Rare Earths Industry

Technological, Economic, and Environmental Implications
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 10. September 2015
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  • 434 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-802568-0 (ISBN)
 

Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain.

Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems.


    • Discusses the influence of policy on Rare Earth Elements to help raise interest in developing strategies for management resource development and exploitation
    • Global contributions will address solutions in countries that are high RE producers, including China, Brazil, Australia, and South China
    • End of chapter critical summaries outline the technological, economic and environmental implications of rare earths reserves, exploration and market
    • Provides a concise, but meaningful, geopolitical analysis of the current worldwide scenario and importance of rare earths exploration for governments, corporate groups, and local stakeholders.
    • Englisch
    • USA
    Elsevier Science
    • 9,29 MB
    978-0-12-802568-0 (9780128025680)
    0128025689 (0128025689)
    weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
    • Front Cover
    • Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic, and Environmental Implications
    • Copyright
    • Contents
    • List of Contributors
    • Preface
    • INTRODUCTION
    • 1 - AN OVERVIEW OF THE USEFULNESS AND STRATEGIC VALUE OF RARE EARTH METALS
    • 1. CRITICAL RARE EARTHS
    • 1.1 WHAT REES ARE
    • 1.2 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • 2. THE CRITICALITY ISSUE
    • 3. OCCURRENCES, MINING, AND PRODUCTION
    • 3.1 ABUNDANCE AND GEOLOGY
    • 3.2 MINING AND PRODUCTION
    • 3.2.1 Historical Development
    • 3.2.2 Global Production and Reserves
    • 3.2.3 Reserves
    • 3.2.4 Major Mines
    • 3.2.5 Ecology
    • 3.3 RECYCLING
    • 3.4 SUBSTITUTION
    • 4. APPLICATIONS
    • 5. PRICE DEVELOPMENT AND CONSEQUENCES
    • 6. POLITICS AND POLICIES
    • 7. WHERE WE ARE TODAY
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 1 - RARE EARTHS RESERVES AND MINING
    • 2 - AN OVERVIEW OF CHINESE RARE EARTH EXPORT RESTRICTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. CASE AGAINST CHINA IN WTO ON REE EXPORT RESTRICTIONS
    • 3. INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND CHINA'S ROLE
    • 3.1 CHINA'S EXPORTS OF REES FROM 1992 TO 2013
    • 4. RARE EARTH EXPORT RESTRICTIONS OF CHINA
    • 4.1 CHINESE RARE EARTH EXPORT QUOTAS
    • 4.2 EXPORT TAXES ON RARE EARTH EXPORTS FROM CHINA
    • 5. WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION RULING AND IMPLICATIONS OF CHINESE EXPORT RESTRICTIONS
    • 6. CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES
    • 3 - RARE EARTH PRODUCTION, REGULATORY USA/INTERNATIONAL CONSTRAINTS AND CHINESE DOMINANCE: THE ECONOMIC VIABILITY I ...
    • 1. HISTORY
    • 1.1 A HISTORY OF REGULATIONS AND UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES
    • 1.2 UNITED STATES REGULATION 10 CFR 40-CIRCA 1980 BELOW
    • 1.3 CHINESE INDUSTRIAL POLICY
    • 2. THE STATUS QUO DOES NOT WORK
    • 2.1 THE PANDORA PRODUCTION PRINCIPLE
    • 2.2 LOSING MONEY ON EACH UNIT BUT MAKING IT UP ON VOLUME
    • 3. RARE EARTH INDEPENDENCE
    • 3.1 ANTISOLUTIONS
    • 3.2 HOW BIG IS THE PROBLEM?
