Guide to Ruminant Anatomy

Dissection and Clinical Aspects
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 9. Mai 2017
  • |
  • 296 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-05082-7 (ISBN)
 
Guide to Ruminant Anatomy: Dissection and Clinical Aspectspresents a concise, clinically relevant reference to goat and cattle anatomy, with color schematic illustrations and embalmed arterially injected prosection images for comparison.
* Offers 244 color images depicting goat and cattle anatomy
* Provides selected line drawings correlated to dissection images of embalmed arterially injected specimens
* Takes a practical approach, with material organized by body system within each region
* Demonstrates the clinical relevance of basic anatomy
* Poses review questions in each chapter, with answers and videos provided on a companion website
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • New York
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 38,92 MB
978-1-119-05082-7 (9781119050827)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Mahmoud Mansour, DVM, PhD is Professor of Veterinary Anatomy at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, USA.
Ray Wilhite, MS, PhD is Anatomy Laboratory Coordinator at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, USA.
Joe Rowe, DVM is Anatomy Instructor at Auburn University in Auburn, Alabama, USA.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • About the Companion Website
  • Chapter 1 The Head, Neck, and Vertebral Column
  • 1.1 Skull
  • 1.2 Mandible
  • 1.3 Paranasal Sinuses
  • 1.4 Vertebral Column
  • 1.5 Teeth and Age Estimation of Cattle and Small Ruminants (Goats and Sheep)
  • 1.5.1 Definitions and Criteria for Estimating the Age of Ruminants
  • 1.5.2 Steps for Estimating the Age of Cattle
  • 1.6 Joints of the Head
  • 1.6.1 Temporomandibular Joint
  • 1.6.2 Atlantooccipital Joint
  • 1.6.3 Mandibular Symphysis
  • 1.6.4 Vertebral Joints
  • 1.7 Muscles of the Head
  • 1.7.1 Cutaneous Muscles
  • 1.7.2 Muscles of Facial Expression
  • 1.7.3 Muscles of Mastication
  • 1.7.4 Pharyngeal Muscles
  • 1.7.4.1 Nomenclature of Pharyngeal Muscles
  • 1.7.5 Laryngeal Muscles
  • 1.7.6 Hyoid Muscles
  • 1.7.7 Lingual Muscles
  • 1.7.8 Extraocular Muscles
  • 1.8 Blood Vessels, Lymph Nodes, and Nerves of the Head
  • 1.8.1 Blood Vessels (Arteries and Veins)
  • 1.8.1.1 Arteries of the Head
  • 1.8.1.2 Veins of the Head
  • 1.8.2 Lymph Nodes of the Head and Neck
  • 1.8.3 Nerves of the Head
  • 1.8.3.1 Summary of Cranial Nerves and Their Functions
  • 1.9 Salivary Glands
  • 1.10 The Pharynx
  • 1.10.1 Oropharynx
  • 1.10.2 Nasopharynx
  • 1.10.3 Laryngopharynx
  • 1.11 Tongue
  • 1.12 The Larynx and Hyoid Apparatus
  • 1.12.1 Larynx
  • 1.12.2 Hyoid Apparatus
  • 1.13 The Eye
  • 1.13.1 Superficial Features of the Eye
  • 1.13.2 Layers of the Eye
  • 1.13.3 Sectioning of the Eyeball
  • 1.13.3.1 Chambers of the Eye
  • 1.13.4 Drainage Pathway of the Aqueous Humor
