Behavior Modification

What It Is and How To Do It
 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • 11. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 5. Februar 2019
  • |
  • 424 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-429-67175-3 (ISBN)
 

Behavior Modification: What It Is and How to Do It is a comprehensive, practical presentation of the principles of behavior modification and guidelines for their application. Appropriate for university students and for the general reader, it teaches forms of behavior modification ranging from helping children learn necessary life skills to training pets, to solving personal behavior problems. It teaches practical "how-to" skills, including: discerning long-term effects; designing, implementing, and evaluating behavioral programs; interpreting behavioral episodes; observing and recording behaviors; and recognizing instances of reinforcement, extinction, and punishment.

Behavior Modification is ideal for courses in Behavior Modification, Applied Behavior Analysis, Behavior Therapy, the Psychology of Learning, and related areas; and for students and practitioners of various helping professions (such as clinical psychology, counselling, education, medicine, nursing, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychiatric nursing, psychiatry, social work, speech therapy, and sport psychology) who are concerned directly with enhancing various forms of behavior development. The material is presented in an interesting, readable format that assumes no prior knowledge of behavior modification or psychology. Specific cases and examples clarify issues and make the principles real. Guidelines throughout provide a ready source to use as a reference in applying the principles.Online resources, including an instructor's manual, are available at www.routledge.com/9780815366546.

11. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Milton
  • |
  • Großbritannien
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
  • Neue Ausgabe
978-0-429-67175-3 (9780429671753)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt

Garry Martin is internationally known for his eight co-authored or co-edited books and 175 journal articles and 106 invited conference presentations in six countries on various areas in Behavioral Modification, including intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and sport psychology. He has received numerous honors and awards including induction into the Royal Society of Canada and Distinguished Contribution Award from the Canadian Psychological Assocation.

Joseph Pear is internationally known for his work in both Basic and Applied Behavior Analysis. In addition to co-authoring this book with Garry, he has authored two other books and authored or co-authored 12 book chapters, six encyclopedia entries, seven published conference proceedings, two invited newsletter contributions, 60 invited conference presentations and symposia, and 57 peer-reviewed journal articles in diverse areas of basic and applied behavior analysis. He has received numerous awards and distinctions, including being elected a fellow in Divisions six ("Society for Behavioral Neuroscience and Comparative Psychology") and 25 ("Behavior Analysis") of the American Psychological Association.

