Neuroimaging, Part II

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 12. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 720 Seiten
 
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978-0-7020-4538-7 (ISBN)
 

Neuroimaging, Part Two, a volume in The Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, illustrates how neuroimaging is rapidly expanding its reach and applications in clinical neurology. It is an ideal resource for anyone interested in the study of the nervous system, and is useful to both beginners in various related fields and to specialists who want to update or refresh their knowledge base on neuroimaging.

This second volume covers imaging of the adult spine and peripheral nervous system, as well as pediatric neuroimaging. In addition, it provides an overview of the differential diagnosis of the most common imaging findings, such as ring enhancement on MRI, and a review of the indications for imaging in the most frequent neurological syndromes.

The volume concludes with a review of neuroimaging in experimental animals and how it relates to neuropathology. It brings broad coverage of the topic using many color images to illustrate key points. Contributions from leading global experts are collated, providing the broadest view of neuroimaging as it currently stands.

For a number of neurological disorders, imaging is not only critical for diagnosis, but also for monitoring the effect of therapies, with the entire field moving from curing diseases to preventing them. Most of the information contained in this volume reflects the newness of this approach, pointing to the new horizon in the study of neurological disorders.


  • Provides a relevant description of the technologies used in neuroimaging, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and several others
  • Discusses the application of these techniques to the study of brain and spinal cord disease
  • Explores the indications for the use of these techniques in various syndromes
0072-9752
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  • Oxford
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  • Niederlande
Elsevier Science
  • 112,63 MB
978-0-7020-4538-7 (9780702045387)
0702045381 (0702045381)
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  • Front Cover
  • Neuroimaging Part II
  • Copyright
  • Handbook of Clinical Neurology 3rd Series
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Contributors
  • Contents of Part II
  • Contents of Part I
  • Section 3: Spinal diseases
  • Chapter 32: Functional anatomy of the spine
  • Introduction
  • Cervical spine
  • Suboccipital zone
  • Upper transition zone
  • Lower transition zone
  • Typical cervical vertebrae
  • Lumbar spine
  • Muscles
  • Innervation
  • Thoracic spine
  • References
  • Chapter 33: Neuroimaging of spine tumors
  • Introduction
  • Metastatic tumors of the vertebral column
  • Imaging of vertebral metastases
  • Vertebral compression deformity
  • Primary tumors of the spine
  • Benign primary spine tumors
  • Malignant primary spine tumors
  • Hematologic malignancies of the spine
  • Intradural extramedullary tumors
  • Leptomeningeal metastases
  • Imaging
  • Meningiomas
  • Imaging
  • Peripheral nerve sheath tumors
  • Imaging
  • Intramedullary spine tumors
  • Ependymoma
  • Astrocytoma
  • Hemangioblastoma
  • Intramedullary metastasis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 34: Vascular diseases of the spine
  • Introduction
  • Medullary infarct
  • Anatomy and physiopathology
  • Clinical features
  • Etiologies
  • Investigation and imaging
  • Outcome
  • Treatment
  • Spinal arteriovenous shunting lesions
  • Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula
  • Imaging
  • Treatment and outcome
  • Pial AV shunts
  • Imaging
  • Treatment and outcome
  • Cavernous malformations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 35: Infections of the spine and spinal cord
  • Extradural infections
  • Bacterial (pyogenic) spondylodiscitis
  • Spinal epidural abscess
  • Tuberculous spondylodiscitis
  • Brucella spondylodiscitis
  • Fungal spondylodiscitis
  • Hydatid disease
  • Intradural extramedullary infections