  • 1.14 Neck Skeleton
  • 1.15 Neck Muscles, Nerves, and Vessels
  • 1.15.1 Neck Muscles
  • 1.15.1.1 Superficial Neck Muscles
  • 1.15.1.1.1 Brachiocephalicus Muscle
  • 1.15.1.1.2 Omotransversarius Muscle
  • 1.15.1.1.3 Trapezius Muscle
  • 1.15.1.1.4 Sternocephalicus Muscle
  • 1.15.1.1.5 Sternothyroideus and Sternohyoideus Muscles
  • 1.15.1.2 Deep Neck Muscles
  • 1.15.2 Nerves of the Neck
  • 1.15.3 Blood Vessels of the Neck
  • 1.16 Nuchal Ligament
  • 1.17 Surface Topography (Head and Neck)
  • 1.18 Lab ID List for the Head and Neck
  • Chapter 2 The Thorax
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Bones of the Thorax
  • 2.3 Thoracic Inlet
  • 2.4 Basal Border of the Lung and Area for Lung Auscultation
  • 2.5 Diaphragmatic Line of Pleural Reflection
  • 2.6 Muscles of the Thoracic Wall
  • 2.7 Pleura
  • 2.7.1 Parietal Pleura
  • 2.7.2 Visceral Pleura
  • 2.7.3 Connecting Pleura
  • 2.7.4 Content of the Pleural Cavity
  • 2.7.5 Lung Lobes
  • 2.7.6 Mediastinum
  • 2.8 Vessels (Arteries and Veins)
  • 2.8.1 Blood Circulation: An Overview
  • 2.9 Major Veins of the Thorax
  • 2.9.1 Cranial Vena Cava
  • 2.9.2 Caudal Vena Cava
  • 2.9.3 Azygos Veins (Left and Right)
  • 2.10 Major Arteries of the Thorax
  • 2.10.1 Brachiocephalic Trunk
  • 2.10.2 Costocervical Trunk
  • 2.10.3 Vertebral Artery
  • 2.10.4 Superficial Cervical Artery
  • 2.10.5 Internal Thoracic Artery
  • 2.11 Lymphatic Structures
  • 2.11.1 Thymus
  • 2.11.2 Thoracic Duct
  • 2.11.3 Mediastinal and Tracheobronchial Lymph Nodes
  • 2.12 Nerves (Motor Somatic, Sympathetic, and Parasympathetic)
  • 2.12.1 Phrenic Nerve
  • 2.12.2 Autonomic Nerves in the Thorax
  • 2.12.3 Vagus Nerve
  • 2.12.4 Sympathetic Trunk and Sympathetic Ganglia
  • 2.13 Heart (Cor)
  • 2.13.1 Pericardium
  • 2.13.2 External Features of the Heart
  • 2.13.3 Interior of the Heart
  • 2.13.3.1 Structures of the Right Atrium
  • 2.13.3.2 Structures of the Right Ventricle
  • 2.13.3.2.1 Right Atrioventricular Valve
  • 2.13.3.2.2 Chordae Tendineae, Papillary Muscles, and Cusps of the Right Atrioventricular Valve
  • 2.13.3.2.3 Trabecula Septomarginalis
  • 2.13.3.2.4 Ossa Cordis
  • 2.13.3.2.5 Coronary Arteries
  • 2.14 Point of Maximum Intensity or Puncta Maxima
  • 2.15 Lab ID List for the Thorax
  • Chapter 3 The Abdomen
  • 3.1 Lumbar Vertebrae
  • 3.1.1 Bovine Lumbar Vertebrae
  • 3.1.2 Goat and Sheep Lumbar Vertebrae
  • 3.2 Ligaments of Lumbar Vertebrae
  • 3.2.1 Supraspinous Ligament
  • 3.2.2 Interspinous Ligaments
  • 3.2.3 Intertransverse Ligaments
  • 3.2.4 Yellow Ligaments (Interarcuate or Ligament Flava)
  • 3.2.5 Dorsal and Ventral Longitudinal Ligaments
  • 3.2.6 Intervertebral Disc
  • 3.3 Abdominal Wall
  • 3.3.1 Paralumbar Fossa
  • 3.3.2 Nerves of the Paralumbar Fossa (Flank Anesthesia)
  • 3.3.3 Cutaneus Trunci and Omobrachialis Muscles
  • 3.3.4 Tunica Flava Abdominis
  • 3.3.5 External Abdominal Oblique Muscle
  • 3.3.6 Internal Abdominal Oblique Muscle
