Mastering VMware vSphere 6.7

 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 10. Oktober 2018
  • |
  • 848 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-51297-4 (ISBN)
 
Master your virtual environment with the ultimate vSphere guide Mastering VMware vSphere 6.7 is the fully updated edition of the bestselling guide to VMware's virtualization solution. With comprehensive coverage of this industry-leading toolset, this book acts as an informative guide and valuable reference. Step-by-step instruction walks you through installation, configuration, operation, security processes, and much more as you conquer the management and automation of your virtual environment. Written by certified VMware vExperts, this indispensable guide provides hands-on instruction and detailed conceptual explanations, anchored by practical applications and real-world examples. This book is the ultimate guide to vSphere, helping administrators master their virtual environment. Learn to: * Install, configure, and manage the vCenter Server components * Leverage the Support Tools to provide maintenance and updates * Create and configure virtual networks, storage devices, and virtual machines * Implement the latest features to ensure compatibility and flexibility * Manage resource allocation and utilization to meet application needs * Monitor infrastructure performance and availability * Automate and orchestrate routine administrative tasks Mastering VMware vSphere 6.7 is what you need to stay up-to-date on VMware's industry-leading software for the virtualized datacenter.
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Nick Marshall has worked in the IT industry for nearly 20 years. As a senior integration architect at VMware, he now helps develop products such as VMware Cloud Foundation, VMware Validated Designs and vSphere itself. Nick blogs at nickmarshall.com.au and you can follow him on Twitter at @nickmarshall9.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Author
  • About the Contributors
  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • Introduction
  • What Is Covered in This Book
  • The Mastering Series
  • The Hardware Behind the Book
  • Who Should Buy This Book
  • How to Contact the Authors
  • Chapter 1 Introducing VMware vSphere 6.7
  • Exploring VMware vSphere 6.7
  • Examining the Products in the vSphere Suite
  • Examining the Features in VMware vSphere
  • Licensing VMware vSphere
  • Why Choose vSphere?
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 2 Planning and Installing VMware ESXi
  • VMware ESXi Architecture
  • Understanding the ESXi Hypervisor
  • Examining the ESXi Components
  • Planning a VMware vSphere Deployment
  • Choosing a Server Platform
  • Determining a Storage Architecture
  • Integrating with the Network Infrastructure
  • Deploying VMware ESXi
  • Installing VMware ESXi Interactively
  • Performing an Unattended Installation of VMware ESXi
  • Deploying VMware ESXi with vSphere Auto Deploy
  • Performing Post-installation Configuration
  • Reconfiguring the Management Network
  • Using the vSphere Host Client
  • Configuring Time Synchronization
  • Configuring Name Resolution
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 3 Installing and Configuring vCenter Server
  • Introducing vCenter Server
  • Centralizing User Authentication Using vCenter Single Sign-On
  • Understanding the Platform Services Controller
  • Using the vSphere Web Client for Administration
  • Providing an Extensible Framework
  • Choosing the Version of vCenter Server
  • Planning and Designing a vCenter Server Deployment
  • Sizing Hardware for vCenter Server
  • Planning for vCenter Server Availability
  • Running vCenter Server and Its Components as VMs
  • Installing vCenter Server and Its Components
  • Installing vCenter Server in an Enhanced Linked Mode Group
  • Exploring vCenter Server
  • The vSphere Web Client Home Screen
  • Using the Navigator
  • Creating and Managing a vCenter Server Inventory
  • Understanding Inventory Views and Objects
  • Creating and Adding Inventory Objects
  • Exploring vCenter Server's Management Features
  • Understanding Basic Host Management
  • Examining Basic Host Configuration
  • Using Scheduled Tasks
  • Using the Events and Events Consoles in vCenter Server
  • Working with Host Profiles
  • Tags and Custom Attributes
  • Managing vCenter Server Settings
  • General vCenter Server Settings
  • Licensing
  • Message of the Day
  • Advanced Settings
  • Auto Deploy
  • vCenter HA
  • Key Management Servers
  • Storage Providers
  • vSphere Web Client Administration
  • Roles
  • Licensing
  • vCenter Solutions Manager
  • System Configuration
  • VMware Appliance Management Administration
  • Summary
  • Monitor
  • Access
  • Networking
  • Time
  • Services
  • Update
  • Administration
  • Syslog
  • Backup
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 4 vSphere Update Manager and the vCenter Support Tools
  • vSphere Update Manager
  • vSphere Update Manager and the vCenter Server Appliance
