Design Thinking

New Product Development Essentials from the PDMA
 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 25. September 2015
  • |
  • 456 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-97181-9 (ISBN)
 
Develop a more systematic, human-centered, results-oriented thought process
Design Thinking is the Product Development and Management Association's (PDMA) guide to better problem solving and decision-making in product development and beyond. The second in the New Product Development Essentials series, this book shows you how to bridge the gap between the strategic importance of design and the tactical approach of design thinking. You'll learn how to approach new product development from a fresh perspective, with a focus on systematic, targeted thinking that results in a repeatable, human-centered problem-solving process. Integrating high-level discussion with practical, actionable strategy, this book helps you re-tool your thought processes in a way that translates well beyond product development, giving you a new way to approach business strategy and more.
Design is a process of systematic creativity that yields the most appropriate solution to a properly identified problem. Design thinking disrupts stalemates and brings logic to the forefront of the conversation. This book shows you how to adopt these techniques and train your brain to see the answer to any question, at any level, in any stage of the development process.
* Become a better problem-solver in every aspect of business
* Connect strategy with practice in the context of product development
* Systematically map out your new product, service, or business
* Experiment with new thought processes and decision making strategies
You can't rely on old ways of thinking to produce the newest, most cutting-edge solutions. Product development is the bedrock of business --whether your "product" is a tangible object, a service, or the business itself -- and your approach must be consistently and reliably productive. Design Thinking helps you internalize this essential process so you can bring value to innovation and merge strategy with reality.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
MICHAEL G. LUCHS is a former executive and industry consultant, is an Associate Professor at the College of William & Mary and Founding Director of the Jim & Bobbie Ukrop Innovation & Design Studio.
K. SCOTT SWAN is a Professor of International Business, Design, and Marketing at the College of William and Mary Mason School of Business, and a Fulbright Scholar serving as the Hall Distinguished Chair for Entrepreneurship in Central Europe at WU Vienna, Austria (2015-2016).
ABBIE GRIFFIN holds the Royal L. Garff Presidential Chair in Marketing at the David Eccles School of Business at the University of Utah, and the former editor of the Journal of Product Innovation Management.
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Table of Contents
  • About the Editors
  • Chapter 1: A Brief Introduction to Design Thinking
  • Introduction
  • 1.1 The Concept of Design Thinking and Its Role within NPD and Innovation
  • 1.2 A Framework of Design Thinking
  • 1.3 Design Thinking as a Nonlinear Process
  • 1.4 The Principles and the "Mindset" of Design Thinking
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Part I: Design Thinking Tools
  • Chapter 2: Inspirational Design Briefing
  • Introduction
  • 2.1 Nine Criteria of an Inspirational Design Brief
  • 2.2 Writing the Inspirational Design Brief
  • 2.3 Research Findings about Inspirational Design Briefs
  • 2.4 Three Pitfalls to Avoid
  • 2.5 Conclusion: Keys to Success
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 3: Personas: Powerful Tool for Designers
  • Introduction
  • 3.1 Defining Personas
  • 3.2 The Importance of Personas
  • 3.3 Creating Personas
  • 3.4 Illustrative Application of Personas
  • 3.5 Summary
  • 3.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 4: Customer Experience Mapping: The Springboard to Innovative Solutions
  • Introduction
  • 4.1 Inputs to the Experience Map
  • 4.2 The Experience Mapping Process
  • 4.3 The Experience Map as a Springboard to Innovative Solutions
  • 4.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Acknowledgment
  • Chapter 5: Design Thinking to Bridge Research and Concept Design
  • Introduction
  • 5.1 Challenges in Idea Generation
  • 5.2 The Need for a Systematic Method to Connect to the User
  • 5.3 The Visualize, Empathize, and Ideate Method
  • 5.4 The Importance of Visualizing and Empathizing before Ideating
  • 5.5 Applying the Method
  • 5.6 Conclusion
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 6: Boosting Creativity in Idea Generation Using Design Heuristics
  • Introduction
  • 6.1 Where Do New Design Ideas Come From?
  • 6.2 A Tool to Assist with Idea Generation: Design Heuristics
  • 6.3 How Design Heuristics Were Identified: The Evidence Base
  • 6.4 77 Design Heuristics for Idea Generation
  • 6.5 How to Use Design Heuristics to Generate Design Concepts
  • 6.6 Evidence of the Value of the Design Heuristics Tool
  • 6.7 Conclusion
  • 6.8 Appendix
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 7: The Key Roles of Stories and Prototypes in Design Thinking
  • Introduction
  • 7.1 A Design Thinking Product Development Framework
  • 7.2 What Is a Story?
  • 7.3 What Is a Prototype?
  • 7.4 Putting It Together-Combining Stories and Prototypes
  • 7.5 Employing Stories and Prototypes in Your Process
  • 7.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Part II: Design Thinking within the Firm
  • Chapter 8: Integrating Design into the Fuzzy Front End of the Innovation Process
  • Introduction
  • 8.1 Challenges in the FFE
  • 8.2 Design Practices and Tools for Assisting in Problem Definition
  • 8.3 Design Practices and Tools for Assisting in Information Management
  • 8.4 Design Practices and Tools for Assisting in Stakeholder Management
  • 8.5 How to Integrate Design Professionals in FFE
  • 8.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 9: The Role of Design in Early-Stage Ventures: How to Help Start-ups Understand and Apply Design Processes to New Product Development