  • 3.3.7 Transversus Abdominis Muscle
  • 3.3.8 Rectus Abdominis Muscle
  • 3.3.9 Rectus Sheath
  • 3.4 Abdominal Cavity
  • 3.4.1 Dissection Plan
  • 3.4.2 Peritoneum
  • 3.4.3 Omentum
  • 3.4.4 Ruminant Stomach
  • 3.4.4.1 Reticulum
  • 3.4.4.1.1 Cardia
  • 3.4.4.2 Rumen
  • 3.4.4.3 Omasum
  • 3.4.4.4 Abomasum
  • 3.5 Intestines
  • 3.5.1 Small Intestine
  • 3.5.1.1 Duodenum
  • 3.5.1.2 Mesoduodenum
  • 3.5.1.3 Duodenocolic Fold
  • 3.5.1.4 Jejunum
  • 3.5.1.5 Ileum
  • 3.5.1.6 Ileal Orifice
  • 3.5.1.7 Ileocecal Fold
  • 3.5.2 Large Intestine
  • 3.5.2.1 Cecum and Cecocolic Orifice
  • 3.5.2.2 Ascending Colon
  • 3.5.2.2.1 Proximal Loop
  • 3.5.2.2.2 Spiral Loop
  • 3.5.2.2.3 Distal Loop
  • 3.6 Other Abdominal Organs
  • 3.6.1 Liver
  • 3.6.2 Spleen
  • 3.6.3 Pancreas
  • 3.6.4 Kidney
  • 3.7 Vessels
  • 3.7.1 Arteries
  • 3.7.2 Veins
  • 3.7.3 Lymphatics
  • 3.8 Palpation of the Live Animal
  • 3.9 Lab ID List for the Abdomen
  • Chapter 4 The Pelvis and Reproductive Organs
  • 4.1 Bones of the Pelvis
  • 4.1.1 Os Coxae (Pelvic Bone)
  • 4.2 Sacrosciatic Ligament
  • 4.3 Pelvic Peritoneal Pouches
  • 4.4 Urinary Bladder, Ureters, and Ligaments of the Bladder
  • 4.5 Male Genitalia
  • 4.5.1 Penis
  • 4.5.1.1 Root of the Penis and Cavernous Tissue
  • 4.5.1.2 Free Part of the Penis and Glans Penis
  • 4.5.1.3 Retractor Penis Muscle
  • 4.5.1.4 Apical Ligament
  • 4.5.1.5 Dorsal Nerve of the Penis
  • 4.5.2 Male Urethra
  • 4.5.3 Prepuce
  • 4.5.4 Superficial Inguinal (Scrotal) Lymph Nodes
  • 4.5.5 Blood Supply to the Pelvic Viscera and Male Genitalia
  • 4.5.6 Testes
  • 4.5.7 Male Accessory Sex Glands
  • 4.6 Female Reproductive Tract
  • 4.6.1 Ovaries
  • 4.6.2 Uterine Tubes
  • 4.6.3 Uterine Horns
  • 4.6.4 Uterine Body
  • 4.6.5 Uterine Cervix
  • 4.6.6 Vagina
  • 4.6.7 Female Pudendum
  • 4.6.7.1 Vestibule
  • 4.6.7.2 Suburethral Diverticulum
  • 4.6.7.3 Vulva
  • 4.6.8 Blood Supply of the Female Genital Tract
  • 4.6.9 Udder
  • 4.6.9.1 Suspensory Apparatus and Interior Structures of the Udder
  • 4.6.9.2 Blood Supply and Venous Drainage of the Udder
  • 4.6.9.3 Lymphatics of the Udder
  • 4.6.9.4 Innervation of the Udder
  • 4.7 Live Cow
  • 4.8 Lab ID List for the Pelvis and Reproductive Structures
  • Chapter 5 The Forelimb
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Bones of the Thoracic Limb
  • 5.2.1 Scapula
  • 5.2.2 Humerus
  • 5.2.3 Radius and Ulna
  • 5.2.4 Carpus (Proximal and Distal Rows)
  • 5.2.5 Metacarpal Bones (Large Metacarpal or Cannon Bone)
  • 5.2.6 Digits
  • 5.3 Muscles and Tendons of the Thoracic Limb
  • 5.3.1 Extrinsic Muscles of the Forelimb
  • 5.3.1.1 Trapezius Muscle (Cervical and Thoracic Parts)
  • 5.3.1.2 Rhomboideus Muscle (Cervical and Thoracic Parts)
  • 5.3.1.3 Brachiocephalicus Muscle (Cleidocephalicus and Cleidobrachialis)
  • 5.3.1.4 Omotransversarius Muscle
  • 5.3.1.6 Superficial Pectoral Muscle (Descending and Transverse Parts)
  • 5.3.1.7 Deep (Ascending) Pectoral Muscle
