War in the Mountains

Peasant Society and Counterinsurgency in Algeria, 1918-1958
 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 15. Oktober 2020
  • |
  • 528 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-19-260401-9 (ISBN)
 
The role of the peasantry during the Algerian War of Independence (1954-1962) has long been neglected by historians, in part because they have been viewed as a 'primitive' mass devoid of political consciousness. War in the Mountains: Peasant Society and Counterinsurgency in Algeria, 1918-1958 challenges this conventional understanding by tracing the ability of the peasant community to sustain an autonomous political culture through family, clan, and village assemblies. The long-established system of indirect rule by which the colonial state controlled and policed the vast mountainous interior of Algeria began to break down after the 1920s. War in the Mountains explains how competing guerrilla forces and the French military sought to harness djemâas as part of a hearts-and-minds strategy. Djemâas formed a pole of opposition to the patron-client relations of the rural élites, with clandestine urban-rural networks emerging that prepared the way for armed resistance and a system of rebel governance. Contrary to accepted historical analysis suggesting that rural society was massively uprooted and dislocated, War in the Mountains demonstrates that the peasantry demonstrated a high level of social cohesion and resistance based on powerful family and kin networks.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
11 black and white illustrations
  • 4,03 MB
978-0-19-260401-9 (9780192604019)
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Neil MacMaster taught at the University of East Anglia from 1971 to 2004. He taught the history of European ideas and popular culture of the 16th to 19th centuries at the University of East Anglia, before changing field to contemporary French politics, European racism, international migration, and Islam. At retirement in 2004 he won a Leverhulme award to continue his work on Algerian and French colonialism. Among his publications are Colonial Migrants and Racism: Algerians in France, 1900-62 (1997); with Jim House, Paris 1961: Algerians, State Terror, and Memory (2006); and Burning the Veil: The Algerian War and the 'Emancipation' of Muslim Women, 1954-62 (2009).
  • Cover
  • War in the Mountains: Peasant Society and Counterinsurgency in Algeria, 1918-1958
  • Copyright
  • Acknowledgements
  • Contents
  • List of Photographs, Maps, and Tables
  • List of Abbreviations
  • Glossary
  • Introduction: Towards a Social History of Peasant Society
  • The Dualism of Space: The Political Economy of the Chelif Region
  • Part I: The Dualism of Thecolonial State: Indirect Rule and the Crisis of the commune mixte System
  • 1: Separate Worlds?: European Domination of the Chelif Plain
  • French Settler Domination of the Chelif Plain
  • 2: Separate Worlds?: Peasant Society in the Mountains
  • The Battle for the Forests: Demographic Crisis and Peasant Resistance
  • Banditry and Peasant Resistance in the Forests
  • 3: The caids and the commune mixte System
  • The grandes familles: The Revival of a Neo-tribal Élite in the Chelif
  • 4: The Janus-faced Politics of the caids, c.1936 to 1954
  • 5: Lucien Paye's commune Reform: The Failure of the Peasant Modernization Programme, 1944-8
  • The Société indigènes de prévoyance (SIP): State Intervention and Peasant Entitlement
  • Lucien Paye and the Direction des réformes, 1945-8
  • Julien Rohrbacher and the Plan d'action communale in the Chelif
  • Part II: Peasant Political Mobilization and Contestation, C.1932-54
  • 6: Fraction Resistance as Everyday Politics
  • The douar-djemâa
  • Jonnart and the 'Electoral Revolution' of 1919
  • 7: The Communist Party and Peasant Mobilization, c.1932-48