  • Bacterial subdural abscess
  • Tuberculous arachnoiditis
  • Intradural cysticercosis
  • Intradural hydatid disease
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) myelopathy
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) polyradiculopathy
  • Intramedullary infections
  • Bacterial myelitis
  • Tuberculous myelitis
  • Intramedullary cysticercosis
  • Varicella-zoster virus myelitis
  • Cytomegalovirus myelitis
  • Toxoplasma myelitis
  • Fungal myelitis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 36: Imaging of noninfectious inflammatory disorders of the spinal cord
  • Introduction
  • Clinical overview
  • Anatomic considerations
  • Imaging inflammation
  • Noninfectious inflammatory myelitis
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuromyelitis optica
  • Idiopathic transverse myelitis
  • Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis
  • Neurosarcoidosis
  • Arachnoiditis
  • Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula
  • Spinal cord tumor
  • Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 37: Imaging of trauma of the spine
  • Imaging techniques
  • Spine clearance
  • Spine stability
  • Fracture patterns and classifications
  • Cervical
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Axial loading
  • Complex
  • Thoracolumbar
  • MRI of acute spinal trauma
  • Osseous injury
  • Ligamentous injury
  • Disc injury
  • Epidural hematoma
  • Vascular injury
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Hemorrhage
  • Edema
  • Swelling
  • Chronic spinal cord injury
  • Cysts
  • Myelomalacia
  • Advanced imaging in spinal cord injury
  • Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 38: Hereditary and metabolic myelopathies
  • Hereditary spastic paraplegias
  • Motor neuron disorders
  • Spastic ataxias
  • Leukodystrophies
  • Metabolic myelopathies
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency (subacute combined degeneration) and related conditions
  • Vitamin E Deficiency
  • Copper deficiency
  • Toxic myelopathies
  • References
  • Chapter 39: The degenerative spine: pattern recognition and guidelines to image interpretation
  • Introduction
  • Disc height
  • Signal intensity of the disc
  • Internal disc disruption (internal architecture changes)
  • Disc contour changes
  • Herniation
  • Protrusions and extrusions
  • Containment
  • Migration
  • Spinal canal diameters (spinal stenosis)
  • Spinal stenosis
  • Spondylolisthesis
  • Facet joints, lateral recess, and neural foramina
  • Synovial cysts
  • Vertebral endplates and bone marrow changes
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 4: Diseases of the peripheral nervous system
  • Chapter 40: Peripheral nerve imaging
  • Introduction
  • Multimodality assessment of peripheral nerve disease
  • Peripheral nerve imaging techniques
  • MR neurography
  • Technical considerations
  • Peripheral nerve ultrasound
  • Technical considerations
  • Benefits and pitfalls of MRI and ultrasound
  • Quantitative image analyses of peripheral nerve
  • Imaging findings in nerve pathology
  • Nerve trauma
  • Nerve entrapment and compression
  • Acute nerve trauma
  • Peripheral polyneuropathy and motor neuron disease
  • Peripheral nerve sheath tumors
  • Summary and conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 41: Magnetic resonance imaging of skeletal muscle disease
  • Introduction
  • MRI Biomarkers for muscle disease
  • Muscle volume and composition
  • Introduction
  • Evaluation of muscle volume and composition MRI as biomarkers
  • Use of objective, continuously distributed units of measurement
  • Clear, well-understood relationship with the pathology of interest
  • Sensitivity to improvement or worsening of clinical state
  • Good measurement properties
  • Transverse relaxometry
  • Introduction
  • Evaluation of T2 as a biomarker
  • Use of objective, continuously distributed units of measurement
  • Clear, well-understood relationship with the pathology of interest
  • Sensitivity to improvement and worsening of clinical state
  • Good measurement properties
  • Concluding comments
  • References
  • Chapter 42: Muscle ultrasound
  • Introduction
  • Ultrasound of healthy muscle
