The Sensory Ecology of Birds

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 30. März 2017
  • |
  • 320 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-252054-8 (ISBN)
 
Birds are renowned for their exceptional vision and the way that this enables them to survive and navigate the world in such a unique way. However, it is now recognised that avian behaviour is guided by information drawn from many different senses which are then used in integrated and complementary ways to answer the many different sensory challenges posed by specific environments and particular tasks. Understanding how sensory information is used by birds has important applications in conservation, such as providing vital insights into why birds are prone to collisions with structures like power lines and wind turbines, and why so many diving birds become entrapped in nets. A sensory ecology approach suggests how these problems can be mitigated. The Sensory Ecology of Birds ranges widely across species, environments, and behaviours to present a synthesis that challenges previous assumptions about the information that controls the behaviour of birds. A bird may use a wide range and combination of sensory information that comes from sight, hearing, smell, mechanoreception, taste, and magnetoreception. It may also include specific refinements of senses, such as echolocation and remote touch from the bill. The book recognises that there are many complex and subtle trade-offs and complementarities of information between different types of sensory information. This accessible text will be of interest to a wide ornithological readership, from undergraduates to researchers as well as a broader audience of behavioural ecologists and evolutionary biologists.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 20,70 MB
978-0-19-252054-8 (9780192520548)
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Graham R. Martin spent most of his career at the University of Birmingham, ending with a personal chair in Avian Sensory Science, in the School of Biosciences. The focus of his teaching was sensory science and animal behaviour, and he founded and led the only MSc programme in Ornithology in Europe. Over his career he has published papers on the senses of more than 60 species and carried out research in many locations (Antarctica, New Zealand, Africa, South America, Europe). He officially retired in 2011 but remains academically active and continues to publish on the vision of birds, most recently Hawks, Kites and Puffins.
  • Cover
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents
  • 1 Birds' Eye Views
  • 1.1 Metaphor and Reality
  • 1.2 Many Birds, Many Views
  • 1.3 The Tuning of Senses
  • 1.4 Epicurus, Sextus, and the Sceptics
  • 1.5 Sensory Ecology
  • 2 Vision
  • 2.1 The Emergence of Vision
  • 2.2 What Eyes Do
  • 2.3 Optimal Eyes
  • 2.4 A Fundamental Trade-off in Vision
  • 2.5 The Primacy of Vision in Birds
  • 2.6 Sources of Variation in Camera Eyes
  • 2.6.1 The Basic Functional Components
  • 2.6.2 Optical Systems of Camera Eyes
  • 2.6.3 The Image-analysing System
  • Colour vision and sensitivity in the spectrum
  • Photoreceptors and visual pigments
  • 2.7 Variation of Image Analysis
  • 2.7.1 Variations in the Distributions of Receptors in a Single Eye
  • 2.8 Variation of Optical Structure
  • 2.9 Variation of Visual Fields
  • 2.10 Comparing Doves and Shearwaters: An Example of the Visual Ecology of Optical and Retinal Structures
  • 2.11 Measures of Spatial Resolution
  • 2.11.1 Acuity
  • 2.11.2 Contrast Sensitivity
  • 2.12 Conclusion: Vision in Birds
  • 3 Hearing and Olfaction
  • 3.1 Hearing
  • 3.1.1 The Sound Stimulus
  • 3.1.2 The Hearing System of Birds
  • 3.1.3 Hearing Sensitivity
  • 3.1.4 Locating Sounds
  • Determination of sound direction
  • Determination of sound distance (sound ranging)
  • 3.1.5 Echolocation (active SONAR)
  • 3.1.6 Conclusion: Hearing in Birds
  • 3.2 Olfaction
  • 3.2.1 Organization of the Olfactory Systems of Birds
  • 3.2.2 The Importance of Olfaction and Olfactory Bulb Size
  • 3.2.3 Olfactory Information and Foraging for Specific Items
  • 3.2.4 Detection of Foraging Locations using Olfaction
  • 3.2.5 Body Odours and Semiochemicals
  • Odour-based recognition of species
  • Odour-based recognition of individuals
  • Odour-based recognition of individual quality and mate choice
  • 3.2.6 Odours and Nests
  • 3.2.7 Conclusion: Smell in Birds
  • 4 Touch, Taste, and Magnetoreception
  • 4.1 Touch or Somatic Sensitivity
  • 4.1.1 Somatic Sensitivities
  • Mechanoreception
  • Herbst corpuscles
  • Grandry corpuscles
  • Thermo-sensitive receptors
  • Cutaneous nociceptors
  • 4.1.2 Bill Tip Organs
  • Bill tip organs in waterfowl
  • Bill tip organs in parrots
  • Bill tip organs in shorebirds, kiwi, and ibises
  • 4.1.3 Conclusion: Somatic Sensitivity in Birds
  • 4.2 Taste
  • 4.2.1 Taste Buds
  • 4.2.2 Taste Genes and Taste Receptors
  • 4.2.3 Relative Numbers of Taste Receptors
  • 4.2.4 Taste Categories in Birds
  • Sweet
  • Umami
  • Bitter
  • Calcium