  • Installing the Update Manager Download Service (Optional)
  • The vSphere Update Manager Plug-in
  • Reconfiguring the VUM or UMDS Installation with the Update Manager Utility
  • Upgrading VUM from a Previous Version
  • Configuring vSphere Update Manager
  • Creating Baselines
  • Routine Updates
  • Attaching and Detaching Baselines or Baseline Groups
  • Performing a Scan
  • Staging Patches
  • Remediating Hosts
  • Upgrading VMware Tools
  • Upgrading Host Extensions
  • Upgrading Hosts with vSphere Update Manager
  • Importing an ESXi Image and Creating the Host Upgrade Baseline
  • Upgrading a Host
  • Upgrading VM Hardware
  • Performing an Orchestrated Upgrade
  • Investigating Alternative Update Options
  • Using vSphere Update Manager PowerCLI
  • Upgrading and Patching without vSphere Update Manager
  • vSphere Auto Deploy
  • Deploying Hosts with Auto Deploy
  • vCenter Support Tools
  • ESXi Dump Collector
  • Other vCenter Support Tools
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 5 Creating and Configuring a vSphere Network
  • Putting Together a vSphere Network
  • Working with vSphere Standard Switches
  • Comparing Virtual Switches and Physical Switches
  • Understanding Ports and Port Groups
  • Understanding Uplinks
  • Configuring the Management Network
  • Configuring VMkernel Networking
  • Enabling Enhanced Multicast Functions
  • Configuring TCP/IP Stacks
  • Configuring Virtual Machine Networking
  • Configuring VLANs
  • Configuring NIC Teaming
  • Using and Configuring Traffic Shaping
  • Bringing It All Together
  • Working with vSphere Distributed Switches
  • Creating a vSphere Distributed Switch
  • Removing an ESXi Host from a Distributed Switch
  • Removing a Distributed Switch
  • Managing Distributed Switches
  • Working with Distributed Port Groups
  • Managing VMkernel Adapters
  • Using NetFlow on vSphere Distributed Switches
  • Enabling Switch Discovery Protocols
  • Enabling Enhanced Multicast Functions
  • Setting Up Private VLANs
  • Configuring LACP
  • Configuring Virtual Switch Security
  • Understanding and Using Promiscuous Mode
  • Allowing MAC Address Changes and Forged Transmits
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 6 Creating and Configuring Storage Devices
  • Reviewing the Importance of Storage Design
  • Examining Shared Storage Fundamentals
  • Comparing Local Storage with Shared Storage
  • Defining Common Storage Array Architectures
  • Explaining RAID
  • Understanding vSAN
  • Understanding Midrange and External Enterprise Storage Array Design
  • Choosing a Storage Protocol
  • Making Basic Storage Choices
  • Implementing vSphere Storage Fundamentals
  • Reviewing Core vSphere Storage Concepts
  • Understanding Virtual Volumes
  • SCs vs. LUNs
  • Storage Policies
  • Virtual Volumes
  • Working with VMFS Datastores
  • Working with Raw Device Mappings
  • Working with NFS Datastores
  • Working with vSAN
  • Working with Virtual Machine-Level Storage Configuration
  • Leveraging SAN and NAS Best Practices
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 7 Ensuring High Availability and Business Continuity
  • Understanding the Layers of High Availability
  • Clustering VMs
  • Introducing Network Load Balancing Clustering
  • Introducing Windows Server Failover Clustering
  • Implementing vSphere High Availability
  • Understanding vSphere High Availability Clusters
  • Understanding vSphere High Availability's Core Components
  • Enabling vSphere HA
  • Configuring vSphere High Availability
  • Configuring vSphere HA Groups, Rules, Overrides, and Orchestrated VM Restart
  • Managing vSphere High Availability
  • Introducing vSphere SMP Fault Tolerance
  • Using vSphere SMP Fault Tolerance with vSphere High Availability
  • Examining vSphere Fault Tolerance Use Cases
  • Planning for Business Continuity
  • Providing Data Protection
  • Recovering from Disasters
  • Using vSphere Replication
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 8 Securing VMware vSphere
  • Overview of vSphere Security
  • Securing ESXi Hosts
  • Working with ESXi Authentication
  • Controlling Access to ESXi Hosts
  • Keeping ESXi Hosts Patched
  • Managing ESXi Host Permissions
  • Configuring ESXi Host Logging
  • Securing the ESXi Boot Process
  • Reviewing Other ESXi Security Recommendations
  • Securing vCenter Server
  • Managing vSphere Certificates
  • Working with Certificate Stores
  • Getting Started with Certificate Management
  • Authenticating Users with Single Sign-On
  • Understanding the vpxuser Account
  • Managing vCenter Server Permissions
  • Configuring vCenter Server Appliance Logging
  • Securing Virtual Machines
  • Configuring a Key Management Server for VM and VSAN Encryption
  • Virtual Trusted Platform Module 2.0
  • Configuring Network Security Policies
  • Keeping VMs Patched
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 9 Creating and Managing Virtual Machines
  • Understanding Virtual Machines
  • Examining Virtual Machines from the Inside
