Low-carbon Energy Security from a European Perspective

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 284 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802987-9 (ISBN)
 

Low-Carbon Energy Security from a European Perspective draws on the European Commission's funded project MILESECURE-2050. It considers low-carbon energy security and energy geopolitics in Europe, with a focus on four thematic clusters: challenging the energy security paradigm; climate change and energy security objectives (the components of a secure and low-carbon energy system); energy security in a geopolitical perspective, as it relates to economics, resource competition, and availability; and the influence of large scale renewable energy projects on energy security and shifting geopolitical alliances.

An overarching narrative is that optimizing the energy system simultaneously across different objectives may be impossible, i.e., lowest cost, least environmental impact, minimal downtime, regional supply. This book explores these charged topics through insights from a series of novel, new energy project case studies, and demonstrates the need for difficult political conversations within Europe and beyond by posing fundamental yet new questions about the energy security paradigm.


  • Offers a unique perspective on low-carbon energy security by considering the assumptions behind current energy security needs
  • Suggests the benefit of envisioning energy security through out-of-the-box scenario development with respect to the energy system
  • Includes energy in an international scenario with case studies from Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Morroco, China, South America, and Europe
  • Draws on the European Commission's funded project MILESECURE-2050
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
Elsevier Science
  • 3,49 MB
978-0-12-802987-9 (9780128029879)
0128029870 (0128029870)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Low-carbon Energy Security from a European Perspective
  • Low-carbon Energy Security from a European Perspective
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • 1 - Challenging the Energy Security Paradigm
  • 1.1 INTRODUCTION: THE PREVAILING ENERGY SECURITY PARADIGM
  • 1.1.1 Markets Not Munitions
  • 1.1.2 Expanding the Map
  • 1.1.3 Past as Prologue?
  • 1.2 HARMONIZING ENERGY AND CLIMATE POLICIES
  • 1.2.1 Defining Energy Security
  • 1.3 OUR APPROACH
  • 1.4 STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - European Union Energy Policy Evolutionary Patterns
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE EU ENERGY POLICY
  • 2.2.1 The Arab-Israeli War and the Oil Crisis
  • 2.2.2 Chernobyl and the Rise of Environmental Concerns
  • 2.2.3 The Kyoto Protocol: Towards a Global Approach to Environmental Problems
  • 2.3 CURRENT ENERGY REGIME AND MAIN CHALLENGES FOR ENERGY SECURITY
  • 2.3.1 EU Energy Consumption and Dependence
  • 2.3.2 The Challenges for Energy Security
  • 2.4 PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE EUROPEAN UNION CLIMATE AND ENERGY STRATEGIES
  • 2.4.1 The Consolidation of Contemporary European Energy Strategies
  • 2.4.2 Renewable Energy Policy
  • 2.4.3 Energy Efficiency Policy
  • 2.4.4 Market Integration
  • 2.4.5 Energy Networks
  • 2.4.6 Security of Energy Supply
  • 2.4.7 Energy Technology and Innovation Policy
  • 2.5 CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - A Study of Russia as Key Natural Gas Supplier to Europe in Terms of Security of Supply and Market Power
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 CURRENT LOOK AT NATURAL GAS IN THE EU
  • 3.2.1 EU Natural Gas Consumption Over the Peak?
  • 3.2.2 Dwindling Domestic Production