    • 3.3 WESTERN MARKET-BASED STRATEGIES ARE NOT WORKING
    • 3.4 SOLUTION
    • 4. CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES
    • ENDNOTES
    • 4 - POTENTIALITY OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN BRAZIL
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. METHODOLOGY
    • 3. GEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF REE DEPOSITS
    • 3.1 ALKALINE CARBONATITE DEPOSITS
    • 3.1.1 Rare earth element minerals
    • 3.2 GRANITIC DEPOSITS
    • 3.2.1 Rare earth element minerals
    • 3.3 PLACER DEPOSITS
    • 4. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 5 - A DESCRIPTION OF THE WORLD-CLASS RARE EARTH ELEMENT DEPOSIT, TANBREEZ, SOUTH GREENLAND
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. GEOLOGICAL SETTING
    • 3. METHODS
    • 4. STRUCTURE AND MINERALOGY OF THE KAKORTOKITE BODY
    • 4.1 PRIMARY ORE MINERAL: EUDIALYTE
    • 5. BOUNDARIES OF THE KAKORTOKITE BODY
    • 6. SIZE OF THE KAKORTOKITE BODY
    • 7. ORE GRADE AND ORE SEPARATION
    • 8. CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
    • REFERENCES
    • 6 - SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT MINING PROJECTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS
    • 3. STAKEHOLDER COMMUNICATION AND SOCIAL LICENSE TO OPERATE
    • 4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR REE MINING PROJECTS
    • 5. FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 7 - FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE MINING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. FRAMEWORK FOR SD OF REE MINING PROJECTS
    • 3. APPLICATION OF GENERIC FRAMEWORK IN REE SUSTAINABLE MINING
    • 4. CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 8 - RARE EARTH UNDERGROUND MINING APPROACHES WITH RESPECT TO RADIOACTIVITY CONTROL AND MONITORING STRATEGIES
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. METHODOLOGY
    • 3. RADIOACTIVE DECAY CHAINS: IMPORTANCE OF RADON
    • 4. RADIATION UNITS AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE LIMITS
    • 5. IMPACT OF RADON AND PROGENY ON HUMAN HEALTH
    • 6. RADON DISPERSION IN A RARE EARTH UNDERGROUND MINE
    • 6.1 RADON-SPREADING FACTORS
    • 6.2 RATING OF MINING METHODS WITH RESPECT TO RADON DISPERSION
    • 7. RADON AND PROGENY RESTRICTION EVALUATIONS
    • 7.1 MINING PROCESS OPTIMIZATION
    • 7.2 VENTILATION
    • 7.3 BACKFILLING
    • 7.4 MINE WATER ASSESSMENTS
    • 7.5 MONITORING
    • 7.6 PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT AND MEASURES
    • 8. DISCUSSION
    • 9. CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 9 - CHINA'S RARE EARTH RESOURCES, MINERALOGY, AND BENEFICIATION
    • 1. CHINA'S RARE EARTH RESOURCES AND PRODUCTION
    • 2. CHINA'S RARE EARTH MINES
    • 2.1 THE BAYAN OBO REE-NB-FE DEPOSIT
    • 2.2 THE SICHUAN MIANNING RARE EARTH DEPOSIT
    • 2.3 SHANDONG WEISHAN RARE EARTH DEPOSIT
    • 2.4 CHINA'S ION ADSORPTION REO DEPOSIT
    • 3. BENEFICIATION AND EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES OF CHINA'S REO
    • 3.1 BENEFICIATION TECHNIQUES IN THE BANYAN OBO RARE EARTH MINE
    • 3.2 BENEFICIATION TECHNIQUES IN THE MIANNING RARE EARTH MINE
    • 3.3 BENEFICIATION TECHNIQUES IN WEISHAN RARE EARTH MINE
    • 3.4 EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES OF CHINA'S ION ADSORPTION REO
    • 4. CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 2 - RARE EARTHS PROCESSES AND HIGH-TECH PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
    • 10 - THE ROLE OF RARE EARTH SUPPLY RISK IN LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. METHODOLOGY
    • 3. OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
    • 3.1 GENERATOR TOPOLOGIES
    • 3.2 DEPLOYMENT TRENDS