  • Examining Virtual Machines from the Outside
  • Creating a Virtual Machine
  • Choosing Values for Your New Virtual Machine
  • Sizing Virtual Machines
  • Naming Virtual Machines
  • Sizing Virtual Machine Hard Disks
  • Virtual Machine Graphics
  • Installing a Guest Operating System
  • Working with Installation Media
  • Using the Installation Media
  • Working in the Virtual Machine Console
  • Installing VMware Tools
  • Installing VMware Tools in Windows
  • Installing VMware Tools in Linux
  • Managing Virtual Machines
  • Adding or Registering Existing VMs
  • Changing VM Power States
  • Removing VMs
  • Deleting VMs
  • Modifying Virtual Machines
  • Changing Virtual Machine Hardware
  • Using Virtual Machine Snapshots
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 10 Using Templates and vApps
  • Cloning VMs
  • Creating a Customization Specification
  • Cloning a Virtual Machine
  • Introducing vSphere Instant Cloning
  • Creating Templates and Deploying Virtual Machines
  • Cloning a Virtual Machine to a Template
  • Deploying a Virtual Machine from a Template
  • Using OVF Templates
  • Deploying a VM from an OVF Template
  • Exporting a VM as an OVF Template
  • Examining OVF Templates
  • Using Content Libraries
  • Content Library Data and Storage
  • Content Library Synchronization
  • Creating and Publishing a Content Library
  • Subscribing to a Content Library
  • Operating Content Libraries
  • Working with vApps
  • Creating a vApp
  • Editing a vApp
  • Changing a vApp's Power State
  • Cloning a vApp
  • Importing Machines from Other Environments
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 11 Managing Resource Allocation
  • Reviewing Virtual Machine Resource Allocation
  • Working with Virtual Machine Memory
  • Understanding ESXi Advanced Memory Technologies
  • Controlling Memory Allocation
  • Managing Virtual Machine CPU Utilization
  • Default CPU Allocation
  • Setting CPU Affinity
  • Using CPU Reservations
  • Using CPU Limits
  • Using CPU Shares
  • Summarizing How Reservations, Limits, and Shares Work with CPUs
  • Using Resource Pools
  • Configuring Resource Pools
  • Understanding Resource Allocation with Resource Pools
  • Regulating Network I/O Utilization
  • Controlling Storage I/O Utilization
  • Enabling Storage I/O Control
  • Configuring Storage Resource Settings for a Virtual Machine
  • Using Flash Storage
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 12 Balancing Resource Utilization
  • Comparing Utilization with Allocation
  • Exploring vMotion
  • Examining vMotion Requirements
  • Performing a vMotion Migration Within a Cluster
  • Ensuring vMotion Compatibility
  • Using Per-Virtual-Machine CPU Masking
  • Using Enhanced vMotion Compatibility
  • Using Storage vMotion
  • Combining vMotion with Storage vMotion
  • Cross-vCenter vMotion
  • Examining Cross-vCenter vMotion Requirements
  • Performing a Cross-vCenter Motion
  • Exploring vSphere Distributed Resource Scheduler
  • Understanding Manual Automation Behavior
  • Reviewing Partially Automated Behavior
  • Examining Fully Automated Behavior
  • Working with Distributed Resource Scheduler Rules
  • Working with Storage DRS
  • Creating and Working with Datastore Clusters
  • Configuring Storage DRS
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 13 Monitoring VMware vSphere Performance
  • Overview of Performance Monitoring
  • Using Alarms
  • Understanding Alarm Scopes
  • Creating Alarms
  • Managing Alarms
  • Working with Performance Charts
  • Overview Layout
  • Advanced Layout
  • Working with esxtop
  • Monitoring CPU Usage
  • Monitoring Memory Usage
  • Monitoring Network Usage
  • Monitoring Disk Usage
  • The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 14 Automating VMware vSphere
  • Why Use Automation?
  • vSphere Automation Options
  • Automating with PowerCLI
  • PowerShell and PowerCLI
  • What's New in PowerCLI 10
  • Installing and Configuring PowerCLI on Windows
  • Installing and Configuring PowerCLI on macOS
  • Installing and Configuring PowerCLI on Linux
  • Additional PowerCLI Capabilities
  • Getting Started with PowerCLI
  • Building PowerCLI Scripts
  • PowerCLI Advanced Capabilities
  • Additional Resources
  • The Bottom Line
  • Appendix A The Bottom Line
  • Chapter 1: Introducing VMware vSphere 6.7
  • Chapter 2: Planning and Installing VMware ESXi
  • Chapter 3: Installing and Configuring vCenter Server
  • Chapter 4: vSphere Update Manager and the vCenter Support Tools
  • Chapter 5: Creating and Configuring a vSphere Network
  • Chapter 6: Creating and Configuring Storage Devices
  • Chapter 7: Ensuring High Availability and Business Continuity
  • Chapter 8: Securing VMware vSphere
  • Chapter 9: Creating and Managing Virtual Machines
  • Chapter 10: Using Templates and vApps
  • Chapter 11: Managing Resource Allocation
  • Chapter 12: Balancing Resource Utilization
  • Chapter 13: Monitoring VMware vSphere Performance
  • Chapter 14: Automating VMware vSphere
  • Index
  • EULA