  • Standard B-mode imaging
  • Dynamic muscle ultrasound
  • Power Doppler imaging
  • General aspects of muscle ultrasound in neuromuscular disorders
  • Quantifying muscle echogenicity
  • Ultrasound investigation in specific neuromuscular disorders
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Congenital myopathies
  • Inflammatory myopathies
  • Other myopathies
  • Myotonias
  • Critical-illness myopathy
  • Hereditary connective tissue disorders
  • Muscle ultrasound in motor neuron disease
  • Muscle ultrasound in peripheral neuropathies
  • References
  • Section 5: Neurologic syndromes of the adult: when and how to image
  • Chapter 43: Sudden neurologic deficit
  • Introduction
  • A general approach to acute neuroimaging
  • Stroke
  • Ischemic stroke
  • Hemorrhagic stroke
  • Venous lesions
  • Headache
  • Seizure
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 44: Neuroendocrine disorders: pituitary imaging
  • Introduction
  • Sellar anatomy and differential diagnosis of sellar lesions
  • Pituitary imaging modalities
  • Indications for pituitary imaging
  • Imaging characteristics of sellar lesions
  • Pituitary adenomas
  • Physiologic enlargement and pituitary hyperplasia, empty sella, and congenital malformations
  • Cystic sellar lesions
  • Hypophysitis
  • Nonadenomatous tumors arising from the pituitary
  • Other benign and malignant sellar tumors
  • Infiltrative disorders
  • Infectious processes
  • Vascular pathologies
  • Summary and future directions
  • References
  • Chapter 45: Visual impairment
  • Amaurosis fugax
  • Papilledema
  • Pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS)
  • Optic neuritis of multiple sclerosis
  • Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder
  • Leber hereditary optic atrophy
  • Susac syndrome
  • Migraine
  • Hemianopia
  • Bitemporal hemianopia
  • Homonymous hemianopia
  • Conversion blindness
  • Posterior cortical atrophy
  • Blindness
  • References
  • Chapter 46: Vertigo and hearing loss
  • Introduction
  • Overall approach to imaging audiovestibular symptoms
  • Vertigo, dizziness, and other vestibular syndromes
  • Episodic, triggered vertigo or dizziness (lasting seconds)
  • Episodic, spontaneous vertigo or dizziness (lasting minutes to hours)
  • Atraumatic acute, continuous vertigo, dizziness, or unsteadiness (lasting days to weeks)
  • Chronic, continuous vertigo, dizziness, or unsteadiness (lasting months to years)
  • Tinnitus, hearing loss, and other auditory syndromes
  • Nonpulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss without vestibular symptoms
  • Pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss without vestibular symptoms
  • Posttraumatic audiovestibular symptoms
  • Special issues in postsurgical imaging
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 47: Imaging of progressive weakness or numbness of central or peripheral origin
  • Introduction
  • Weakness
  • Numbness
  • Approach to imaging
  • Acute-onset weakness and numbness
  • Subacute-onset weakness and numbness
  • Slow-onset weakness and numbness
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 48: Gait and balance disorders
  • Neural structures controlling posture and gait
  • Classification of gait disorders
  • Simple gait disorders
  • Sensory and lower motor gait disorders
  • Simple gait disorders of central origin
  • Complex gait disorders of central origin
  • Spinal cord disequilibrium
  • Brainstem disequilibrium
  • Disequilibrium with ``automatic pilot´´ disorder
  • Basal ganglia lesions
  • Thalamic lesions
  • Hemispheric paracentral periventricular white-matter lesions
  • Freezing of gait
  • Magnetic gait
  • Disproportionate sulcal dilation
  • Ballooned sulci
  • Summary and future developments
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 49: Movement disorders
  • Introduction
  • Functional anatomy of the basal ganglia
  • Functional imaging
  • Hypokinetic movement disorders
  • Choreiform disorders
  • Dystonias
  • Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 50: Imaging of neurodegenerative cognitive and behavioral disorders: practical considerations for dementia clinic ...
