lingual asymmetries in lexicalizing emotions
  • 4.1.1 "Culture-specific" emotions
  • 4.1.2 Lexical lacunae
  • 4.1.3 "Syncretic" emotions
  • 4.1.4 One English emotion word has several equivalents in other languages
  • 4.2 Partial overlap in meaning of translation equivalents: aspects of variation
  • 5 Methods to assess semantic (dis)similarity of translation equivalents
  • 5.1 "Sense"-based methods
  • 5.1.1 Linguistic approaches
  • 5.1.2 Psychological approaches
  • 5.2 "Reference"-based methods
  • 6 Conclusion
  • References
  • 24 Different Ways of Measuring Emotions Cross-Culturally
  • 1 Defining and studying emotions
  • 2 Defining culture
  • 3 Cultural equivalence
  • 4 Measures of emotions in cultural psychology
  • 4.1 Emotions "in the head"
  • 4.1.1 Self-report surveys
  • 4.1.2 Experience sampling
  • 4.1.3 Emotional appraisals
  • 4.1.4 Storytelling
  • 4.2 Emotions "in the body"
  • 4.2.1 ANS activity: actual and reported changes
  • 4.2.2 CNS activity
  • 4.3 Emotions "in the world"
  • 4.3.1 Cultural products
  • 4.3.2 Observed behavior
  • 4.3.3 Situation sampling
  • 5 Culture and emotions: the new frontier
  • References
  • 25 Measuring and Understanding Emotions in East Asia
  • 1 Theoretical framework and a selective review
  • 1.1 Recognition of emotional information
  • 1.2 Cultural differences in predictors of happiness
  • 1.3 Mixing of positive and negative emotions
  • 1.4 Indigenous emotions
  • 2 Implications for measuring emotions in East Asia
  • 2.1 Online responses
  • 2.2 Situational approach
  • 3 Conclusions
  • References
  • 26 Emotion Measurement: Integrative Summary
  • 1 Basic studies of emotion
  • 2 Methods for studying emotions
  • 2.1 Behavioral methods
  • 2.2 Facial scaling
  • 2.3 Emotion lists and lexicons
  • 2.4 Sentiment analysis
  • 2.5 Conceptual profiling
  • 2.6 Temporal analysis
  • 2.7 Exercise
  • 2.8 Questionnaire methods
  • 3 Studying emotions in practice
  • 3.1 Clinical practice
  • 3.2 Context
  • 3.3 Product design
  • 3.4 Product emotions
  • 3.5 Happiness and disgust
  • 3.6 Elderly
  • 4 Cross-cultural studies of emotions
  • 5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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