  • 3.2.3 Natural Gas Imports Cover the Majority of EU Supplies
  • 3.3 EUROPEAN UNION-RUSSIA GAS RELATIONS
  • 3.3.1 Natural Gas and Its Economic Role in the Russian Economy
  • 3.3.2 Natural Gas as a Political Tool
  • 3.4 EU POLICIES TARGETED TO IMPROVE NATURAL GAS SECURITY
  • 3.4.1 Energy Union
  • 3.4.2 Natural Gas Pricing
  • 3.4.3 Limiting Russian-European Union Market Access
  • 3.4.4 Diversification of Gas Resources
  • 3.4.4.1 Increasing Imports From Norway
  • 3.4.4.2 Liquefied Natural Gas
  • 3.4.4.3 Pipelines and Interconnectors
  • 3.4.4.4 Gas Storage
  • 3.4.4.5 Shift Towards Low-Carbon Policies and Technologies
  • 3.4.4.6 European Union External Policy Instruments
  • 3.5 RUSSIAN GAS STRATEGIES UNDER UNCERTAINTY
  • 3.6 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - The Macroregional Geopolitics of Energy Security: Towards a New Energy World Order?
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 ENERGY SECURITY IN THE INTERNATIONAL DEBATE
  • 4.2.1 The Global Energy Consumption Growth and the Depletion of Energy Resources
  • 4.2.2 Energy Security Threats
  • 4.2.3 Environmental Pressure and Long-Term Targets
  • 4.2.4 Energy Policies and Beyond
  • 4.3 THE MACROREGIONAL GEOPOLITICS OF ENERGY SECURITY
  • 4.3.1 Towards a New Energy World Order
  • 4.3.2 The Role of Oil in the World and in Europe
  • 4.3.3 The Role of Natural Gas in the World and in Europe
  • 4.3.4 The Role of Coal in the World and in Europe
  • 4.4 EUROPEAN ENERGY GEOPOLITICS: KEY REGIONS
  • 4.4.1 The Persian Gulf
  • 4.4.2 The Caspian Sea
  • 4.4.3 Africa
  • 4.5 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - Reshaping Equilibria: Renewable Energy Mega-Projects and Energy Security
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION: ASSESSING THE CONTRIBUTION OF LARGE-SCALE RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS TO LOW-CARBON ENERGY SECURITY
  • 5.2 TAPPING THE DESERT FOR SUSTAINABLE POWER: MOROCCO AND NORTH AFRICA
  • 5.2.1 DESERTEC and Noor Project Backgrounds
  • 5.2.2 Middle East and North Africa Region and Moroccan Energy Policies and Support Mechanisms
  • 5.2.3 Energy Security Implications
  • 5.2.4 Assessing the Potential Contribution to Low-Carbon Energy Security
  • 5.3 THE WINDS OF THE NORTH SEA
  • 5.3.1 Energy Policies and Support Mechanisms Around the North and Baltic Seas
  • 5.3.2 North Seas Offshore Grid and Kriegers Flak Project Backgrounds
  • 5.3.3 Energy Security Implications
  • 5.3.4 Assessing the Potential Contribution to Low-Carbon Energy Security
  • 5.4 LESSONS FOR A LOW-CARBON AND SECURE ENERGY TRANSITION
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - European Distributed Renewable Energy Case Studies
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 ANTICIPATORY EXPERIENCES: REFLECTING HOW WE ENVISAGE THE LONG-TERM WAYS RENEWABLE ENERGY WILL COMPETE WITH FOSSIL FUELS IN A...
  • 6.2.1 Anticipatory Experiences in the Energy Transition: What Is It About?
  • 6.2.2 Anticipatory Experiences in the Energy Transition in Europe
  • 6.2.3 Renewable Energy in Anticipatory Experiences
  • 6.2.3.1 Renewable Energy in AEs: Some Examples
  • Jühnde Bio Energy Village, Germany
  • Peccioli, Italy
  • Western Harbour, Malmo, Sweden
  • Samsoe, Denmark
  • BedZED, United Kingdom
  • 6.2.4 Going Beyond Fossil Fuels in Anticipatory Experiences
  • 6.3 THE GERMAN EXPERIENCE OF THE ENERGIEWENDE
  • 6.3.1 Energy Policies and Support Mechanisms
  • 6.3.1.1 Renewable Electricity Generation
  • 6.3.1.2 Heat
  • 6.3.1.3 Transport
  • 6.3.2 Electricity Costs for Retail and Wholesale
  • 6.3.2.1 Retail Pricing
  • 6.3.2.2 Wholesale Pricing
  • 6.3.3 Energy Security Implications of the Energiewende
