Art, Craft, and Theology in Fourth-Century Christian Authors

 
 
Oxford University Press
  • erschienen am 29. September 2020
  • |
  • 288 Seiten
 
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978-0-19-258864-7 (ISBN)
 
Ancient authors commonly compared writing with painting. The sculpting of the soul was also a common philosophical theme. Art, Craft, and Theology in Fourth-Century Christian Authors takes its starting-point from such figures to recover a sense of ancient authorship as craft. The ancient concept of craft (ars, techne) spans 'high' or 'fine' art and practical or applied arts. It unites the beautiful and the useful. It includes both skills or practices (like medicine and music) and productive arts like painting, sculpting and the composition of texts. By using craft as a guiding concept for understanding fourth Christian authorship, this book recovers a sense of them engaged in a shared practice which is both beautiful and theologically useful, which shapes souls but which is also engaged in the production of texts. It focuses on Greek writers, especially the Cappadocians (Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nysa) and John Chrysostom, all of whom were trained in rhetoric. Through a detailed examination of their use of two particular literary techniques-ekphrasis and prosopopoeia-it shows how they adapt and experiment with them, in order to make theological arguments and in order to evoke a response from their readership.
  • Englisch
  • Oxford
  • |
  • Großbritannien
  • 1,78 MB
978-0-19-258864-7 (9780192588647)
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Professor Morwenna Ludlow studied Classics and then Theology at the University of Oxford. She is Professor of Christian History and Theology at the University of Exeter and has written widely on Gregory of Nyssa, including two monographs published by Oxford University Press.
  • Cover
  • Art, Craft, and Theology in Fourth-Century Christian Authors
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Preface
  • Contents
  • Abbreviations
  • 1 Introduction
  • A. VISUAL, VERBAL, AND SPIRITUAL CRAFT
  • B. MIMESIS: REPRESENTATION, EMULATION, IMITATION
  • i. Representing the Real: Ekphrasis and Prosopopoeia
  • ii. Emulating Literary Tradition: Adaptation and Experimentation
  • iii. Imitating the Good
  • C. IMITATION AND THE 'SECOND SOPHISTIC'
  • i. Nineteenth-Century Classicists' Debates
  • ii. Recent Classical Scholarship
  • iii. Late-Antique Christian Literature
  • iv. Recovering Mimesis
  • D. ART, CRAFT, AND THEOLOGY
  • i. Beyond Mimesis
  • ii. Craft (Techne)
  • E. STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
  • Part I Experimenting with Pictures
  • 2 Ekphrasis: Seeing Things Differently
  • A. EKPHRASIS AS A TOOL OF THE TRADE
  • i. Function
  • ii. Vividness (Enargeia)
  • iii. Emotion
  • iv. The Impact of Images
  • B. 'BRINGING WHAT IS PORTRAYED CLEARLY BEFORE THE SIGHT'
  • i. Presence
  • ii. Two Kinds of Detail
  • iii. Engaging the Audience
  • C. CRAFTSMANSHIP
  • i. Order
  • ii. Reading Things as Texts
  • iii. Variety
  • D. EKPHRASIS PROMPTS QUESTIONS
  • i. Who Is the Maker?
  • ii. Who Is the Observer?
  • iii. Why Is It Absent?
  • E. SEEING THINGS DIFFERENTLY
  • 3 Ekphrasis and Decision
  • A. PROVOKING A REACTION
  • B. GAZING ON CORPSES WITH PLATO
  • C. SEEING DEATH WITH THE CAPPADOCIANS
  • i. Disgust and Hope in Gregory of Nyssa
  • ii. 'Some Day All This Beauty Will Melt Away'
  • iii. 'People Who Are Both Dead and Alive'
  • iv. The Judgment Seat of Christ
  • D. JUDGEMENT, DISCERNMENT, AND ACTION