  • Introduction
  • The why, who, when, and how of imaging patients with cognitive and behavioral disorders
  • Why to image patients with CDS
  • Who to image
  • When and how to image
  • Consensus guidelines regarding imaging of cognitive and behavioral disorders along the dementia spectrum
  • MRI, CT, FDG-PET, and SPECT
  • ß-Amyloid imaging
  • overview of imaging features of common dementias in clinical practice
  • Why MRI is generally preferable to CT in evaluation and management of CDS
  • Other MR methods - fMRI, DTI, ASL, and MRS
  • Practical consideration for use of structural imaging in the clinical dementia setting: identifying protocols and atrophy patt
  • The alzheimer's disease clinical spectrum
  • Conceptual model of AD imaging (and CSF) biomarker abnormality trajectories
  • The spectrum of vascular cognitive impairment
  • Neuroimaging in VCI
  • Dementia with lewy bodies
  • Neuroimaging in DLB
  • Parkinson's disease dementia
  • Frontotemporal lobar degeneration syndromes
  • Neuroimaging in FTLD
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 51: Neuroimaging of epilepsy
  • Computed tomography (CT)
  • When to perform an MRI in a patient with seizures
  • How to perform an MRI in patients with epilepsy
  • MRI in mesial temporal-lobe epilepsy
  • Epilepsy due to neocortical lesions
  • MRI in malformations of cortical development
  • Focal cortical dysplasia
  • Other malformations of cortical development associated with epilepsy
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Sturge-Weber syndrome
  • Long-term epilepsy-associated tumors
  • Cavernous malformations
  • Destructive brain insults in early life
  • Hypothalamic hamartomas
  • Rasmussen encephalitis
  • Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)
  • Positron emission tomography
  • FDG-PET
  • Focal epilepsy
  • Nonfocal epilepsy syndromes
  • Potential confounders in PET localization studies
  • Neurotransmitter receptor studies and epilepsy pathophysiology
  • Epilepsy comorbidities
  • Conclusion
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography
  • Epileptogenic zone localization
  • Interictal perfusion changes
  • Ictal perfusion changes
  • Postictal perfusion changes
  • Data processing
  • SISCOM
  • STATISCOM
  • Comparison with other diagnostic modalities
  • MRI
  • Intracranial EEG
  • SPECT-based decision making in neurologic surgery
  • Clinical implications in temporal-lobe epilepsy
  • Clinical implications in extratemporal-lobe epilepsy
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 52: Myelopathy
  • Introduction
  • Degenerative disease of the spine
  • Trauma
  • Inflammatory/autoimmune/demyelinating diseases of the spinal cord
  • Infectious diseases of the spine
  • Vascular disorders of the spine
  • Spinal neoplasms
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 53: Low back pain, radiculopathy
  • Epidemiology and classification
  • Lumbar radiculopathy
  • Imaging modalities
  • Indications for imaging
  • The implications of imaging patients with low back pain
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 6: Differential diagnosis of imaging findings
  • Chapter 54: Brain CT and MRI: differential diagnosis of imaging findings
  • Introduction
  • Location
  • Ventricles
  • Intra-axial lesions
  • Structure involved
  • Gray matter
  • White matter
  • Brain region
  • Frontal
  • Parieto-occipital
  • Temporo-occipital
  • Caudate
  • Putamen
  • Globus pallidus
  • Thalamus
  • Hypothalamus
  • Corpus callosum
  • Midbrain
  • Lower brainstem
  • Cerebellum
  • Vermis
  • Hemispheres
  • Extra-axial lesions
  • Interhemispheric fissure
  • Pineal region
  • Suprasellar and prepontine cistern
  • Cerebellopontine angle
  • Cisterna magna-foramen magnum
  • Multiplicity
  • Symmetry
  • Volume changes
  • Evolving from increased volume (mass effect) to decreased volume (atrophy)
  • Homogeneity
  • Corticosubcortical pattern
  • Ring pattern
  • Cyst-nodule pattern
  • Density
  • Hypodense
  • Hyperdense
  • T1 Signal
  • T1-Hypointense
  • T1-Hyperintense
  • T2 Signal
  • T2-T2* Hypointense
  • Diffusion imaging
  • Diffusion restriction
  • No diffusion restriction
  • Enhancement after IV contrast
  • Lesions with no enhancement after IV contrast
  • Enhancement present after IV contrast
  • Gray-matter pattern
  • Ring enhancement
  • Complete ring
  • Open ring
  • Nodular
  • Summary and future developments
  • Financial disclosures