Introduction


It seems like a lifetime ago, 2005. That was the year that I tried to convince my boss to use VMware GSX Server on our new DL385 and thus the start of my journey delving into the depths of virtualization. The world of information technology (IT) has definitely shifted a couple of times since then. The two most obvious changes are the proliferation of virtualization and the subsequent widespread adoption of cloud computing.

Virtualization-especially server virtualization-is readily embraced in datacenters worldwide. VMware has gone from being a relatively small vendor to having the commanding share of the server virtualization market. Over the years, other companies such as Microsoft, Red Hat, and Citrix have jumped into the server virtualization space, but after all this time, it's still VMware that's synonymous with virtualization. For all intents and purposes, VMware invented the market.

Cloud Computing is a somewhat natural evolution of virtualization. If virtualization is the abstraction of individual server hardware, cloud computing is the abstraction of entire datacenters' worth of hardware. The scale can be smaller or larger, but the abstraction type is the same. But I'm getting ahead of myself. If you're reading this, there's a chance you're just now starting to learn about virtualization. What is virtualization, and why is it important to you?

As I mentioned, I define virtualization as the abstraction of one computing resource from another computing resource. Consider storage virtualization-in this case, you are abstracting servers (one computing resource) from the storage to which they are connected (another computing resource). This holds true for other forms of virtualization, too, like application virtualization (abstracting applications from the operating system). When most IT professionals think of virtualization, they think of hardware (or server) virtualization: abstracting the operating system from the underlying hardware on which it runs and thus enabling multiple operating systems to run simultaneously on the same physical server. That is the technology on which VMware has built its market share.

Almost single-handedly, VMware's enterprise-grade virtualization solution has revolutionized how organizations manage their datacenters. Before VMware introduced its powerful virtualization solution, organizations bought a new server every time a new application needed to be provisioned. Over time, datacenters became filled with servers that were all using only a fraction of their overall capacity. Even though these servers were underutilized, organizations still had to pay to power them and to dissipate the heat they generated.

Now, using VMware's server virtualization products, organizations can run multiple operating systems and applications on their existing hardware, and new hardware is purchased only when capacity needs dictate. No longer must organizations purchase a new physical server whenever a new application needs to be deployed. By stacking workloads together using virtualization, organizations derive greater value from their hardware investments. They also reduce operational costs by reducing the number of physical servers and associated hardware in the datacenter, in turn decreasing power usage and cooling needs in the datacenter. In some cases, these operational cost savings can be quite significant.

But consolidation is only one benefit of virtualization; companies also realize greater workload mobility, increased uptime, streamlined disaster-recovery options, and a bevy of other benefits from adopting virtualization. And virtualization, specifically server virtualization, has created the foundation for a new way of approaching the computing model: cloud computing.