    • 4. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES
    • 4.1 HYBRIDIZATION AND RARE EARTH CONTENTS
    • 4.2 GLOBAL SALES OF VEHICLES
    • 5. IMPACT OF RARE EARTH PRICE VOLATILITY ON LOW-CARBON TECHNOLOGIES' MANUFACTURERS
    • 6. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 11 - EXTRACTION BEHAVIOR OF SCANDIUM FROM A REFRACTORY NICKEL LATERITE ORE DURING THE PRESSURE ACID LEACHING PROCESS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. EXPERIMENTAL
    • 2.1 SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION
    • 2.2 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
    • 3. RESULTS
    • 3.1 CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS
    • 3.2 PRESSURE ACID LEACHING RESULTS
    • 4. DISCUSSION
    • 4.1 EFFECT OF SULFURIC ACID/ORE RATIO
    • 4.2 EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
    • 4.3 EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE AND LEACHING DURATION
    • 4.4 EFFECT OF SULFUR ADDITION
    • 5. CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 12 - LEACHING RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM BAUXITE RESIDUE USING BRøNSTED ACIDIC IONIC LIQUIDS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. BACKGROUND: IONIC LIQUIDS IN METAL PROCESSING
    • 3. EXPERIMENTAL
    • 3.1 MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION
    • 3.1.1 Bauxite residue (red mud) characterization
    • 3.1.2 EmimHSO4 IL characterization
    • 3.1.3 Leaching procedure of synthetic oxides
    • 3.1.4 Leaching procedure of BRs
    • 4. RESULTS
    • 4.1 LEACHING OF SYNTHETIC METAL OXIDES WITH EMIMHSO4
    • 4.2 PRELIMINARY LEACHING EXPERIMENTS OF BR
    • 4.2.1 Leaching experiments at elevated temperatures
    • 4.2.2 Kinetic experiments
    • 4.2.3 Effect of altering the alkyl chain in BmimHSO4
    • 4.2.4 Temperature effect
    • 4.2.5 Water addition
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 13 - ELECTRODEPOSITION OF RARE EARTH METALS FROM IONIC LIQUIDS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE ELECTRODEPOSITION OF RARE EARTH METALS FROM ILS
    • 2.1 IMIDAZOLIUM-BASED ILS
    • 2.2 PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED ILS
    • 2.3 AMMONIUM-BASED ILS
    • 2.4 PHOSPHONIUM-BASED ILS
    • 2.5 CHOLINE-BASED ILS
    • 3. LANTHANUM ELECTRODEPOSITION IN THE IL BMP-TFSI
    • 3.1 MATERIALS AND METHODS
    • 3.2 RESULTS
    • 3.2.1 Cyclic voltammetry
    • 3.2.2 Lanthanum electrodeposition
    • 3.2.3 Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrometry
    • 4. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 14 - EXTRACTION OF LANTHANIDES FROM SPENT POLISHING AGENT
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. EXPERIMENTAL
    • 2.1 INPUT MATERIAL
    • 2.2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP AND TEST MODE
    • 2.3 NITRIC ACID LEACHING
    • 2.4 HYDROCHLORIC ACID LEACHING
    • 2.5 SULFURIC ACID DIGESTION AND LEACHING
    • 3. RESULTS
    • 3.1 NITRIC ACID LEACHING EXPERIMENTS
    • 3.2 HYDROCHLORIC ACID LEACHING AND PRECIPITATION EXPERIMENTS
    • 3.3 SULFURIC ACID LEACHING AND PRECIPITATION EXPERIMENTS
    • 4. CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 15 - A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF SOLUBILITY OF RARE EARTH OXIDES IN MOLTEN FLUORIDES
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. STATE OF THE ART
    • 3. THE ROLE PLAYED BY THE DIFFERENT FACTORS
    • 3.1 TEMPERATURE
    • 3.2 RARE EARTH FLUORIDE (RF3)
    • 3.3 ALKALI METAL FLUORIDE
    • 3.4 ALKALI EARTH METAL FLUORIDE
    • 4. THE IMPLICATION OF IMPROVING THE PROPERTIES OF THE MELTS
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 16 - HYPERSPECTRAL RARE EARTH ELEMENT MAPPING OF THREE OUTCROPS AT THE FEN COMPLEX, NORWAY: CALCITIC, DOLOMITIC, AN ...
