Fundamental Principles of Optical Lithography

The Science of Microfabrication
Wiley (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 10. August 2011
  • |
  • 534 Seiten
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-96507-7 (ISBN)
The fabrication of an integrated circuit requires a variety ofphysical and chemical processes to be performed on a semiconductorsubstrate. In general, these processes fall into three categories:film deposition, patterning, and semiconductor doping. Films ofboth conductors and insulators are used to connect and isolatetransistors and their components.
By creating structures of these various components millions oftransistors can be built and wired together to form the complexcircuitry of modern microelectronic devices. Fundamental to all ofthese processes is lithography, ie, the formation ofthree-dimensional relief images on the substrate for subsequenttransfer of the pattern to the substrate.
This book presents a complete theoretical and practicaltreatment of the topic of lithography for both students andresearchers. It comprises ten detailed chapters plus threeappendices with problems provided at the end of each chapter.
Additional Information:
Visiting enhancesthe reader's understanding as the website supplies information onhow you can download a free laboratory manual, Optical LithographyModelling with MATLAB®, to accompany the textbook. You canalso contact the author and find help for instructors.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
John Wiley & Sons
  • 14,62 MB
978-1-119-96507-7 (9781119965077)
1119965071 (1119965071)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Dr. Chris A. Mack developed the lithography simulation software PROLITH, and founded and ran the company FINLE Technologies fro ten years. He then served as Vice President of Lithography Technology for KLA-Tencor for five years, until 2005. In 2003 he received the SEMI Award for North America for his efforts in lithography simulation and education. He is also an adjunct faculty member at the University of Texas at Austin. Currently, he writes, teaches, and consults on the field of semiconductor microlithography in Austin, Texas.
1. Introduction to Semiconductor Lithography.
1.1 Basics of IC Fabrication.
1.2 Moore's Law and the Semiconductor Industry.
1.3 Lithography Processing.
2. Aerial Image Formation - The Basics.
2.1 Mathematical Description of Light.
2.2 Basic Imaging Theory.
2.3 Partial Coherence.
2.4 Some Imaging Examples.
3. Aerial Image Formation - The Details.
3.1 Aberrations.
3.2 Pupil Filters and Lens Apodization.
3.3 Flare.
3.4 Defocus.
3.5 Imaging with Scanners Versus Steppers.
3.6 Vector Nature of Light.
3.7 Immersion Lithography.
3.8 Image Quality.
4. Imaging in Resist: Standing Waves and SwingCurves.
4.1 Standing Waves.
4.2 Swing Curves.
4.3 Bottom Antirefl ection Coatings.
4.4 Top Antirefl ection Coatings.
4.5 Contrast Enhancement Layer.
4.6 Impact of the Phase of the Substrate Refl ectance.
4.7 Imaging in Resist.
4.8 Defi ning Intensity.
5. Conventional Resists: Exposure and Bake Chemistry.
5.1 Exposure.
5.2 Post-Apply Bake.
5.3 Post-exposure Bake Diffusion.
5.4 Detailed Bake Temperature Behavior.
5.5 Measuring the ABC Parameters.
6. Chemically Amplifi ed Resists: Exposure and BakeChemistry.
6.1 Exposure Reaction.
6.2 Chemical Amplifi cation.
6.3 Measuring Chemically Amplifi ed Resist Parameters.
6.4 Stochastic Modeling of Resist Chemistry.
7. Photoresist Development.
7.1 Kinetics of Development.
7.2 The Development Contrast.
7.3 The Development Path.
7.4 Measuring Development Rates.
8. Lithographic Control in SemiconductorManufacturing.
8.1 Defi ning Lithographic Quality.
8.2 Critical Dimension Control.
8.3 How to Characterize Critical Dimension Variations.
8.4 Overlay Control.
8.5 The Process Window.
8.6 H-V Bias.
8.7 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF).
8.8 Line-End Shortening.
8.9 Critical Shape and Edge Placement Errors.
8.10 Pattern Collapse.
9. Gradient-Based Lithographic Optimization: Using theNormalized Image Log-Slope.
9.1 Lithography as Information Transfer.
9.2 Aerial Image.
9.3 Image in Resist.
9.4 Exposure.
9.5 Post-exposure Bake.
9.6 Develop.
9.7 Resist Profi le Formation.
9.8 Line Edge Roughness.
9.9 Summary.
10. Resolution Enhancement Technologies.
10.1 Resolution.
10.2 Optical Proximity Correction (OPC).
10.3 Off-Axis Illumination (OAI).
10.4 Phase-Shifting Masks (PSM).
10.5 Natural Resolutions.
Appendix A. Glossary of Microlithographic Terms.
Appendix B. Curl, Divergence, Gradient, Laplacian.
Appendix C. The Dirac Delta Function.

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