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 55: Vascular imaging: ultrasound
  • Introduction
  • Extracranial pathology
  • Intracranial collateral channels
  • Intracranial stenosis
  • Intracranial occlusion
  • Intracranial recanalization and reocclusion
  • Sonothrombolysis
  • Vasospasm
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 56: Diffusion tensor imaging and functional MRI
  • Introduction
  • Stroke
  • Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • Adult neoplasia
  • Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • Prion diseases
  • Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment
  • Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • Frontotemporal dementia
  • Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases
  • Diffusion-weighted and diffusion tensor MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Section 7: Pediatric neuroimaging
  • Chapter 57: Normal development
  • Introduction
  • MRI Techniques
  • Brain development
  • Ventricles, germinal matrix, and subarachnoid spaces
  • Sulcation/gyrification
  • Corpus callosum
  • Brain parenchyma
  • Histogenesis, formation of the cortex, neuronal differentiation, and synapse formation (Marin and Rubenstein, 2003
  • de Graaf
  • Glial cells and formation of myelin
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Effects of brain composition changes on the MR signal
  • Diffusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and brain maturation
  • Proton magnetic resonance spectrometry of brain maturation and origin of metabolic peaks
  • References
  • Chapter 58: Congenital malformations of the brain and spine
  • Aqueductal stenosis
  • Chiari malformation type I
  • Chiari malformation type II
  • Occipital and parietal encephalocele
  • Sincipital encephalocele
  • Dandy-walker complex
  • Agenesis of the corpus callosum
  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Alobar
  • Semilobar
  • Lobar
  • Septo-optic dysplasia
  • Schizencephaly
  • Lissencephaly
  • Focal gray-matter heterotopia
  • Cortical dysplasia
  • Spine
  • Myelomeningocele
  • Lipomyelomeningocele and lipomyelocele
  • Lipomas
  • Dermoid/epidermoid
  • Diastematomyelia
  • Type I
  • Type II
  • Caudal regression syndrome
  • References
  • Chapter 59: CNS and spinal tumors
  • Introduction
  • Classification and nomenclature of CNS tumors
  • Birth to 3 years of age
  • Intra-axial teratoma
  • Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor
  • Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT)
  • Choroid plexus tumors
  • Neonatal/infantile glioblastoma
  • 4-10 years of age
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma
  • Brainstem gliomas
  • Focal brainstem gliomas
  • Diffuse brainstem astrocytomas
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Ependymoma
  • Supratentorial astrocytoma
  • Suprasellar and hypothalamic astrocytoma
  • Supratentorial diffuse astrocytoma
  • High-grade astrocytomas (WHO grades III and IV)
  • 10 years to early adulthood
  • Ganglioglioma
  • Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors
  • Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma
  • Central neurocytoma
  • Tumors of the sellar, suprasellar, and pineal regions
  • Germinomas
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Extra-axial teratomas
  • Dermoids
  • Epidermoids
  • Pineoblastomas
  • Metastatic tumors
  • Tumors of the meninges
  • Granulocytic sarcoma
  • Primary melanocytic lesions
  • Pediatric spinal tumors
  • Pediatric intramedullary tumors
  • Paravertebral tumors invading the spinal canal
  • References
  • Chapter 60: Vascular disease
  • Introduction
  • General approach to neuroimaging in childhood arterial ischemic stroke
  • Modalities relevant to craniocervical imaging in childhood arterial ischemic stroke
  • Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography
  • CT imaging
  • Perfusion studies
  • Cerebral catheter angiogram
  • Transcranial Doppler
  • Approach to specific clinical entities
  • Focal cerebral arteriopathy/transient cerebral arteriopathy
  • Moyamoya arteriopathy
  • Arteriopathy of sickle cell disease
  • Cervicocephalic arterial dissection
  • Vasculitis
  • Fibromuscular dysplasia
  • Imaging approach to the child presenting with possible transient ischemic attack or acute stroke
  • References
  • Chapter 61: Infections
  • Background
  • Imaging modalities for diagnosing cns infection
  • Ultrasound
  • Plain films