  • 6.3.4 Acceptance and Social Implications
  • 6.4 THE ITALIAN EXPERIENCE WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY
  • 6.4.1 Energy Policies and Support Mechanisms
  • 6.4.2 Energy Costs for Retail and Wholesale
  • 6.4.3 Energy Security Implications
  • 6.4.4 Acceptance and Social Implications
  • 6.5 COSTS, COMPETITIVENESS AND CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION IN EUROPEAN UNION ENERGY SECURITY POLICY
  • 6.5.1 European Energy Transition
  • 6.5.2 Energy Costs for Retail and Wholesale
  • 6.5.2.1 Electricity
  • 6.5.2.2 Natural Gas
  • 6.5.2.3 Overall Energy Costs
  • 6.5.2.4 Energy Security Implications
  • 6.5.2.5 Acceptance and Social Implications
  • 6.6 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Energy Security in Low-Carbon Pathways
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 REVIEW OF GLOBAL SCENARIOS IN THE FIFTH IPCC REPORT
  • 7.2.1 The Scenarios Database Provided by Integrated Assessment Models
  • 7.2.2 Which Low-Carbon Trajectory is Compatible With the 2°C Target?
  • 7.2.3 Deep Transformations Required in Energy Systems
  • 7.2.4 Sectoral Potentials of the Low-Carbon Transition
  • 7.3 GLOBAL EVALUATION OF ENERGY SECURITY CHALLENGES IN LOW-CARBON PATHWAYS
  • 7.3.1 Interactions Between Energy Security and Climate Change Policies: A Review
  • 7.3.2 A Rising Interest of Co-benefits Analysis in IPCC Assessment Report 5
  • 7.3.2.1 The Global Energy Assessment
  • 7.3.3 Co-benefits and Climate Negotiations: Some Perspectives
  • 7.3.3.1 A Potential Hook for Multiobjective Policies
  • 7.3.3.2 Challenges of Representing Multiple Objectives in Integrated Assessment Models
  • 7.4 CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Towards Governance of Energy Security
  • 8.1 INTRODUCTION: TRANSITION AS AN UNSTRUCTURED PROBLEM
  • 8.2 THE CONCEPTUAL BABYLON OF ENERGY SECURITY
  • 8.2.1 A Geopolitical Perspective on Energy Security
  • 8.2.2 An Economic Perspective on Energy Security
  • 8.2.3 Normative Ambiguity
  • 8.3 THE IMPOSSIBILITY OF REDUCING FACTUAL UNCERTAINTY
  • 8.3.1 Reductionist Ontologies
  • 8.3.2 Disregarding Dynamics
  • 8.4 UNSTRUCTURED PROBLEMS
  • 8.4.1 Dealing With Unstructured Problems
  • 8.4.2 Numbers Beat No Numbers
  • 8.5 GOVERNANCE FOR ENERGY SECURITY
  • 8.6 CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Reducing Uncertainty Through a Systemic Risk-Management Approach
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION: STRUCTURING ENERGY SECURITY
  • 9.2 TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC VIEW ON ENERGY SECURITY
  • 9.3 SECURE ENERGY SYSTEMS IN PRACTICE
  • 9.3.1 Domain Specification
  • 9.3.1.1 Establishing the Context and Risk Identification
  • 9.3.1.2 Risk Analysis: Likelihoods and Consequences of Energy Security Risks
  • 9.3.1.3 Likelihoods of Energy Security Risks
  • 9.3.1.4 Consequences of Energy Security Risks
  • 9.3.1.5 Risk Evaluation: Strategies to Enhance Energy Security
  • 9.3.1.6 Risk Treatment and Coherence With Other Energy Policy Objectives
  • 9.4 GOVERNANCE OF SYSTEMIC RISKS
  • 9.4.1 Different Modes Have Different Temporalities
  • 9.4.2 Different Modes Have Different Spatial Jurisdictions
  • 9.4.3 Focus on Services Helps
  • 9.5 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Towards a Low-Carbon, Citizens-Driven Europe's Energy Security Agenda
  • 10.1 REFRAMING THE DOMINANT DISCOURSE ON ENERGY SECURITY IN EUROPE
  • 10.2 THE RISE OF THE HUMAN FACTOR
  • 10.3 SOME MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING EUROPEAN ENERGY POLICIES
  • ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Back Cover

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