  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • About the 11th Edition of This Book
  • Changes in the 11th Edition
  • Instructor's Resource Manual With Tests and Practica
  • Acknowledgments
  • To the Student
  • Using This Book to Study for the Behavior Analysis Certification Board® Examinations
  • Part I The Behavior Modification Approach
  • Chapter 1 Introduction
  • What Is Behavior?
  • What Is Behavior Modification?
  • What Is Behavioral Assessment?
  • Some Historical Highlights of Behavior Modification
  • Current Use of "Behavior Modification," "Behavior Modifier," and Related Terms
  • Some Misconceptions About Behavior Modification
  • The Approach of This Book
  • Summary of Chapter 1
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 2 Areas of Application: An Overview
  • Parenting and Child Management
  • Education: From Preschool to University
  • Developmental Disabilities
  • Schizophrenia
  • Psychological Problems Treated in Clinical Settings
  • Self-Management of Personal Problems
  • Medical and Health Care
  • Gerontology
  • Behavioral Community Psychology
  • Business, Industry, and Government
  • Behavioral Sport Psychology
  • Behavior Modification With Diverse Populations
  • Conclusion
  • Summary of Chapter 2
  • Application Exercise
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 3 Defining, Measuring, and Recording Target Behavior
  • Improving Darren's Cooperative Behavior
  • Minimal Phases of a Behavior Modification Program
  • Indirect, Direct, and Experimental Behavioral Assessments
  • Characteristics of Behavior for Direct Assessment
  • Strategies for Recording Behavior
  • Minimal Time Strategies for Measuring the Amount of Behavior-Recording Methods
  • Assessing the Accuracy of Observations
  • Assessing the Accuracy of a Treatment
  • Data! Data! Data! Why Bother?
  • Summary of Chapter 3
  • Application Exercise
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 4 Doing Behavior Modification Research
  • Helping Kelly Solve Math Problems
  • The Reversal-Replication (ABAB) Design
  • Multiple-Baseline Designs
  • The Changing-Criterion Design
  • Alternating-Treatments (or Multielement) Design
  • Data Analysis and Interpretation
  • Summary of Chapter 4
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Part II Basic Behavioral Principles and Procedures
  • Chapter 5 Respondent (Classical, Pavlovian) Conditioning of Reflexive Behavior
  • Development of Fear in a Young Figure Skater
  • Behavioral Principles and Procedures
  • Principle of Respondent Conditioning
  • Higher-Order Conditioning
  • Common Respondently Conditioned Responses
  • Procedures for Eliminating a Conditioned Reflex
  • Generalization and Discrimination of Respondent Behavior
  • Applications of Respondent Conditioning and Extinction
  • An Introduction to Operant Conditioning: Another Type of Learning
  • Summary of Chapter 5
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 6 Increasing a Behavior With Positive Reinforcement
  • Reinforcing Jill's Walking Behavior
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Positive Reinforcement
  • Pitfalls of Positive Reinforcement
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Positive Reinforcement
  • Summary of Chapter 6
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 7 Increasing Behavior With Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Erin's Points Program
  • Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcers
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Pitfalls of Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Conditioned Reinforcement
  • Summary of Chapter 7
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 8 Decreasing a Behavior With Operant Extinction
  • Decreasing Gregory's Yelling
  • Operant Extinction
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Operant Extinction
  • Pitfalls of Operant Extinction
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Operant Extinction
  • Summary of Chapter 8
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 9 Getting a New Behavior to Occur With Shaping
  • Improving Frank's Exercising
  • Shaping
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Shaping
  • Pitfalls of Shaping
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Shaping
  • Summary of Chapter 9
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 10 Developing Behavioral Persistence With Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Improving Jan's Work Rate in Math Class
  • Some Definitions
  • Ratio Schedules
  • Simple Interval Schedules
  • Schedules With a Limited Hold
  • Duration Schedules
  • Overview of Six Commonly Used Intermittent Reinforcement Schedules for Increasing and Maintaining Behavior
  • Concurrent Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Pitfalls of Intermittent Reinforcement
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Intermittent Reinforcement
  • Summary of Chapter 10
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 11 Responding at the Right Time and Place: Operant Stimulus Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization
  • Teaching Darcy When to Pick Up the Phone
  • Learning to Respond at the Right Time and Place
  • Types of Controlling Stimuli of Operant Behavior: SDs and S?s
  • Operant Stimulus Discrimination
  • Operant Stimulus Generalization
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Operant Stimulus Discrimination Training
  • Pitfalls of Operant Stimulus Discrimination Training
  • Guidelines for Effective Operant Stimulus Discrimination Training
  • Summary of Chapter 11
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 12 Changing the Stimulus Control of a Behavior With Fading
  • Teaching Peter His Name
  • Fading
  • Dimensions of Stimuli for Fading
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Fading
  • Fading Versus Shaping
  • Pitfalls of Fading
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Fading
  • Summary of Chapter 12
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 13 Getting a New Sequence of Behaviors to Occur With Behavior Chaining
  • Teaching Steve to Follow a Consistent Pre-putt Routine
  • Behavior Chaining
  • Methods for Teaching a Behavioral Chain
  • Chaining Compared With Fading and Shaping
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Behavioral Chaining
  • Pitfalls of Behavioral Chaining
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Behavioral Chaining
  • Summary of Chapter 13
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 14 Differential Reinforcement Procedures to Decrease Behavior
  • Decreasing Tommy's Talking Out
  • Decreasing Operant Behavior
  • Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates
  • Differential Reinforcement of Zero Responding
  • Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior
  • Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior
  • Pitfalls of Differential Reinforcement Procedures for Decreasing Behavior
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Behavior
  • Summary of Chapter 14
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 15 Decreasing Behavior With Punishment
  • Eliminating Ben's Aggressiveness
  • The Principle of Punishment
  • Types of Punishers
  • Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Punishment
  • Some Examples of Therapeutic Punishment
  • Potential Harmful Side Effects of Punishment
  • Should Punishment Be Used?
  • Pitfalls of Punishment
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Punishment
  • Summary of Chapter 15
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 16 Establishing Behavior by Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
  • Curing Joanne's Slouching
  • Escape Conditioning (Negative Reinforcement)
  • Avoidance Conditioning
  • Pitfalls of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
  • Guidelines for the Effective Application of Escape and Avoidance Conditioning
  • Summary of Chapter 16
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 17 Respondent and Operant Conditioning Together
  • Responding to Meet Deadlines
  • Respondent and Operant Conditioning Compared
  • Operant-Respondent Interactions
  • Respondent and Operant Components of Emotions
  • Respondent and Operant Components of Thinking
  • Private Thoughts and Feelings: More Respondent-Operant Interactions
  • Summary of Chapter 17
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 18 Transferring Behavior to New Settings and Making It Last: Programming of Generality of Behavior Change
  • Helping Carole Have a Successful Class Presentation
  • Generality
  • Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
  • Programming Generality of Respondent Behavior
  • Pitfalls of Generality
  • Guidelines for Programming Generality of Operant Behavior
  • Summary of Chapter 18
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Part III Capitalizing on Operant Antecedent Control Procedures
  • Chapter 19 Antecedent Control: Rules and Goals
  • Helping Mary to Skate Well
  • Antecedent Control of Operant Behavior
  • Rules
  • Goals
  • Summary of Chapter 19
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 20 Antecedent Control: Modeling, Physical Guidance, and Situational Inducement
  • A Mindfulness-Based Intervention for Aggression
  • Capitalizing on Existing Stimulus Control
  • Modeling
  • Physical Guidance
  • Situational Inducement
  • Summary of Chapter 20
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 21 Antecedent Control: Motivation
  • Coach Dawson's Motivation Program
  • A Traditional View of Motivation
  • A Behavioral View of Motivation
  • Some Applications of Motivating Operations
  • Motivating Operations and Behavior Modification
  • Summary of Chapter 21
  • Application Exercise
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Part IV Putting It All Together to Develop Effective Behavioral Programs
  • Chapter 22 Functional Assessment of Causes of Problem Behavior
  • Decreasing Susie's Self-Injurious Behavior
  • Functional Assessment Procedures
  • Major Causes of Operant Problem Behaviors
  • Respondent or Elicited Problem Behaviors
  • Medical Causes of Problem Behaviors
  • Guidelines for Conducting a Functional Assessment
  • Summary of Chapter 22
  • Application Exercises
  • Note for Further Learning
  • Chapter 23 Planning, Applying, and Evaluating a Behavioral Program
  • Overcoming Cindy's Fear of Dogs
  • Deciding Whether to Design a Program Following a Referral
  • Selection and Implementation of a Pre-Program Assessment Procedure
  • Strategies of Program Design
  • Preliminary Implementation Considerations
  • Implement the Program
  • Program Maintenance and Evaluation
  • Summary of Chapter 23
  • Application Exercise
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 24 Token Economies
  • John's Token Reinforcement Program
  • A Token Economy
  • Steps for Setting Up and Managing a Token Economy
  • Generality Programming to the Natural Environment
  • Contingency Management
  • Ethical Considerations
  • A Summary of Considerations Necessary in Designing a Token Economy
  • Research on Token Economies
  • Summary of Chapter 24
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 25 Helping an Individual to Develop Self-Control
  • Al's Self-Control of Excessive-Eating Program
  • Causes of Self-Control Problems
  • A Behavioral Model for Self-Control
  • Steps in a Self-Control Program
  • Circumvention of the Therapist
  • Summary of Chapter 25
  • Application Exercises
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Part V Behavior Therapy for Psychological Disorders
  • Chapter 26 Behavioral Approaches to Psychotherapy: Cognitive Restructuring, Self-Directed Coping Methods, and Mindfulness and Acceptance Procedures
  • Introduction to Behavioral Approaches to Psychotherapy
  • A Behavioral Interpretation of Aspects of the Therapies in This Chapter
  • Concluding Comments
  • Summary of Chapter 26
  • Application Exercise
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 27 Psychological Disorders Treated by Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies
  • Specific Phobias
  • Other Anxiety Disorders
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Depression
  • Alcohol and Other Addictive Substance Use Disorders
  • Eating Disorders
  • Couple Distress
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Habit Disorders
  • Summary of Chapter 27
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Part VI A Historical Perspective and Ethical Issues
  • Chapter 28 Giving It All Some Perspective: A Brief History
  • The Pavlovian-Wolpean Orientation
  • The Operant Conditioning Orientation: Applied Behavior Analysis
  • Social Learning Theory
  • Cognitive Behavior Therapy
  • The Terms Behavior Modification, Behavior Therapy, Cognitive Behavior Modification, Cognitive Behavior Therapy, and Applied Behavior Analysis
  • The Future of Behavior Modification
  • Summary of Chapter 28
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Chapter 29 Ethical Issues
  • A Behavioral View of Ethics
  • Arguments Against Deliberately Controlling Behavior
  • Ethical Guidelines
  • Summary of Chapter 29 and Conclusion
  • Notes for Further Learning
  • Glossary
  • References
  • Author Index
  • Subject Index
"Martin and Pear once again deliver on the promise of their title. The authors have tirelessly evolved this classic handbook to keep it as relevant today as when originally published. Probably the only behaviour modification handbook around that keeps alive the view shared by many that applied behaviour analysis is relevant across a wide variety of clinical populations and applied contexts. The book is filled with implementation guidelines and analyses of case studies making it the perfect companion to prospective behaviour modifiers eager to get their feet wet in the field." - Dr. Javier Virues-Ortega, BCBA-D, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain


"Martin and Pear's textbook is the internationally recognized standard for an introductory course in behavior modification. It is well laid out, strait forward, and accessible. It has lots of practical examples and extensive materials for instructors to use. After eleven editions, it is tried and tested!" - Peter Sturmey, The Graduate Center and Queens College, City University of New York, USA


"Martin and Pear have authored the definitive volume on principles of behavior modification. This volume is a "must have" that provides a sound basis for applied behavior analysis and applications of behavior therapy in general. The application of this volume is outstanding, with a potential impact throughout healthcare, education, and many other fields. I keep a previous version of this book within arm's reach of my desk and call upon it frequently due to its breadth and clear explanations of basic principles. It is an excellent resource for educators, students, practitioners, as well as established researchers." - Henry S. Roane, Upstate Medical University, USA






"This textbook has seen many revisions. It covers the full cycle of behaviour modification and guidelines for a broad range of applications, from parenting and child management, to psychological problems, better self-management, to behavioural community psychology. Taking a practical approach, the book focuses on "how-to" skills, including discerning long-term effects; designing, implementing, and evaluating behavioural programmes; interpreting behavioural episodes; observing and recording behaviours; and recognising instances of reinforcement, extinction, and punishment." - L. A. Reisch & F. C. Doebbe, Journal of Consumer Policy

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