Cloud computing is built on the tenets of broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, on-demand self-service, and measured service. Virtualization, such as that provided by VMware's products, enables the IT industry to embrace this new operational model of more efficiently providing services to their customers, whether those customers are internal (their employees) or external (partners, end users, or consumers). That ability to efficiently provide services is the reason virtualization is important to you.

This book provides all the information you, as an IT professional, need to design, deploy, configure, manage, and monitor a dynamic virtualized environment built on VMware's enterprise-class server virtualization product: vSphere 6.7.

-Nick Marshall, Author

What Is Covered in This Book


This book is written with a start-to-finish approach to installing, configuring, managing, and monitoring a virtual environment using the VMware vSphere 6.7 product suite. The book begins by introducing the vSphere product suite and all of its great features. After introducing all of the bells and whistles, the book details an installation of the product and then moves into configuration. This includes configuring vSphere's extensive networking and storage functionality. We wrap up the configuration discussion with chapters on high availability, redundancy, and resource utilization. After completing the installation and configuration, we move into virtual machine creation and management and then into monitoring and troubleshooting. You can read this book from cover to cover to gain an understanding of the vSphere product suite in preparation for a new virtual environment, or you can use it as a reference if you are an IT professional who has begun your virtualization and wants to complement your skills with real-world tips, tricks, and best practices as found in each chapter.

This book, geared toward the aspiring as well as the practicing virtualization professional, provides information to help implement, manage, maintain, and troubleshoot an enterprise virtualization scenario.

Here is a glance at what's in each chapter and the appendix:

  • Chapter 1: Introducing VMware vSphere 6.7 We begin with a general overview of all the products that make up the vSphere 6.7 product suite. This chapter also covers vSphere licensing and provides some examples of benefits that an organization might see from adopting vSphere as its virtualization solution.
  • Chapter 2: Planning and Installing VMware ESXi This chapter looks at the architecture of the VMware hypervisor, ESXi, along with selecting the physical hardware, choosing your version of VMware ESXi, planning your installation, and installing VMware ESXi, both manually and in an unattended fashion.
  • Chapter 3: Installing and Configuring vCenter Server In this chapter, we dive deep into planning your vCenter Server environment. vCenter Server is a critical management component of vSphere, so this chapter discusses the proper design, planning, installation, and configuration for vCenter Server.
  • Chapter 4: vSphere Update Manager and the vCenter Support Tools This chapter describes what is involved in planning, designing, installing, and configuring the vSphere Update Manager along with some of the other vCenter tools. You'll use vCenter Update Manager to keep your vSphere environment patched and up-to-date.
  • Chapter 5: Creating and Configuring a vSphere Network This virtual-networking chapter covers the design, management, and optimization of virtual networks, including features like the vSphere Distributed Switch. In this chapter, we also initiate discussions and provide solutions on how to integrate the virtual networking architecture with the physical network architecture while maintaining network security.
  • Chapter 6: Creating and Configuring Storage Devices This in-depth chapter provides an extensive overview of the various storage architectures available for vSphere. In this chapter, we discuss vSAN, Fibre Channel, iSCSI, and NAS storage design and optimization techniques as well as storage features like thin provisioning, multipathing, and round-robin load balancing.
  • Chapter 7: Ensuring High Availability and Business Continuity This exciting chapter covers the hot topics regarding business continuity and disaster recovery. We provide details on building highly available server clusters in virtual machines. In addition, this chapter discusses the use of vSphere High Availability (HA) and vSphere Fault Tolerance (FT) as ways of providing failover for virtual machines running in a vSphere environment. We also discuss backup options using vSphere's Storage APIs.
  • Chapter 8: Securing VMware vSphere Security is an important part of any implementation, and in this chapter, we cover different security management aspects, including managing direct ESXi host access and integrating vSphere with Active Directory. This chapter also covers how to manage user access for environments with multiple levels of system administration and how to employ Windows users and groups in conjunction with the vSphere security model to ease the administrative delegation that comes with enterprise-level deployments.
  • Chapter 9: Creating and Managing Virtual Machines This chapter introduces the practices and procedures involved in provisioning virtual machines through vCenter Server. In addition, you're introduced to timesaving techniques, virtual machine optimization, and best practices that will ensure simplified management as the number of virtual machines grows larger over time.
  • Chapter 10: Using Templates and vApps This chapter introduces the idea of templates, a mechanism for more rapidly...

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