  • 5.3.1.8 Serratus Ventralis Muscle
  • 5.3.1.9 Subclavius Muscle
  • 5.3.2 Intrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb
  • 5.3.2.1 Muscles of Proximal Limb (Shoulder and Brachium)
  • 5.3.2.1.1 Supraspinatus Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.2 Infraspinatus Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.3 Deltoideus Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.4 Teres Minor Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.5 Teres Major Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.6 Subscapularis Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.7 Triceps Brachii Muscle (Long, Lateral, Accessory, and Medial Heads)
  • 5.3.2.1.8 Anconeus Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.9 Tensor Fasciae Antebrachii Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.10 Coracobrachialis Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.11 Biceps Brachii Muscle
  • 5.3.2.1.12 Brachialis Muscle
  • 5.3.2.2 Muscles and Tendons of the Distal Limb (Antebrachium and Manus [Carpus, Metacarpus, and Digits])
  • 5.3.2.2.1 Craniolateral Group (Located on Cranial and Lateral Forearm)
  • 5.3.2.2.2 Extensor Carpi Radialis Muscle
  • 5.3.2.2.3 Common Digital Extensor Muscle (Medial and Lateral Heads and Three Tendons)
  • 5.3.2.2.4 Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle
  • 5.3.2.2.5 Ulnaris Lateralis Muscle
  • 5.3.2.2.6 Extensor Carpi Obliquus Muscle
  • 5.3.2.3 Caudomedial Muscle Group of the Antebrachium
  • 5.3.2.3.1 Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Muscle
  • 5.3.2.3.2 Flexor Carpi Radialis Muscle
  • 5.3.2.3.3 Pronator Teres Muscle
  • 5.3.2.3.4 Superficial Digital Flexor with Superficial and Deep Parts: Flexor Manica
  • 5.3.2.3.5 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle
  • 5.3.2.3.6 Interosseus Muscle (Suspensory Ligament) with Axial and Abaxial Extensor Branches
  • 5.4 Retinacula
  • 5.5 Carpal Canal
  • 5.6 Ligaments of the Digits
  • 5.6.1 Proximal Interdigital Ligament
  • 5.6.2 Distal Interdigital Ligament
  • 5.6.3 Annular Ligaments (Palmar, Proximal, and Distal Digital Annular Ligaments)
  • 5.6.4 Digital Annular Ligaments (Proximal and Distal)
  • 5.7 Hoof (Wall, Sole, Bulb, and White Line)
  • 5.8 Arteries and Nerves of the Thoracic Limb
  • 5.8.1 Nomenclature of Blood Vessels and Nerves in the Distal Limb
  • 5.9 Veins of the Forelimb
  • 5.10 Lymphatics of the Thoracic Limb
  • 5.11 Nerves of the Thoracic Limb
  • 5.11.1 Suprascapular Nerve
  • 5.11.2 Subscapular Nerve
  • 5.11.3 Axillary Nerve
  • 5.11.4 Musculocutaneous Nerve
  • 5.11.5 Radial Nerve
  • 5.11.5.1 Branching of the Radial and Ulnar Nerves in the Distal Limb
  • 5.11.6 Median and Ulnar Nerves
  • 5.12 Joints of the Forelimbs
  • 5.12.1 Shoulder Joint
  • 5.12.2 Elbow Joint
  • 5.12.3 Carpal Joints
  • 5.12.4 Digital Joints
  • Chapter 6 The Hind Limb
  • 6.1 Bones of the Hind Limb
  • 6.1.1 Os Coxae (Hip Bone)