  • Introduction: An Emerging Start-up Culture
  • 9.1 The Basics
  • 9.2 The Process
  • 9.3 Troubleshooting Common Mistakes
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 10: Design Thinking for Non-Designers: A Guide for Team Training and Implementation
  • Introduction
  • 10.1 What Do Non-Designers Need to Learn?
  • 10.2 Challenges Teams Face with Design Thinking
  • 10.3 Three Team Strategies for Success
  • 10.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 11: Developing Design Thinking: GE Healthcare's Menlo Innovation Model
  • Introduction
  • 11.1 GE Healthcare's Design Organization
  • 11.2 The Menlo Innovation Ecosystem
  • 11.3 The Significance of Design Thinking at GE Healthcare
  • 11.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 12: Leading for a Corporate Culture of Design Thinking
  • Introduction
  • 12.1 The Critical Impact of Corporate Culture on Design Thinking
  • 12.2 What Is Corporate Culture?
  • 12.3 Corporate Forces that Undermine Design Thinking
  • 12.4 Four Pillars of Innovation for Enabling Design Thinking
  • 12.5 Four Stages of Transforming to a Culture of Design Thinking
  • 12.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 13: Knowledge Management as Intelligence Amplification for Breakthrough Innovations
  • Introduction
  • 13.1 Designing Amidst Uncertainty
  • 13.2 Knowledge Management Tasks for Breakthrough Innovation: From Intelligence Leveraging to Intelligence Amplification
  • 13.3 KM and Selected Tools for Breakthrough Innovation
  • 13.4 Organizational Implications
  • 13.5 Appendices
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 14: Strategically Embedding Design Thinking in the Firm
  • Introduction
  • 14.1 Role of Key Personnel
  • 14.2 Organizational Practices
  • 14.3 Organizational Climate and Culture
  • 14.4 Embedding Design Thinking
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Part III: Design Thinking For Specific Contexts
  • Chapter 15: Designing Services that Sing and Dance
  • Introduction
  • 15.1 Products, Services, and Experiences
  • 15.2 How to Design for Compelling Service Experiences
  • 15.3 Services that Sing and Dance
  • 15.4 Designing a Service Experience Is Never Finished
  • 15.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 16: Capturing Context through Service Design Stories
  • Introduction
  • 16.1 Service Design
  • 16.2 Context, Stories, and Designers as Interpreters
  • 16.3 Context Through Narratives-The CTN Method
  • 16.4 Case Illustration of the CTN Method
  • 16.5 Conclusion and Recommendations
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 17: Optimal Design for Radically New Products
  • Introduction
  • 17.1 Communicate the Challenge Goal toward Radically New Products
  • 17.2 Shift Time Frames to Future and Past
  • 17.3 Promote an Emerging Technology Focus across the Consumption Chain
  • 17.4 Promote the Use of Analogical Thinking
  • 17.5 Look for Novel Ways to Solve Simple Problems
  • 17.6 Leverage More Ideators via Crowdsourcing
  • 17.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 18: Business Model Design
  • Introduction
  • 18.1 What Is a Business Model?
  • 18.2 When Do I Need to Think about My Business Model?
  • 18.3 What Value Should I Expect from a Business Model Design?
  • 18.4 What Method Can I Use to Design a Business Model?
  • 18.5 Process of Designing a Business Model
  • 18.6 How Do I Implement My New or Revised Business Model?
  • 18.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Chapter 19: Lean Start-up in Large Enterprises Using Human-Centered Design Thinking: A New Approach for Developing Transformational and Disruptive Innovations
  • Introduction
  • 19.1 Lean Start-up
  • 19.2 Transformational and Disruptive Innovation: Defining the Domain Where the Lean Start-up Process Should Be Used
  • 19.3 Why Is a Business Model a Valuable Part of the Lean Start-up Process?
  • 19.4 Lean Start-up through the Lens of Human-Centered Design
  • 19.5 Implementing the Lean Start-up Approach in Enterprises
  • 19.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Part IV: Consumer Responses and Values
  • Chapter 20: Consumer Response to Product Form1
  • Introduction
  • 20.1 How Product Form Influences Consumer Product Evaluation
  • 20.2 Product Form Characteristics and Consumer Perceptions
  • 20.4 Practical Implications
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 21: Drivers of Diversity in Consumers' Aesthetic Response to Product Design
  • Introduction
  • 21.1 Culture
  • 21.2 Individual Characteristics
  • 21.3 Situational Factors
  • 21.4 Discussion
  • 21.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 22: Future-Friendly Design: Designing for and with Future Consumers
  • Introduction
  • 22.1 A Framework for Understanding Changing Consumer Values
  • 22.2 Emerging Consumer Needs
  • 22.3 Going Forward
  • References
  • About the Author
  • Part V: Special Topics in Design Thinking
  • Chapter 23: Face And Interface: Richer Product Experiences through Integrated User Interface and Industrial Design1
  • Introduction
  • 23.1 Divergent Paths: User Interface in Physical and Digital Products
  • 23.2 Emerging User Interface Technologies
  • 23.3 New Technology Demands a New Development Process
  • 23.4 Seven Questions to Guide the Integration of Industrial Design with User Interface Design
  • 23.5 Practice Makes Perfect
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 24: Intellectual Property Protection for Designs
  • Introduction
  • 24.1 "Design" in Intellectual Property
  • 24.2 Utility Patents
  • 24.3 Design Patents
  • 24.4 Copyrightable Designs for Useful Articles
  • 24.5 Trademark Rights for Product Design
  • 24.6 Legal Overlap, Trade-Offs, and Strategic Considerations
  • 24.7 Conclusion
  • About the Author
  • Chapter 25: Design Thinking for Sustainability
  • Introduction
  • 25.1 Design for "X"?
  • 25.2 Design Thinking Integrated into Design for Sustainability
  • 25.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • About the Authors
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Chapter 1
A Brief Introduction to Design Thinking1