  • Mohamed Marouf: Trade Union Organization of Agricultural Workers
  • The Syndicat des petits cultivateurs: Organizing a Peasant Union
  • 8: Peasant Organization in the Urban Centres
  • Ahmed Keddar and Street Demonstrations in Duperré
  • Formal Petitions to the Algiers Government
  • 9: The Battle for the douars and the djemâa Elections of 1947
  • The Communist Cell in the douar Bouzehar
  • Kouider Smail: The Communists in the douars El Ghorine and El Aneb
  • The douars Taouira and Beni Haoua
  • Mustapha Saadoun and the Cherchell Region
  • The djemâa Elections of 1947: A Critical Turning Point
  • The Government Counter-attack on the djemâas, 1948-50
  • 10: The Nationalists Go Underground: Clandestine Organization in the Ouarsenis Mountains, 1948-54
  • The Rouina Triangle
  • The Peasant Proletariat of the Mines
  • Teniet el Haad: A Nationalist Enclave in the Ouarsenis
  • 11: Popular Religion: The Rural Battleground
  • Pilgrimage and Contestation in the Chelif
  • The Ulema and Rural Religion
  • Part III: Organization of the Early Maquis Rebel Governance and Formation of the FLN Counter-state
  • 12: From Earthquake to 'Red Maquis', September 1954 to June 1956
  • The Earthquake Crisis and Peasant Resistance
  • The Red Maquis, April-June 1956
  • Abdelhamid Boudiaf and the Medjadja Maquis
  • The Red Maquis in the Beni Boudouane
  • 13: The Zitoufi Maquis
  • Constructing and Equipping the Caches
  • The Race to Collect Guns
  • Informing and the Logic of Terror
  • The Transition from Communist to ALN Maquis in Ténès
  • 14: Organization of the Early ALN Guerrilla, 1954-7
  • The ALN and Strategies of Early Contact with Mountain Communities
  • 15: Creating the FLN Counter-state
  • The Key Function of the ALN secteur: The Example of kasma 4311
  • The Question of Food Supplies in the Mountains
  • Taxation and the Maquis Welfare State
  • Schools, Health Care, and the System of Justice
  • The Question of Violence, Terror, and Protection
  • Youth Recruits and Family Solidarity
  • Part IV: Opération Pilote: Anthropology Goes to War, 1956-8
  • 16: The Genesis of Opération Pilote
  • Jean Servier and Opération Oiseau bleu
  • The Return of Lucien Paye: The Battle for commune Reform
  • Servier in the Chelif: The Collapse of the CM System
  • The Failure of Civil Defense and Evacuation of the Settlers
  • Secret Negotiation and Protection Money
  • The Failure of Military quadrillage
  • The Servier Master Plan for Opération Pilote
  • 17: Psychological Warfare and the Dahra Peasants
  • The Battle for the Djebel Bissa
  • The Breira Mine: A Showcase of Mountain 'Pacification'
  • Louis Kergoat: Peasant Life in the Djebel Bissa
  • Starving Out the Peasants of Bissa
  • The 'Shock Doctrine' and the Impacts of Mass Arrests and Internment
  • Regroupement and Divide-and-Rule Tactics
  • Cutting the Urban-Rural Linkage
  • Conclusion
  • 18: The Arzew Camp: Anthropology or 'Brainwashing'?
  • The SIEGFM Camp and the Formation of the Political Agents
  • The Radical 'Re-education' Experiment at the Trois Palmiers Camp
  • Which Social Science: Behaviourism or Anthropology?
  • Measuring the Impacts of Psychological Action
  • Pilote 1: Success or Failure?
  • 19: Modernity or Neo-tribalism?: 'Third Force' Strategies in the Ouarsenis
  • The bachaga Boualam and the harki in the douar Beni Boudouane
  • Patrimonialism and the Warlord 'Kobus'
  • 20: The regroupements Camps and the Collapse of Pilote 1
  • The 'Thousand Villages': From Military Strategy to a Developmental Agenda
  • The End of the Peasantry?
  • The Spatial Dislocation of Family and Fraction
  • Conclusion: Peasant Insurrection: A New Comparative Agenda
  • Primary Sources and Select Bibliography
  • Principal archives consulted
  • Select bibliography
  • Index

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