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Business and Human Rights

Oxford University Press
Erschienen am 9. Januar 2024
240 Seiten
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978-0-19-266840-0 (ISBN)
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Business and Human Rights Law is a rapidly growing area of law, which has dramatically transformed many parts of international law. In this new volume in the Elements series, Robert McCorquodale explores how the responsibility for human rights abuses has transitioned from a purely state obligation to also being the responsibility of businesses. Business responsibility for human rights impacts have become subject both to legislation and to court decisions whenever their activities lead to human rights abuses anywhere in the world. This book shows the importance of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights in these developments, and examines their influence on international, regional, and national law. It also analyses the changes on state obligations to protect human rights, on the corporate responsibility for human rights abuses, and on effective access to remedies for those adversely affected by business activities. Each of these shifts has consequences on core tenets of international law, such as sovereignty and jurisdiction, and has implications for crafting new international law in areas such as climate change and technology. Robert McCorquodale brings his decades of experience in scholarship and legal practice in business and human rights law, as well as his extensive engagement with businesses, governments, civil society, and international organisations, to bear on his understanding and analysis of this increasingly important field.
978-0-19-266840-0 (9780192668400)
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Robert McCorquodale is a member of the United Nations Working Group on Business and Human Rights, a five-member group of independent experts. He is also Emeritus Professor of International Law and Human Rights at the University of Nottingham, UK, and a barrister and mediator at Brick Court Chambers, London. Robert has 30 years of experience working in business and human rights, which began before it became a field of law. He has published scholarship widely in this area, including empirical research, and has advised business of all sizes and assisted governments around the world. He has been involved with civil society, industry sectors and other organisations in drafting legal changes and in litigation. His work has included scholarship, capacity building, legislative proposals, and training. He has appeared as an advocate before the International Court of Justice and the United Kingdom Supreme Court, and as a legal expert before United Nations bodies.
  • Cover
  • Series
  • Business and Human Rights
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Abbreviations
  • 1. Development of Business and Human Rights Law
  • 1. Context
  • 2. Definitions
  • 3. History
  • a. Background
  • b. International Legal Developments
  • 4. Conclusions
  • 2. International Law and Business
  • 1. Context
  • 2. Business and International Law
  • 3. State Responsibility for Business
  • 4. Roles of Business in International Law
  • 5. Business in International Law
  • a. International Investment Law
  • b. International Humanitarian Law
  • c. International Environmental Law
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 3. International Regulation of Business Concerning Human Rights Issues
  • 1. Context
  • 2. The UN Guiding Principles
  • 3. Influence of the UNGPs on International Regulation
  • a. OECD Guidelines
  • b. ILO Multinational Enterprises Declaration
  • c. IFC Performance Standards and the Equator Principles
  • 4. Influence on National Regulation
  • 5. Legal Nature of International Regulation
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 4. State Obligations Concerning Business and Human Rights
  • 1. Context
  • 2. State Responsibility
  • a. Attribution by Elements of Government Authority
  • b. Attribution by Acting under the Instructions, Direction, or Control
  • c. Attribution by Adoption of Actions
  • d. Complicity
  • 3. State Obligations and Human Rights
  • 4. Actions Beyond a State's Territory
  • 5. Domicile of a Business
  • 6. Other Aspects of State Obligations
  • a. Regulation
  • b. Policies and Oversight
  • c. State-?Owned Entities
  • 7. Conclusions
  • 5. Corporate Responsibilities and Human Rights Due Diligence
  • 1. Context
  • 2. Corporate Responsibility
  • a. Definition
  • b. Respect
  • c. Distinction from State Obligations
  • 3. Business Enterprises
  • 4. Human Rights
  • 5. Human Rights Impacts
  • 6. Types of Conduct
  • a. Cause, Contribute to, and Directly Linked
  • b. Leverage
  • 7. Human Rights Due Diligence
  • a. Definition
  • b. Application
  • i. Human Rights Impact Assessment
  • ii. Integration
  • iii. Tracking
  • iv. Communication
  • c. Breadth of HRDD
  • 8. Conclusions
  • 6. Access to Remedies for Victims
  • 1. Context
  • 2. International Legal Obligations on States to Provide Remedies
  • a. Right to a Remedy
  • b. Transnational/?Extraterritorial
  • 3. Remedy
  • a. Definition
  • b. Operational Grievance Mechanisms
  • 4. Judicial Mechanisms
  • a. Types of Judicial Mechanism
  • b. Barriers to Judicial Remedies
  • c. Case Law
  • i. United States of America
  • ii. United Kingdom
  • iii. Other States
  • iv. Criminal Law
  • d. Human Rights
  • 5. State-?Based Non-?Judicial Mechanisms
  • 6. Business Operational Grievance Mechanisms
  • 7. Conclusions
  • 7. National Regulation of International Human Rights Responsibilities of Business
  • 1. Context
  • 2. Examples of Legislation Prior to the UNGPs
  • a. South Africa Broad-?Based Black Empowerment Act 2003
  • b. Brazil Decree No. 540/?2004 ('Dirty List')
  • c. California Transparency in Supply Chains Act 2010
  • 3. Examples of HRDD Legislation Subsequent to the UNGPs
  • a. French Duty of Vigilance Act 2017
  • b. The Netherlands Child Labour Due Diligence Act 2019
  • c. German Corporate Due Diligence Obligations in Supply Chains Act 2021
  • d. Norwegian Transparency Act 2021
  • e. EU Draft Corporate Sustainability Due Diligence Directive 2022
  • 4. Examples of Specific Legislation Relating to Business and Human Rights
  • 5. Conclusions
  • 8. Future Developments in Business and Human Rights Law
  • 1. Context
  • 2. Reviewing Progress
  • 3. Climate Change
  • 4. Technology
  • 5. Business and Human Rights Treaty
  • a. Reasons for a Treaty
  • b. Process
  • c. Issues
  • 6. Conclusions
  • 9. Conclusions: International Law, Business, and Human Rights
  • 1. Context
  • 2. Business and Human Rights as Part of International Law
  • 3. Business, Human Rights, and International Law
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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