Michael G. Luchs

Innovation and Design Studio, College of William & Mary

Introduction


Within the context of new product development (NPD) and innovation, design thinking has enjoyed significantly increased visibility and, for many, increased perceived importance over the last decade. For others, however, this term can be fraught with confusion, questions of relevancy and, for some, the perception of a fad. Within that context, the objectives of this chapter include the following: First, I briefly describe the concept of design thinking and its role within NPD and innovation. Next, I provide and describe a simple framework of design thinking, followed by a summary of some fundamental principles of the "mindset" of design thinking. Throughout, I identify linkages with the other chapters in this book. While this chapter provides an overview of design thinking as well as some context, the remaining chapters in this book provide significantly more detail and a wide variety of specific examples. Thus, this chapter concludes with a visual overview of the book to help guide you to the specific ideas, tools, and practices most applicable to the NPD and innovation problems and opportunities that you and your firm are facing today.

1.1 The Concept of Design Thinking and Its Role within NPD and Innovation


What is design thinking? At its core, design thinking can be construed as a creative problem-solving approach-or, more completely, as a systematic and collaborative approach for identifying and creatively solving problems.2 The term design thinking simply means that one is approaching problems, and their solutions, as a designer would. While this will be elaborated subsequently, an illustrative characteristic of the design thinking approach is that it is intentionally nonlinear. Designers, whether in the arts or industry, tend to explore and solve problems through iteration. They quickly generate possible solutions, develop simple prototypes, and then iterate on these initial solutions-informed by significant external feedback-toward a final solution. This is in contrast to a linear process, such as the traditional Stage-GateTM new product development (NPD) process, in which prototyping is typically done toward the end of the process to reflect the culmination of the development phase and to explore manufacturability, rather than as a mechanism for gaining market feedback. A more thorough description of design thinking as a process and mindset follows, but first I address an important question for those involved with new product development and innovation: When is design thinking most applicable?

When to Apply Design Thinking


Generally speaking, design thinking is best applied in situations in which the problem, or opportunity, is not well defined, and/or a breakthrough idea or concept is needed, that is, an idea that has a significant and positive impact, such as creating a new market or enabling significant revenue growth. Design thinking methods have been used successfully in different ways within business including new venture creation, business model design, and process improvement. While our focus is on applying design thinking to the challenge and opportunity of new product development3 and innovation, this book also includes several chapters that address other contexts, such as business model design (Chapters 18 and 19).

