Stable Isotope Forensics

Methods and Forensic Applications of Stable Isotope Analysis
 
 
John Wiley & Sons Inc (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 28. September 2017
  • |
  • 512 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-08022-0 (ISBN)
 
The number-one guide, internationally, to all aspects of forensic isotope analysis, thoroughly updated and revised and featuring many new case studies
This edition of the internationally acclaimed guide to forensic stable isotope analysis uses real-world examples to bridge discussions of the basic science, instrumentation and analytical techniques underlying forensic isotope profiling and its various technical applications. Case studies describe an array of applications, many of which were developed by the author himself. They include cases in which isotope profiling was used in murder, and drugs-related crime investigations, as well as for pharmaceutical and food authenticity control studies.
Updated with coverage of exciting advances occurring in the field since the publication of the 1st edition, this 2nd edition explores innovative new techniques and applications in forensic isotope profiling, as well as key findings from original research. More than a simple update, though, this edition has been significantly revised in order to address serious problems that can arise from non-comparable and unfit-for-purpose stable isotope data. To that end, Part II has been virtually rewritten with greater emphasis now being placed on important quality control issues in stable isotope analysis in general and forensic stable isotope analysis in particular.
* Written in a highly accessible style that will appeal to practitioners, researchers and students alike
* Illustrates the many strengths and potential pitfalls of forensic stable isotope analysis
* Uses recent case examples to bridge underlying principles with technical applications
* Presents hands-on applications that let experienced researchers and forensic practitioners match problems with success stories
* Includes new chapters devoted to aspects of quality control and quality assurance, including scale normalisation, the identical treatment principle, hydrogen exchange and accreditation
Stable Isotope Forensics, 2nd Edition is an important professional resource for forensic scientists, law enforcement officials, public prosecutors, defence attorneys, forensic anthropologists and others for whom isotope profiling has become an indispensable tool of the trade. It is also an excellent introduction to the field for senior undergraduate and graduate forensic science students.
"All students of forensic criminology, and all law enforcement officers responsible for the investigation of serious crime , will want to study this book. Wolfram highlights the value, and future potential, of Stable Isotope Forensics as an emerging powerful tool in the investigation of crime."
--Roy McComb, Deputy Director, Specialist Investigations, National Crime Agency (NCA), UK
"A single author text in these days is rare and the value of this book lies in the dedication and experience of the author which is evident in the clarity of prose, the honest illustration of evidence and the realistic practical application of the subject - it makes this a text of genuine scientific value."
-- Prof Dame Sue Black, PhD, DBE, OBE, FRSE, Leverhulme Research Centre for Forensic Science, University of Dundee, U
2. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
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  • Großbritannien
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
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  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • Überarbeitete Ausgabe
  • 11,85 MB
978-1-119-08022-0 (9781119080220)
1119080223 (1119080223)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Wolfram Meier-Augenstein, PhD is Professor in Stable Isotope Forensics at the Robert Gordon University in Aberdeen, Scotland, UK. He is a registered expert advisor with the National Crime Agency (NCA, UK) and holds a Diplom-Chemiker degree, as well as a Doctorate in Bio-organic Chemistry, both awarded by the University of Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany. Dr. Meier-Augenstein has assisted police forces and coroners' offices around the world in murder enquiries and drug-related crime investigations.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Series Foreword
  • Foreword: Dame Sue Black
  • Foreword: Mark Harrison
  • Foreword to the 1 Edition
  • Book Endorsements
  • Preface to the 2 Edition
  • List of Abbreviations
  • About the CompanionWebsite
  • Introduction: Stable Isotope 'Profiling' or Chemical 'DNA': A New Dawn for Forensic Chemistry?
  • Part I How it Works
  • Chapter I.1 What are Stable Isotopes?