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. GEOLOGICAL SETTING
    • 3. MATERIALS AND METHODS
    • 3.1 MATERIALS
    • 3.1.1 Fieldwork procedure to collect hyperspectral data cube
    • 3.1.2 Field sampling
    • 3.2 HYPERSPECTRAL METHODS
    • 3.2.1 Hyperspectral preprocessing
    • 3.2.2 Material identification and characterization algorithm
    • 3.2.3 Hyperspectral iron oxide detection
    • 3.2.4 Rare earth element detection
    • 3.3 GEOCHEMICAL METHODS
    • 3.3.1 In situ analysis with handheld XRF
    • 3.3.2 Geochemical analysis of rare earth element concentrations
    • 4. RESULTS
    • 4.1 HYPERSPECTRAL RESULTS
    • 4.2 GEOCHEMICAL RESULTS
    • 5. DISCUSSION
    • 5.1 DISCUSSION OF PROPOSED METHODOLOGIES
    • 5.2 DISCUSSION OF RESULTING OUTCROP MAPS AND GEOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
    • 6. CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 3 - RARE EARTH RECYCLING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: CHALLENGES AND ADVANCES
    • 17 - AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE EXPLOITATION OF RARE EARTH METALS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 WASTE/RADIOACTIVE WASTE
    • 1.2 FUGITIVE DUST AND AEROSOLS
    • 1.3 PLANT TISSUES
    • 1.4 SURFACE WATER
    • 1.5 GROUNDWATER
    • 1.6 ECOSYSTEM ALTERATION
    • 1.7 POST PROBLEMS
    • 2. CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES
    • FURTHER READING
    • 18 - ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND BEST PRACTICE IN THE EMERGING EUROPEAN RARE EARTH ELEMENT INDUSTRY
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. METHODS
    • 3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH REE MINING AND PROCESSING
    • 3.1 NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS
    • 3.2 CHEMICAL HAZARDS
    • 3.3 KEY ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION MEASURES IDENTIFIED
    • 4. MAIN EU ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION TO SUPPORT THE REE INDUSTRY
    • 4.1 RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION
    • 4.2 MINING AND BENEFICIATION
    • 4.3 PROCESSING AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT
    • 4.4 BEST AVAILABLE TECHNIQUE REFERENCE DOCUMENTS
    • 5. EVALUATION OF EU LEGISLATION WITH REFERENCE TO INTERNATIONAL LEGISLATION AND PRACTICE
    • 5.1 REGULATORY SYSTEM
    • 5.2 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
    • 5.3 WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • 5.4 NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT
    • 5.5 MANAGEMENT OF THE MINE SITE
    • 6. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 19 - RARE EARTHS INDUSTRY AND ECO-MANAGEMENT: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF RECYCLING AND SUBSTITUTES
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. THE ENVIRONMENTAL-ECONOMIC VALUES OF RARE EARTHS: TRADEOFFS CASE?
    • 3. RARE EARTH RECYCLING AND SUPPLY RISK ALLEVIATION
    • 4. CHALLENGES IN RECYCLING THE RARE EARTHS: THE NEED FOR FULLY INTEGRATED ROUTES
    • 5. CURRENT RECYCLING CASES OF REES
    • 6. CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES
    • 20 - NEODYMIUM USE AND RECYCLING POTENTIAL
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 1.1 THE NECESSITY OF RECYCLING AS A SYSTEMIC NEED
    • 1.2 FOCUS OF RESEARCH
    • 1.3 CURRENT RESEARCH AND DATA AVAILABILITY
    • 1.4 METHODOLOGY
    • 2. RESULTS
    • 2.1 COMPUTER HDDS
    • 2.2 MOBILE PHONES
    • 2.3 WIND ENERGY GAINED BY WIND TURBINE GENERATORS
    • 2.4 E-MOBILITY
    • 2.5 ELECTRIC BICYCLES (E-BIKES)
    • 2.6 MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