Within the context of NPD, design thinking is very well suited to use in markets that are quickly changing and when user needs are uncertain, such as the emerging market for wearable biometric devices. However, design thinking is equally applicable in more mature markets as a means to identify new, latent customer needs and/or in an effort to develop significant or radical innovations (Chapter 17). Whereas incremental innovations are also critically important to most companies, they typically are bounded by well-defined problems or established customer needs, such as improving gas engine fuel efficiency. In those situations, a more linear, Stage-Gate process is still appropriate. Nonetheless, even in these situations there may be specific elements of a design thinking approach-specific tools or techniques-that can improve a project's outcome.

For the right situations, however, a design thinking approach is more likely to lead to better solutions that address the most important customer needs, and do so more efficiently than traditional NPD approaches alone. One of the reasons for this is that design thinking helps to avoid the trap of investing too many resources too early in a project toward developing a specific, single solution. Rather than placing such a "big bet," design thinking encourages many "little bets" (Sims, 2013) about customer insights and possible solutions. Sims describes these little bets as "low risk actions taken to discover, develop, and test an idea." These little bets make it more likely that a project team will quickly converge on solution concepts with the highest potential market success. At some point, of course, specifications need to be well defined and the product needs to be developed and, ultimately, produced. In this sense, another way to think about design thinking is as a clarifying lens on the oft referred to "fuzzy front end" of NPD, whereby a project begins with an iterative, design thinking approach, followed by a traditional Stage-Gate process after enough has been learned about customer needs and possible solutions.

The Origins of Design Thinking


The methods and mindset of design thinking, although championed by progressive companies and design consultancies, draw from a wide field of disciplines including software development, engineering, anthropology, psychology, the arts, and business. Design thinking as it exists today has co-evolved across a variety of disciplines and industries. Over time-well over 50 years, and even longer depending on your perspective-the best and most generalizable methods and practices have emerged and converged in a quasi-Darwinian process of natural selection. These have been codified, integrated, documented, and championed by leading design firms (such as IDEO and frog) and academic institutions (such as Stanford's d.school, and the Rotman School of Management), and have increasingly been adopted by industry and popularized by the media under the shared moniker of design thinking.

While this co-evolution and vetting of design thinking has led to a robust set of methodologies, it has also contributed to some confusion given the proliferation of tools, methods, books, seminars, and, more recently, online training available. Rather than getting lost in the details from the start, a useful way to learn about design thinking methods is through the lens of an organizing framework. Even here, however, there are a variety of frameworks to choose from, each with its own nuances and biases. To the novice, this, too, can be daunting. Given the time to explore these, however, it becomes apparent that there actually is significant consistency across these frameworks. In a sense, each of these has been a prototype framework-building on the ideas and lessons of its predecessors. In that iterative spirit, I propose a framework for design thinking in the next section that is intended to reflect the shared elements of existing frameworks, with the objective of retaining the most important elements of design thinking and their distinctions, while simplifying their depiction and terminology. At the least, this framework introduces the major elements of design thinking as efficiently as possible and facilitates an exploration of the rich content contained within the other chapters of this book. Further, it will make it easier to quickly navigate other design thinking frameworks in use and, in so doing, enable an efficient exploration of the vast library of tools, techniques, and advice beyond these pages.

1.2 A Framework of Design Thinking


There are literally dozens, if not hundreds, of specific design thinking-related methods and tools available, and this book will explore many of these. Learning about just a few of these and understanding how they are used together is likely more valuable than trying to experiment with them without any context. The following framework is intended to provide that context, by organizing these methods and tools based on their role or purpose.

Design thinking, as a systematic and collaborative approach for identifying and creatively solving problems, includes two major phases: identifying problems and solving problems. Both of these phases are critical, but in practice most people and project teams within companies are more inclined to focus on the latter, that is, on solving problems. We are naturally creative beings, and given any problem-however ill-defined-most of us can generate a set of ideas. Unfortunately, these often will not be great ideas, that is, ideas that are both original and that solve the problems with the greatest potential. One of the most powerful features of design thinking is its emphasis on identifying the right problems to solve in the first place. This is, therefore, a key element of the following framework, as indicated by the two phases of design thinking depicted in Figure 1.1: Identify and Solve. Next, I describe the purpose of each of the modes within these two phases, followed by a discussion of the...

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