  • Computed tomography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Diffusion-weighted imaging
  • Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Positron emission tomography
  • Congenital brain infections
  • Imaging patterns in cns infection
  • The immunocompromised child
  • Chronology
  • Early childhood
  • Head and neck infections
  • Congenital
  • Paranasal sinuses
  • Orbit
  • Ears
  • Acquired CNS infections (brain and spine)
  • Bacterial infections
  • Atypical bacteria
  • Viral-related demyelinating and autoimmune disorders
  • Autoimmune
  • Parasites
  • Malaria
  • Ameba
  • African trypanosomiasis
  • Helminths
  • Mimics
  • Spine
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 62: Trauma
  • Introduction
  • Epidemiology
  • Children are not small adults
  • Skull mechanical properties
  • Head size
  • Brain and spinal cord water content and myelination
  • Face-to-cranium ratio and facial development
  • Pediatric spinal cord and column
  • Imaging evaluation
  • Conventional radiography
  • Ultrasonography
  • Computed tomography
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Nuclear medicine studies
  • Categories of pediatric TBI and TSI
  • Primary injury
  • Brain concussion
  • Skull fractures
  • Epidural hematoma
  • Subdural hematoma
  • Subarachnoid or intraventricular hemorrhage
  • Cortical contusion and intracerebral hematoma
  • Diffuse axonal injury
  • Vascular injury
  • Secondary injury
  • Diffuse cerebral edema, brain herniation, and arterial ischemia
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak
  • Parturitional injury
  • Parturitional extracranial bumps and lumps
  • Parturitional skull fractures
  • Parturitional intracranial injuries
  • Associated parturitional head, neck, and spine injuries
  • Nonaccidental head injury
  • Traumatic spine injury
  • Craniocervical junction and cervical spine
  • Thoracic and lumbar spine
  • References
  • Chapter 63: Metabolic, endocrine, and other genetic disorders
  • Introduction
  • Normal white-matter development
  • Metabolic disorders
  • X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy
  • Zellweger (cerebrohepatorenal) syndrome
  • Alexander disease (fibrinoid leukodystrophy)
  • Canavan disease (spongiform leukodystrophy)
  • Krabbe disease (globoid cell leukodystrophy)
  • Metachromatic leukodystrophy
  • Mitochondrial disorders (respiratory chain disorders)
  • Mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes
  • Leigh syndrome (subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy)
  • Kearns-Sayre syndrome
  • Creatine deficiency syndromes
  • L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria
  • Organic acidurias
  • Maple syrup urine disease
  • Glutaric aciduria type I
  • Urea cycle disorders
  • Wilson disease
  • Menkes disease (trichopoliodystrophy)
  • Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation
  • GM1 and GM2 gangliosidoses
  • Mucopolysaccharidoses
  • Other leukodystrophies
  • Hypomyelination leukodystrophies
  • Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts
  • Vanishing white-matter disease
  • Lowe (oculocerebrorenal) syndrome
  • Endocrine and other genetic disorders
  • Hypothamic-pituitary axis lesions
  • Normal MR appearance of the pituitary gland and stalk
  • Developmental anomalies
  • Hypothalamic hamartoma
  • Pituitary dwarfism and pituitary hypoplasia
  • Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome
  • Pituitary duplication
  • Kallmann syndrome
  • Septo-optic dysplasia
  • Pituitary gland lesions
  • Pituitary adenoma
  • Pituitary hyperplasia
  • Lymphocytic hypophysitis
  • Other conditions causing dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Germinoma
  • Arachnoid cysts
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  • Other endocrine disorders
  • Neonatal hypoglycemia
  • Other genetic disorders
  • Neurofibromatosis type 1
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • References
  • Chapter 64: Hydrocephalus in children
  • Introduction
  • A contemporary classification of hydrocephalus
  • Imaging approach to hydrocephalus and nomenclature
  • Tracer methods
  • Direct visualization of obstruction
  • Hydrocephalus beginning beyond infancy: points of restriction of flow
  • The foramen of Monro
  • The aqueduct of Sylvius
  • Outlet foramina of the fourth ventricle
  • Obstruction between the spinal and cortical subarachnoid spaces
  • Failure of terminal CSF absorption
  • Babies are not just small adults: why?