    • 2.7 HOUSEHOLD AND CONSUMER GOODS
    • 2.8 FURTHER POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS
    • 3. DISCUSSION
    • 4. CONCLUSIONS
    • REFERENCES
    • 21 - LEACHING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: REVIEW OF PAST AND PRESENT TECHNOLOGIES
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. LEACHING TECHNOLOGIES IN PRIMARY REE PRODUCTION
    • 2.1 BASTNAESITE
    • 2.2 MONAZITE
    • 2.3 ION-ADSORBED CLAYS
    • 2.4 DISCUSSION
    • 3. LEACHING TECHNOLOGIES IN NEW AND UPCOMING SECONDARY REE RESOURCES
    • 3.1 RARE EARTH ELEMENT RECOVERY IN THE PHOSPHORIC ACID INDUSTRY
    • 3.2 EXTRACTING REE FROM RED MUD
    • 3.3 RECYCLING OF LAMP PHOSPHOR FROM EOL FLUORESCENT LAMPS
    • 3.4 RECYCLING OF MAGNET SCRAP
    • 3.5 DISCUSSION
    • 4. RECENT PROGRESS AND NEW LEACHING TECHNOLOGIES FOR REE EXTRACTION
    • 4.1 PROGRESS IN BASTNAESITE LEACHING
    • 4.2 BIOLEACHING
    • 4.3 MICROWAVE-ASSISTED LEACHING
    • 5. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 22 - SIMULTANEOUS ELECTROCHEMICAL RECOVERY OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND IRON FROM MAGNET SCRAP: A THEORETICAL ANALYSIS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. THERMODYNAMIC EVALUATIONS
    • 2.1 CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF SELECTIVE DISSOLUTION IN ALLOYS
    • 2.2 MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE MAGNET AND DISSOLUTION MECHANISMS
    • 3. DISCUSSION ON SELECTIVE ELECTROCHEMICAL RECOVERY OF REES
    • 3.1 ELECTROLYTE
    • 3.2 IRON: ANODIC AND CATHODIC REACTIONS
    • 4. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • 23 - METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS IN THE FIELD OF LIQUID ADSORPTION: RECOVERY OF RARE EARTHS WITH FUNCTIONALIZED MIL-10 ...
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. EXPERIMENTAL SECTION
    • 2.1 CHEMICALS
    • 2.2 SYNTHESIS OF MIL-101(CR)
    • 2.3 CARBAMOYLMETHYLPHOSPHINE FUNCTIONALIZATION OF MIL-101
    • 2.4 CHARACTERIZATION TECHNIQUES
    • 2.5 SORPTION EQUILIBRIUM EXPERIMENTS
    • 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
    • 4. CONCLUSION
    • REFERENCES
    • 24 - RARE EARTH EXTRACTION FROM NDFEB MAGNETS AND RARE EARTH OXIDES USING ALUMINUM CHLORIDE/FLUORIDE MOLTEN SALTS
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. THERMODYNAMIC CONSIDERATIONS
    • 2.1 ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF NDFEB MAGNETS CONTAINING DY
    • 2.2 ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF REOS
    • 3. EXPERIMENTS AND RESULTS
    • 3.1 EXPERIMENTS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL REDUCTION OF DY AND ND FROM NDFEB MAGNETS CONTAINING DY IN CHLORIDE SALTS
    • 3.2 RESULTS
    • 3.3 DISCUSSION
    • 4. CONCLUSION
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • ADDITIONAL CASE STUDY ON MINERALOGY AND BENEFICIATION OF REE IN MONGOLIA
    • 25 - MINERALOGY AND BENEFICIATION OF VEIN-TYPE APATITE RARE EARTH ELEMENT ORE FROM MUSHGIA KHUDAG, MONGOLIA
    • 1. INTRODUCTION
    • 2. GEOLOGY OF MUSHGIA KHUDAG REE DEPOSIT
    • 3. SAMPLING AND METHODS
    • 4. GEOCHEMICAL AND MINERALOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
    • 5. BENEFICIATION STUDIES
    • 5.1 ROUGHER FLOTATION AND RESULTS
    • 5.2 CLEANER FLOTATION AND RESULTS
    • 5.3 ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS
    • 5.4 MINERALOGICAL STUDIES OF THE FLOTATION PROCESS
    • 6. CONCLUSIONS
    • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
    • REFERENCES
    • CONCLUSION CHAPTER
    • 26 - HIGHLIGHTS ON RARE EARTHS: RESEARCH ADVANCES, POSSIBILITIES, CHALLENGES, AND TRENDS BASED ON AUTHORS' FINDINGS ...
