Hydrocephalus is one of the most common diseases of pediatric and adult neurosurgery. With the introduction of modern neurosurgical procedures, this disease has become a life-long problem. Even with optimal treatment, there is still significant morbidity and mortality along with a significant cost to the medical system. This has caused patients and their families to demand improvements in treatments and forced clinicians to evaluate their treatments in large consortiums while utilizing both genetics and technology to improve outcomes or avoid placement of shunt all together.
This text is designed to present the current treatments for hydrocephalus across the lifespan. The foundation for understanding cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities begins with the understanding of physiology and pathogenesis of disease. These chapters are written by published experts in the field and detail the significant advances in the detection of CSF abnormalities. This section will discuss the current advances in imaging and current research in biomarkers for both pediatric and adult patients. We will then systematically discuss the treatment of both pediatric and adult CSF disorders. These will be broken down by cause, since the physiology of each can be different. We will end the book with a discussion both of the technological advances and a discussion of consortiums and how they have advanced treatment of this chronic disease.
David D. Limbrick, Jr., MD, PhDDepartment of Neurological SurgeryWashington University School of MedicineSt. Louis Children's HospitalSt. Louis, MOUSA
Jeffrey R. Leonard, MD Division of Pediatric NeurosurgeryNationwide Children's HospitalDepartment of NeurosurgeryThe Ohio State University College of MedicineColumbus, OHUSA
Physiopathology of Foetal Onset Hydrocephalus.- Iron and Hydrocephalus.- Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers of Hydrocephalus.- Intracranial Pulsatility, Cerebrospinal Fluid Flow and Glymphatic Function in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.- Congenital Hydrocephalus.- Genetics of Hydrocephalus: Causal and Contributory Factors.- Anatomy and Physiology Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Hydrocephalus.- Post-Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus.- Multiloculated Hydrocephalus: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Clinical Implications.- Hydrocephalus Secondary to Spina Bifida.- Hydrocephalus and Brain Tumors.- Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus.- Hydrocephalus following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.- Post-Traumatic Hydrocephalus.- Management of Intracranial Hypotension and Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks.- Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunting.- Shunts and Shunt Malfunction.- Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy with Choroid Plexus Cauterization (ETV-CPC) versus CSF Shunting.- Randomized Clinical Trials in Pediatric Hydrocephalus.- Global Perspectives on the Treatment of Hydrocephalus.- Technical Advances in the Treatment Hydrocephalus: Current and Future State.