  • Physics of the infant brain
  • Congenital hydrocephalus
  • Infantile hydrocephalus that begins postpartum
  • The effects of treatment of hydrocephalus in infants, children, and adults
  • The premature newborn
  • When children with shunts grow up
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 65: Indications for the performance of neuroimaging in children
  • Introduction
  • Emergent neuroimaging
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Indications for neuroimaging in mild traumatic brain injury
  • Severe traumatic brain injury
  • Nontraumatic coma
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • ``Encephalitis´´ and other encephalopathies in the differential
  • Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
  • Acute seizures
  • Febrile convulsions
  • Acute symptomatic seizures and status epilepticus
  • First unprovoked seizure and subsequent seizures
  • Stroke
  • Neuroimaging investigations
  • Interventional image-guided management
  • Acute headache
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Clinical presentation of raised intracranial pressure in hydrocephalus
  • Children with shunts
  • Neuroimaging in hydrocephalus
  • Cranial-nerve palsies
  • Common conditions in outpatients/office
  • Chronic headaches
  • Migraine
  • Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri)
  • Epilepsy
  • Clinical and electroencephalographic indications for neuroimaging in recurrent seizures
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Neuroimaging findings related to clinical classification of cerebral palsy
  • Movement disorders
  • Mental retardation/learning difficulties
  • Microcephaly
  • Macrocephaly
  • Neurologic and cognitive deterioration
  • Common conditions with neurologic deterioration
  • Surveillance of children for complications of chronic disorders
  • Low-grade gliomas
  • Neurofibromatosis
  • Tuberous sclerosis
  • Hemoglobinopathies, including sickle cell disease and thalassemia
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Section 8: Interventional neuroimaging
  • Chapter 66: Endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke
  • Introduction
  • Development of endovascular methods to treat ischemic stroke
  • Treatment
  • Structure of stroke centers
  • Patient selection
  • Time
  • Imaging
  • Posterior circulation
  • Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator exposure
  • Anesthesia
  • Endovascular access
  • Deliverance of thrombectomy devices
  • Thrombectomy devices
  • Tandem lesions
  • Posterior circulation
  • Angiographic outcomes
  • Postprocedure considerations
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 67: Endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy and classification
  • Treatment
  • Microsurgical clip ligation
  • Endovascular embolization
  • Primary coil
  • Balloon-assisted coiling
  • Stent-assisted coiling
  • Flow diversion
  • References
  • Chapter 68: Endovascular treatment of arteriovenous malformations
  • Introduction
  • Anatomy and classification
  • Microsurgical resection
  • Endovascular treatment
  • Methods
  • Devices
  • Onyx (EVOH copolymer)
  • N-butyl cyanoacrylate
  • Stereotactic radiosurgery
  • References
  • Section 9: Neuropathology
  • Chapter 69: Postmortem imaging and neuropathologic correlations
  • Introduction
  • Cortical localization
  • Imaging
  • Postmortem imaging
  • Registration
  • Fixation and ex vivo contrast
  • Histologic validation
  • Entorhinal and perirhinal cortices - anatomy and function
  • Ex vivo contrast in entorhinal and perirhinal cortices
  • Mapping mesocortices and building probabilistic atlases for in vivo inference
  • Hippocampal anatomy and function
  • Hippocampal contrast in postmortem MRI
  • Mapping the hippocampus and building probabilistic atlases for in vivo inference
  • Correlation with pathology
  • Postmortem MRI and pathology
  • Cortical thickness in disease
  • Detecting amyloid with postmortem MRI
  • Postmortem imaging - H.M.
  • Optical imaging
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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