  • Salt
  • Sour
  • Fat
  • 4.2.5 Taste and Foraging in Shorebirds
  • 4.2.6 Conclusion: Taste in Birds
  • 4.3 Magnetoreception
  • 4.3.1 Animals that Detect the Geomagnetic Field
  • 4.3.2 Magnetic Compass Mechanisms
  • 4.3.3 Detection of the Geomagnetic Field
  • The magnetite model of magnetic field detection
  • The radical pair model
  • 4.4 Conclusion: Magnetoreception in Birds
  • 5 From Senses to Sensory Ecology
  • 5.1 Making Sense of the Diversity of Bird Senses
  • 6 Birds in the Dark: Complementary and Partial Information
  • 6.1 The Problem of Night-time
  • 6.2 Absolute Visual Sensitivity and the Challenges of the Nocturnal Environment
  • 6.3 Visual Sensitivity in Context: In and Out of the Woods
  • 6.4 Nocturnal Birds
  • 6.5 The Owls' Solutions to Nocturnality
  • 6.6 The Oilbirds' Solution to Nocturnality
  • 6.7 The Kiwi's Solution to Nocturnality
  • 6.8 Nocturnality in Other Birds
  • 6.8.1 Nocturnal Parrots
  • 6.8.2 Nightjars, Frogmouths, and Potoos
  • Nightjars
  • Frogmouths and Potoos
  • 6.9 Occasional Nocturnality
  • 6.9.1 Occasional Nocturnal Foraging
  • 6.9.2 Nocturnal Migration
  • 6.9.3 Night Attendance at Nests
  • 6.10 Conclusion: Birds in the Dark-Complementary and Partial Information
  • 7 Birds Underwater: A Paucity of Information
  • 7.1 The Underwater Foragers
  • 7.2 Optical Challenges of Foraging Underwater
  • 7.3 Light Levels and Spectral Challenges of Foraging Underwater
  • 7.4 The Challenge of Rapidly Changing Light Levels
  • 7.5 Aquatic Foraging and Nocturnal Foraging
  • 7.6 Tactile Information and Underwater Foraging
  • 7.7 Solutions to Underwater Foraging
  • 7.7.1 Cormorants
  • 7.7.2 Penguins
  • 7.7.3 Auks
  • 7.8 Birds Underwater: A Paucity of Information
  • 8 What Drives Bird Senses?
  • 8.1 Visual Ecology, Trade-offs, and 'Just-so Stories'
  • 8.2 Which Tasks Drive the Evolution of Sensory Systems in Birds?
  • 8.2.1 Key Tasks and Perceptual Challenges Faced by Birds
  • Flight
  • Foraging
  • Predator detection
  • Reproduction
  • 8.3 Competing Tasks and Competing Information
  • 8.4 General Characteristics of the Visual Fields of Birds
  • 8.5 Functional Interpretations of the Visual Fields of Birds
  • 8.6 The Key Functions of Bird Visual Fields
  • 8.6.1 Control of Bill Position in Foraging
  • 8.6.2 Panoramic Vision
  • 8.6.3 Differences in Visual Fields between Closely Related Species
  • 8.6.4 The Perceptual Demands of Bill Control versus Predator Detection
  • 8.7 What Is the Function of Binocular Vision in Birds?
  • 8.7.1 Binocular Vision in Birds
  • Binocular field width
  • Vertical extent of binocular fields
  • Abolishing binocular vision
  • Binocular field widths, nocturnality, and predation
  • 8.8 Visual Fields, Eye Size, and Imaging the Sun
  • 8.9 Summary: The Key Drivers of Visual Fields in Birds
  • 8.10 Binocular Vision, Optic Flow-fields, and Contralateral Vision
  • 8.11 Summary: The Drivers of Visual Fields and their Fine Tuning
  • 8.12 What Drives Colour Vision in Birds?
  • 8.13 What Drives Bird Senses?
  • 9 The Sensory Ecology of Collisions and Entrapment
  • 9.1 Why Do Flying Birds Collide with Static Objects?
  • 9.2 Information Available to Flying Birds
  • 9.2.1 Colour Vision
  • 9.2.2 Spatial Resolution
  • 9.2.3 Relative Depth, Distance, and Time-to-contact
  • 9.2.4 Fields of View
  • 9.3 Comparing Bird and Human Views of their Worlds
  • 9.4 The Functions of Lateral Vision in Birds
  • 9.5 When Birds are Flying in Open Airspace, What are they Doing?
  • 9.5.1 Looking but Failing to See
  • 9.5.2 Can Flying Birds Adjust their Rate of Gain of Visual Information?
  • 9.5.3 Are Flying Birds Always Looking Ahead?
  • 9.6 The Sensory Ecology of Collisions
  • 9.7 A Sensory Ecology Perspective on Collision Mitigation
  • 9.7.1 Collisions with Static Hazards
  • Visual factors
  • Perceptual factors
  • Diverting and distracting birds
  • Tailored rather than general solutions
  • 9.7.2 Collisions with Moving Hazards: Aircraft and Wheeled Vehicles
  • Manipulating the environment
  • Manipulating the hazard
  • Are vehicles perceived as predators?
  • 9.8 Entrapment: The Problem of Gillnets and Diving Birds
  • 9.9 Gillnet Bycatch Bird Species
  • 9.10 The Role of Vision in Seabird Gillnet Bycatch Species
  • 9.11 Distracting Birds from Nets
  • 9.12 A Sensory Ecology Solution to Gillnet Bycatch
  • 9.12.1 Making Nets Conspicuous
  • Lighting nets
  • Warning birds of the presence of nets
  • 9.13 Warning Panels
  • 9.13.1 Patterns on Warning Panels
  • 9.13.2 The Size of Warning Panels
  • 9.13.3 The Colour of Warning Panels
  • 9.13.4 The Detection Distances of Warning Panels
  • 9.13.5 How Many Panels?
  • 9.13.6 Would Warning Panels Be Effective?
  • 9.14 Collisions with Glass
  • 9.14.1 Mitigation Measures
  • Patterns on glass surfaces
  • UV patterns on glass
  • 9.15 The Sensory Ecology of Collisions and Entrapment: Conclusions
  • 10 Postscript: Conclusions, Implications, and Comment
  • Appendix 1
  • Appendix 2
  • References
  • Index

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