  • 6.1.2 Femur (Thighbone)
  • 6.1.3 Bones of the Leg (Crus)
  • 6.1.4 Tarsal Bones
  • 6.1.5 Fused Metatarsals III and IV (Large Metatarsal Bone)
  • 6.1.6 Metatarsal Sesamoid Bone
  • 6.2 Muscles of the Pelvic Limb
  • 6.2.1 Muscles Acting on the Hip Joint
  • 6.2.1.1 Gluteal Muscles
  • 6.2.1.1.1 Tensor Fasciae Latae Muscle and Fascia Lata
  • 6.2.1.1.2 Middle Gluteal Muscle
  • 6.2.1.1.3 Deep Gluteal Muscle
  • 6.2.1.2 Hamstring Muscles
  • 6.2.1.2.1 Gluteobiceps Muscle
  • 6.2.1.2.2 Semitendinosus Muscle
  • 6.2.1.2.3 Semimembranosus Muscle
  • 6.2.1.3 Medial Adductor Thigh Muscles
  • 6.2.1.3.1 Sartorius Muscle
  • 6.2.1.3.2 Gracilis Muscle
  • 6.2.1.3.3 Pectineus Muscle
  • 6.2.1.3.4 Adductor Muscle
  • 6.2.1.3.5 External Obturator Muscle
  • 6.2.2 Muscles Acting on the Stifle Joint
  • 6.2.2.1 Quadriceps Femoris Muscle
  • 6.2.3 Muscles Acting on the Hock and Digits
  • 6.2.3.1 Craniolateral Muscles of the Leg (Crus)
  • 6.2.3.1.1 Fibularis (Peroneus) Tertius Muscle
  • 6.2.3.1.2 Long Digital Extensor Muscle
  • 6.2.3.1.3 Lateral Digital Extensor Muscle
  • 6.2.3.1.4 Cranial Tibial Muscle
  • 6.2.3.1.5 Fibularis (Peroneus) Longus Muscle
  • 6.2.3.2 Extensor Retinacula
  • 6.2.3.3 Caudomedial Muscles of the Leg (Crus)
  • 6.2.3.3.1 Soleus Muscle
  • 6.2.3.3.2 Gastrocnemius Muscle (Lateral and Medial Heads)
  • 6.2.3.3.3 Superficial Digital Flexor Muscle
  • 6.6.3.3.4 Common Calcanean (or Calcaneal) Tendon and Calcanean Bursae
  • 6.2.3.3.5 Deep Digital Flexor Muscle
  • 6.2.3.3.6 Popliteus Muscle
  • 6.2.3.3.7 Interosseus Muscle (Suspensory Ligament)
  • 6.3 Blood Vessels and Nerves of the Hind Limbs
  • 6.3.1 Overview of Arterial Blood Supply to the Whole Hind Limb
  • 6.3.2 Veins of the Hind Limb
  • 6.3.3 Lymphatic Structures of the Hind Limb
  • 6.3.4 Nerves of the Hind Limb
  • 6.3.4.1 Femoral Nerve
  • 6.3.4.2 Obturator Nerve
  • 6.3.4.3 Sciatic Nerve
  • 6.3.4.4 Common Fibular (Peroneal) Nerve
  • 6.3.4.5 Tibial Nerve
  • 6.4 Joints of the Hind Limb
  • 6.4.1 Hip Joint
  • 6.4.2 Stifle Joint
  • 6.4.3 Hock (or Tarsus) Joint
  • 6.5 Live Cow
  • 6.6 Lab ID List for Forelimb and Hind Limb
  • Appendix A Dissection Instructions for a Goat Cadaver
  • A.1 Dissection Labs
  • A.2 Dissection of Goat Neck and Body Cavities (Labs, 1, 2, and 3)
  • A.2.1 Removal of the Thoracic Limb
  • A.2.2 Removal of the Pelvic (Hind) Limb
  • A.2.3 Skinning of the Neck and Flank on the Side Where the Limbs are Removed
  • A.2.3.1 Neck
  • A.2.4 Opening the Thorax and Abdomen for Studying the Topography on the Left and Right Sides
  • A.2.5 Thorax
  • A.2.5.1 Thoracic Landmarks
  • A.2.5.1.1 Basal Border of the Lungs
  • A.2.5.2 The Diaphragmatic Line of Pleural Reflection
  • A.2.6 Abdomen (In Situ and on Extirpated Viscera)
  • A.2.7 Dissection of Male and Female Pelvis (Lab 4)
  • A.3 Head Dissection (Lab 5)
  • A.4 Forelimb Dissection (Labs 6 and 7)
  • A.5 Hind Limb Dissection (Labs 8 and 9)
  • Appendix B Further Reading
  • Index
  • EULA