  • Chapter I.2 Natural Abundance Variation of Stable Isotopes
  • Chapter I.3 Chemically Identical and Yet Not the Same
  • Chapter I.4 Isotope Effects, Mass Discrimination and Isotopic Fractionation
  • I.4.1 Physical Chemistry Background
  • I.4.2 Fractionation Factor and Enrichment Factor
  • I.4.3 Isotopic Fractionation in Rayleigh Processes
  • I.4.3.1 Isotopic Fractionation Summary
  • Chapter I.5 Stable Isotopic Distribution and Isotopic Fractionation of Light Elements in Nature
  • I.5.1 Hydrogen
  • I.5.2 Oxygen
  • I.5.3 Carbon
  • I.5.4 Nitrogen
  • I.5.5 Sulfur
  • I.5.6 Isoscapes
  • Chapter I.6 Stable Isotope Forensics in Everyday Life
  • I.6.1 "Food Forensics"
  • I.6.1.1 Authenticity and Provenance of Single-Seed Vegetable Oils
  • I.6.1.2 Authenticity and Provenance of Beverages
  • I.6.1.3 Caveats
  • I.6.2 Authenticity and Provenance of other Premium Products
  • I.6.3 Counterfeit Pharmaceuticals
  • I.6.4 Environmental Forensics
  • I.6.5 Wildlife Forensics
  • I.6.6 Anti-Doping Control
  • Chapter I.7 Summary of Part I
  • References Part I
  • Part II Instrumentation, Analytical Techniques and Data Quality
  • Chapter II.1 Mass Spectrometry versus Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
  • II.1.1 Stability, Isotopic Linearity and Isotopic Calibration
  • Chapter II.2 Instrumentation for Stable Isotope Analysis
  • II.2.1 Dual-Inlet IRMS Systems
  • II.2.2 Continuous-Flow IRMS Systems
  • II.2.3 Bulk Material Stable Isotope Analysis
  • II.2.3.1 13C, 15N and 34S
  • II.2.3.2 2H and 18O
  • II.2.4 Compound-Specific Stable Isotope Analysis of Volatile Organic Compounds
  • II.2.4.1 Compound-Specific 13C or 15N Analysis by GC/C-IRMS
  • II.2.4.2 Compound-Specific 2H or 18O Analysis by GC/HTC-IRMS
  • II.2.4.3 Position-Specific Isotope Analysis
  • II.2.5 Compound-Specific 13C/15N Analysis of Polar, Non-Volatile Organic Compounds by LC-IRMS
  • II.2.6 Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis and Forensic Compound Identification
  • Chapter II.3 Quality Control and Quality Assurance in Continuous-Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
  • II.3.1 Compliance with IUPAC Guidelines is a Prerequisite not a Luxury
  • II.3.2 The Identical Treatment Principle
  • II.3.3 The Importance of Scale Normalization
  • II.3.3.1 Scale Normalization of Measured 2H Values to VSMOW
  • II.3.3.2 Scale Normalization of Measured 13C Values to VPDB
  • II.3.3.3 Scale Normalization of Measured 18O Values to VSMOW
  • II.3.3.4 Scale Normalization of Measured 15N Values to Air
  • II.3.3.5 Scale Normalization of Measured 34S Values to VCDT
  • Chapter II.4 Points of Note for Stable Isotope Analysis
  • II.4.1 Preparing for Analysis
  • II.4.2 Generic Considerations for BSIA
  • II.4.2.1 Scale Normalization of BSIA
  • II.4.2.2 Keeping Your Powder Dry
  • II.4.2.3 Isobaric Interference
  • II.4.2.4 Ionization Quench Effect
  • II.4.3 Particular Considerations for BSIA
  • II.4.3.1 Bulk 15N Analysis of Nitrates
  • II.4.3.2 Bulk 2H Analysis of Nitrogen-Rich Compounds
  • II.4.3.3 Total 2H versus True 2H Values
  • II.4.3.4 Organic Compounds with Exchangeable Hydrogen and Implications for 2H Abundance Analysis
  • II.4.3.4.1 Chemical and Biochemical Considerations - Example: Hair
  • II.4.3.5 2H Analysis of Human Hair
  • II.4.3.5.1 Two-Point Equilibration with Water at Ambient Temperature
  • II.4.3.5.2 Two-Point End-Member Comparative Equilibration
  • II.4.3.5.3 On-Line Two-Point End-Member Comparative Steam Equilibration
  • II.4.4 Points of Note for CSIA
  • II.4.4.1 Scale Normalization of GC-IRMS Analyses
  • II.4.4.2 Isotope Effects in GC-IRMS during Sample Injection
  • II.4.4.3 The Chromatographic Isotope Effect in GC-IRMS
  • II.4.4.4 Derivatization of Polar Compounds for GC-IRMS
  • II.4.4.5 Compound-Specific 2H Analysis of N- or Cl-Rich Compounds
  • Chapter II.5 Statistical Analysis of Stable Isotope Data within a Forensic Context
  • II.5.1 Chemometric Analysis
  • II.5.2 Bayesian Analysis
  • Chapter II.6 Quality Control and Quality Assurance in Forensic Stable Isotope Analysis
  • II.6.1 Accreditation to ISO 17025
  • II.6.1.1 Who Assesses the Assessors?