  • 4 The Rhetoric of Landscape in Gregory of Nyssa's Homilies on the Song of Songs
  • A. INTRODUCTION
  • B. LANDSCAPES AND GARDENS IN THE ANCIENT IMAGINATION
  • i. Nature Tamed and Bounded
  • ii. Character
  • iii. Mood
  • iv. Reflection on the Craft of Words
  • C. GARDENS, LANDSCAPES, AND GREGORY OF NYSSA
  • D. HOMILIES ON THE SONG OF SONGS V
  • i. Form and Structure
  • ii. Mood
  • iii. Character
  • iv. Divine Discourse
  • E. CONCLUSIONS
  • 5 Ascetic Landscapes and Aesthetic Landscapes
  • A. LANGUAGE AND PLACE
  • B. SETTING THE SCENE
  • C. BASIL'S ASCETIC RETREAT IN PONTUS: BEAUTIFUL AND USEFUL?
  • D. TWO MEN IN A LANDSCAPE: GARDENS, ISLANDS, AND ENCLOSURES
  • E. BASIL AND GREGORY OF NAZIANZUS ARGUE ABOUT A PLACE
  • Part II Experimenting with Voice
  • 6 Role-playing: Prosopopoeia and Embodied Performance
  • A. PROSOPOPOEIA: AUTHORITY, EMOTION, AND RISK
  • i. Appropriate, but Hypothetical
  • ii. Emotional
  • iii. Risky
  • B. THE NORMS AND LIMITS OF WOMEN'S SPEECH
  • i. Women's Ability to Exercise Authoritative Public Speech
  • ii. Women's Speech in Epic and Drama
  • iii. Plutarch's Exceptional Women
  • C. LOW STATUS AND PUBLIC SPEECH
  • i. Political Speech
  • ii. Stage
  • D. PERFORMING BODIES IN THE ROMAN EMPIRE: STAGE AND LAW-COURT
  • i. The Continuing Influence of Drama
  • ii. Performing Bodies on Stage
  • iii. Performing Bodies in the Law-Court
  • E. CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • 7 'This is the Word of the Lord'
  • A. PUTTING WORDS INTO THE MOUTH OF CHRIST: RHETORIC AND CHRISTOLOGY
  • B. CHRIST THE PREACHER: RE-IMAGINING THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT
  • i. Setting: Christ's Role and Authority in Relation to his Audience
  • ii. Effect of the Sermon: Pathos and Persuasion
  • iii. Jesus the Rhetor: Ethos and Integrity
  • C. CHRIST AS THE PRESIDENT OF THE GAMES: IMAGINING CHRIST'S PRESENCE
  • D. CHRISTOLOGICAL IMAGINATION: SPEAKING JESUS' WORDS
  • 8 Women's Voices?
  • A. PERFORMING A WOMAN'S WORDS
  • B. THE MOTHER OF SEVEN SONS
  • i. 2 and 4 Maccabees: A Mother with 'A Man's Courage'
  • ii. Gregory of Nazianzus: A Woman of Very Fine Words
  • iii. John Chrysostom: 'Lifting Him up by the Encouragement of Her Words, as if by Her Hand'
  • C. A VARIATION ON THE THEME: CAPPADOCIAN HOMILIES ON THE FORTY MARTYRS OF SEBASTE
  • i. The Tradition
  • ii. Basil and Gregory of Nyssa: 'Run to Your Father, so that You Are Not Left Behind'
  • D. 'HOW GREAT IS THE WOMAN'S PHILOSOPHY!'
  • E. SPEAKING LIKE A WOMAN: RISK AND AUTHORITY
  • 9 Talking Bodies
  • A. THE OBJECTIFYING GAZE
  • B. GOOD, NOBLE, BEAUTIFUL, AND ELOQUENT
  • i. 2 and 4 Maccabees
  • ii. Christian Homilies on the Maccabees
  • iii. The Forty Martyrs of Sebaste
  • C. BODIES AND AGENCY
  • i. Silence
  • ii. Disordered Bodies
  • iii. Communicative Bodies
  • iv. Plot, Character and Shifting Perspective
  • D. CONCLUSIONS
  • Part III Craftsmen
  • 10 The Workshop
  • A. TEXTS, TEACHERS, AND PUPILS IN THE WRITINGS OF GREGORY OF NYSSA
  • i. Introduction
  • ii. Basil
  • iii. Macrina
  • iv. The Bride
  • B. WORKSHOPS
  • i. Ancient Workshops
  • ii. Christian Concepts of the Workshop
  • iii. The Cappadocians as a Workshop
  • 11 Conclusions: Art, Craft, and Theology
  • A. ART
  • B. CRAFT
  • C. THEOLOGY
  • Bibliography of Works Cited
  • a. List of Primary Sources
  • Augustine
  • Basil of Caesearea
  • Cicero
  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus
  • Gregory of Nazianzus
  • Gregory of Nyssa
  • John Chrysostom
  • Plato
  • Plutarch
  • Themistius
  • Secondary Sources
  • Index

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