Chapter 1
The Head, Neck, and Vertebral Column


Learning Objectives


  1. Identify the main bones and some of their palpable features on the bovine skull. Examples of important features include the temporal line, lacrimal bulla, zygomatic arch, facial tuberosity, nasoincisive notch, foramen orbitorotundum, optic canal, supraorbital foramen, infraorbital foramen, mandibular foramen, mental foramen, and body of the mandible.
  2. Identify the features of the most clinically important frontal and maxillary sinuses. Know the compartments of the frontal sinus (2-3 rostral and 1 caudal). Study the diverticuli of the caudal compartment of the frontal sinus (cornual, nuchal, and postorbital). Note the dividing thin bony septa of the frontal sinus (transverse oblique and median septum). Identify the lacrimal bulla, the most caudal extent of the maxillary sinus. In dehorning operations in goats, you should keep in mind the superficial location and shallow depth of the frontal sinus at the base of the horn.
  3. Be able to recall the dental formula and methods for estimating age of cattle and goats using eruption times and changes in the occlusal surface of lower incisor teeth. Know that the incisor and canine teeth in the upper jaw are absent and are replaced by a fibrous structure known as the dental pad.
  4. Identify clinically important superficial structures on lateral head views (cornual nerve, supraorbital nerve, infraorbital nerve, mental nerve, dorsal and ventral buccal and auriculopalpebral branches of the facial nerve). Clinically important vessels include the frontal vein, the facial artery (pulse in cattle), and transverse facial artery (pulse in goats). In the neck, identify the external jugular vein, superficial cervical lymph nodes, accessory and great auricular nerves, and parts of the nuchal ligament.
  5. Identify nerve and blood supply to the horns. You should know the difference in nerve supply of the horn in small and large ruminants, and which nerve or nerves to block in dehorning operations. Note the differences in location and direction of the horn in small and large ruminants. Understand that dehorning is best carried out when the animal is 1-2 weeks of age. Know the meaning of the term epiceras.
  6. Identify clinically important structures on a paramedian section of the head (lingual torus and lingual fossa, nasal conchae, medial retropharyngeal lymph node, and other oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal structures on your laboratory ID list).
  7. Describe some of the methods and structures associated with enucleation (removal) of the eye that has cancer (i.e., retrobulbar and Peterson's nerve blocks).
  8. Identify lymph nodes of the head (parotid, mandibular, and lateral and medial retropharyngeal lymph nodes). In the neck, identify the superficial and deep cervical lymph nodes. Know that the lateral retropharyngeal lymph node is the major collection center for lymph from the ruminant head. Understand that the medial and lateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes are incised and examined in meat inspection. You should also know the drainage area for each node.
  9. Identify major salivary glands of the head (parotid, mandibular, and sublingual).
  10. Identify neck muscles that form the dorsal and ventral boundaries for the jugular groove (or furrow). Know the difference between jugular groove muscular boundaries in cattle, goat, and sheep. Sheep have a less distinct jugular furrow because of the absence of the sternomandibularis muscle. This muscle forms the ventral boundary in cattle and goats. It is also called sternozygomaticus muscle in goats.
  11. Recall the vertebral formula for large and small ruminants. Know vertebral locations for epidural anesthesia in cattle.

1.1 Skull


Goal: With the help of Figures 1.1-1.9, study the main features of the bovine and caprine skulls on dorsal, lateral, caudal, and ventral views. You should place emphasis on the main paranasal sinuses and bony landmarks for blocking clinically important nerves of the head (e.g., temporal line [corneal nerve], zygomatic arch [auriculopalpebral nerve], infraorbital and mental foramina [infraorbital and mental nerves, respectively], and foramen orbitorotundum [oculomotor, trochlear, ophthalmic, and abducent nerves]).

Figure 1.1 Bovine skull: caudodorsal view. The epidermal part of the horn (horn sheath or capsule) and the bony part (cornual process) form the horn. Akin to the hoof, the horn sheath and the cornual process are glued together by dermal tissue that contains blood vessels and nerve endings of the corneal nerve and artery. The cornual process and the horn capsule are sawed in dehorning operations.