  • II.6.2 The Forensic Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Network
  • Chapter II.7 Summary of Part II
  • Appendix II.A How to Set Up a Laboratory for Continuous-Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry
  • II.A.1 Pre-Installation Requirements
  • II.A.2 Laboratory Location
  • II.A.3 Temperature Control
  • II.A.4 Power Supply
  • II.A.5 Gas Supply
  • II.A.6 Forensic Laboratory Considerations
  • II.A.7 Finishing Touches
  • Appendix II.B Sources of International Reference Materials and Tertiary Standards
  • Appendix II.C Selected Sample Preparation Protocols
  • II.C.1 Derivatization of Amino Acids for Compound Specific Isotope Analysis by GC-IRMS
  • II.C.1.0 NAP Derivatization Protocol
  • II.C.2 Acid Digest of Carbonate from Bio-apatite for 13C and 18O Analysis
  • II.C.3 Preparing Silver Phosphate from Bio-apatite for $^{18}$O Analysis
  • II.C.4 Two-Point Water Equilibration Protocol for Determination of Non-ex δ$^{2}$H Values of Human Hair
  • II.C.4.0 Case Hair Sample/s
  • II.C.4.0 Control Hair Samples
  • Appendix II.D Internet Sources of Guidance and Policy Documents
  • References Part II
  • Part III Stable Isotope Forensics: Case Studies and Current Research
  • Chapter III.1 Forensic Context
  • III.1.1 Legal Context
  • Chapter III.2 Distinguishing Drugs
  • III.2.1 Natural and Semisynthetic Drugs
  • III.2.1.1 Marijuana
  • III.2.1.2 Morphine and Heroin
  • III.2.1.3 Cocaine
  • III.2.2 Synthetic Drugs
  • III.2.2.1 Amphetamines
  • III.2.2.2 Methamphetamine: Synthesis and Isotopic Signature
  • III.2.2.2.1 Two Different Synthetic Routes - Clandestine Conditions
  • III.2.2.3 MDMA: Synthesis and Isotopic Signature
  • III.2.2.3.1 Three Different Synthetic Routes - Controlled Conditions
  • III.2.2.3.2 One Synthetic Route - Variable Conditions
  • III.2.3 "Legal Highs" and "Designer Drugs"
  • III.2.3.1 Mephedrone
  • III.2.3.2 Piperazines
  • III.2.4 Excipients
  • III.2.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter III.3 Elucidating Explosives
  • III.3.1 Stable Isotope Analysis of Explosives and Precursors
  • III.3.1.1 Ammonium Nitrate (AN)
  • III.3.1.2 Hexamine, RDX, C4 and Semtex
  • III.3.1.3 Isotopic Product/Precursor Relationship
  • III.3.1.3.1 RDX and HMX
  • III.3.1.3.2 HMTD and TATP
  • III.3.1.4 Hydrogen Peroxide
  • III.3.2 Potential Pitfalls
  • III.3.3 Conclusions
  • Chapter III.4 Matching Matchsticks
  • III.4.1 13C-Bulk Isotope Analysis
  • III.4.2 18O-Bulk Isotope Analysis
  • III.4.3 2H-Bulk Isotope Analysis
  • III.4.4 Matching Matches from Fire Scenes
  • III.4.5 Conclusions
  • Chapter III.5 Provenancing People
  • III.5.1 Stable Isotope Abundance Variation in Human Tissue
  • III.5.1.1 Hair and Nails10
  • III.5.1.1.1 Characteristics of Hair
  • III.5.1.1.2 Characteristics of Nails
  • III.5.1.1.3 Diagenetic Changes of Keratin
  • III.5.1.1.4 2H Isotopic Record in Hair and Nail
  • III.5.1.1.5 18O Isotopic Record in Hair and Nail
  • III.5.1.1.6 13C Isotopic Record in Hair and Nail
  • III.5.1.1.7 15N Isotopic Record in Hair and Nail
  • III.5.1.2 Bone and Teeth11
  • III.5.1.2.1 Chemical Composition of Bone and Teeth
  • III.5.1.2.2 Static versus Remodelling Tissue Compartments
  • III.5.1.2.3 Diagenetic Changes of Bone and Teeth Mineral
  • III.5.1.2.4 Diagenetic Changes of Type I Collagen
  • III.5.1.2.5 18O Isotopic Record in Carbonate and Phosphate from Bio-apatite
  • III.5.1.2.6 13C Isotopic Record in Carbonate from Bio-apatite
  • III.5.1.2.7 Isotopic Record in Type I Collagen
  • III.5.1.3 Trophic Level Shift Effect on Stable Isotope Abundance Values in Human Tissue
  • III.5.2 Case Examples
  • III.5.2.1 The Skull from the Sea
  • III.5.2.2 A Human Life Recorded in Hair
  • III.5.2.3 Found in Newfoundland
  • III.5.2.5 Too Short a Life13,14
  • III.5.2.6 Saltair Sally
  • III.5.2.7 A Tale of Two Cultures
  • III.5.3 Conclusions and Caveats
  • Chapter III.6 Stable Isotope Forensics of Other Physical Evidence
  • III.6.1 Microbial Isotope Forensics
  • III.6.2 Toxins and Poisons
  • III.6.3 Paper, Plastic (Bags) and Parcel Tape
  • III.6.3.1 Paper
  • III.6.3.2 Plastic and Plastic Bags
  • III.6.3.3 Parcel Tape
  • III.6.4 Conclusions
  • Chapter III.7 Evaluative Interpretation of Forensic Stable Isotope Data
  • III.7.1 Not Scale Referenced -Values
  • III.7.2 Unresolved Contradictory Data
  • III.7.2.1 Example: "Geographic Provenance of a Murder Victim"
  • III.7.2.2 Example: "Manslaughter due to Negligence"
  • III.7.3 Foregone Conclusions
  • III.7.4 Logical Fallacies
  • III.7.5 Untested Assumptions
  • III.7.6 Conclusion
  • Chapter III.8 Summary of Part III
  • Appendix III.A An Abridged List of Forensic Stable Isotope Laboratories Worldwide
  • References Part III
  • Recommended Reading
  • Author's Biography
  • Acknowledgements
  • Index
  • EULA

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