Figure 1.2 A polled (no horns present) bovine skull: dorsal view. Dotted line shows the location of right supraorbital groove. In the live animal, the supraorbital groove houses the supraorbital vein (called the frontal vein after passing through the supraorbital foramen). The ox may have multiple supraorbital foramina (single in small ruminants).

Figure 1.3 Goat skull: lateral view. The horn sheath (epidermal part) is removed. * Temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A, parietal bone; B, temporal bone. Note the proximity of the cornual process to the parietal bone. In dehorning of mature goats, the cut must not be made too far caudally to avoid exposure of the brain.

Figure 1.4 Bovine skull: lateral view. The bony orbit is complete where the frontal process of the zygomatic bone (FZ) and the zygomatic process of the frontal bone (ZF) meet. The FZ is not present in the horse. The zygomatic arch is palpable in the live animal and is formed by two bones: the zygomatic bone rostrally and zygomatic process of the temporal bone caudally. Temporal line (dotted) is used as a landmark for blocking the cornual nerve in dehorning operations in adult cattle. M, molar; P, premolar. P1 is not present in upper or lower jaws. TZ, temporal process of the zygomatic bone.

Figure 1.5 The bovine skull showing the bony land marks for Peterson's nerve block: caudolateral view. The white arrow points to the angle where the needle is inserted to deposit an anesthetic close to the foramen orbitorotundum. The pterygoid crest and coronoid process of the mandible are encountered and avoided as a long curved needle is advanced toward the foramen. FZ, frontal process of the zygomatic bone; ZF, zygomatic process of the frontal bone.

Figure 1.6 Bovine skull showing caudal parts of the occipital bone: caudal view. The foramen magnum is the exit pathway for the spinal cord. The external occipital protuberance is the attachment site for the funicular part of the nuchal ligament. In small ruminants, the nuchal crest (poll) forms the highest point of the skull. The nuchal crest is not present in the ox.

Figure 1.7 The bovine skull: ventral view. * Choanal region, caudal opening of the nasal cavity into the nasopharynx in the live animal. M, molar; P, premolar. The premolar teeth start with P2 in both the upper and lower jaws (the upper P2 are removed to show the shallow alveolar sinuses [teeth sockets in lay terms]). The upper and lower P1 are considered absent in ruminants (see lower P2 in Figure 1.8a). The roots of the cheek teeth in ruminants are shallow compared with horses and it is possible to remove upper cheek teeth without entering the maxillary sinus.

Figure 1.8 (a) Bovine mandible: lateral view. I, incisor; M, molar; P, premolar. The coronoid process in the horse is vertically oriented compared with caudally inclined coronoid processes in ruminants. (b) Bovine mandible: medial view.

Figure 1.9 (a) Bovine skull with sculptured frontal sinus: dorsal view. An oblique transverse septum (dotted line) divides the frontal sinus into rostral and caudal compartments. The line extends obliquely from the mid-dorsal border of the orbit to the median septum. The median septum separates the left and right frontal sinuses. The caudal compartment of the frontal sinus has three diverticuli the cornual (within the cornual process), nuchal (rostral to the nuchal tubercle), and postorbital (caudal to the orbit) diverticuli. The bony supraorbital canal, which houses the supraorbital vein, passes through the caudal compartment of the frontal sinus. (b) Compartments of the bovine left and right frontal sinus. Bovine skull showing caudal (yellow and blue) and rostral (multiple colors) compartments and diverticuli of the frontal sinus: dorsal view. The caudal compartment of the frontal sinus is larger than the rostral compartment and has three diverticuli (postorbital, nuchal, and cornual). The cornual diverticulum is absent in this skull (no horns present; Figure 1.9a). The rostral compartment of the frontal sinus is divided into three smaller spaces (lateral, intermediate, and medial parts). The rostral and caudal compartments of the frontal sinus communicate with ethmoidal meatuses (not visible). Another major paranasal sinus in cattle is the maxillary sinus (Figure 1.9c). Minor sinuses of less clinical significance include the lacrimal, palatine, sphenoid, and conchal sinuses (Figure 1.10).

Figure 1.9 (c) Bovine skull showing...

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