    • HIGHLIGHTS ON RARE EARTH RESERVES AND MINING: PART I
    • CHINA'S ROLE ON EXPORT RESTRICTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS-CHAPTER 2-BY NABEEL A. MANCHERI
    • RARE EARTH PRODUCTION, REGULATORY USA/INTERNATIONAL CONSTRAINTS AND CHINESE DOMINANCE: THE ECONOMIC VIABILITY IS BOUNDED BY ...
    • POTENTIALITY OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS IN BRAZIL-CHAPTER 4-BY LUCY TAKEHARA, FRANCISCO VALDIR SILVEIRA, AND ROBERTO VENTURA SANTOS
    • A DESCRIPTION OF THE WORLD-CLASS RARE EARTH ELEMENT DEPOSIT TANBREEZ, SOUTH GREENLAND-CHAPTER 5-BY HANS K. SCHøNWANDT, GREG ...
    • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA AND INDICATORS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF RARE EARTH ELEMENT MINING PROJECTS-CHAPTER 6-BY SOTIR ...
    • A FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE MINING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS-CHAPTER 7-BY SOTIRIS N. KAMENOPOULOS, ZACHARIAS AGIOUTANTIS, AND ...
    • RARE EARTH UNDERGROUND MINING APPROACHES WITH RESPECT TO RADIOACTIVITY CONTROL AND MONITORING STRATEGIES-CHAPTER 8-BY GEORG ...
    • RARE EARTH PROCESSES AND HIGH-TECH PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: PART II
    • CHINA'S RARE EARTH RESOURCES, MINERALOGY, AND BENEFICIATION-CHAPTER 9-BY LING ZHI LI AND XIAOSHENG YANG
    • THE ROLE OF RARE EARTH SUPPLY RISK IN LOW CARBON TECHNOLOGIES INNOVATION-CHAPTER 10-BY EVA BARTEKOVÁ
    • EXTRACTION BEHAVIOR OF SCANDIUM FROM A REFRACTORY NICKEL LATERITE ORE DURING THE PRESSURE ACID LEACHING PROCESS-CHAPTER 11- ...
    • LEACHING RARE EARTH ELEMENTS FROM BAUXITE RESIDUE USING BRøNSTED ACIDIC IONIC LIQUIDS-CHAPTER 12-BY PANAGIOTIS DAVRIS, EFTH ...
    • ELECTRODEPOSITION OF RARE EARTH METALS FROM IONIC LIQUIDS-CHAPTER 13-BY E. BOURBOS, I. GIANNOPOULOU, A. KARANTONIS, IOANNIS ...
    • EXTRACTION OF LANTHANIDES FROM SPENT POLISHING AGENT-CHAPTER 14-BY ALEXANDER POSCHER, STEFAN LUIDOLD, HOLGER SCHNIDERITSCH, ...
    • A CRITICAL EVALUATION OF THE SOLUBILITY OF RARE EARTH OXIDES IN MOLTEN FLUORIDES-CHAPTER 15-BY X. GUO, JILT SIETSMA, AND YO ...
    • HYPERSPECTRAL RARE EARTH ELEMENT MAPPING OF THREE OUTCROPS AT THE FEN COMPLEX, NORWAY: CALCITIC, DOLOMITIC, AND ANKERITIC C ...
    • RARE EARTH RECYCLING AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: CHALLENGES AND ADVANCES: PART III
    • AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE EXPLOITATION OF RARE EARTH METALS-CHAPTER 17-BY WALTER LEAL FILHO
    • ENVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND BEST PRACTICE IN THE EMERGING EUROPEAN RARE EARTH ELEMENT INDUSTRY-CHAPTER 18-BY MIRANDA KEIT ...
    • RARE EARTHS INDUSTRY AND ECO-MANAGEMENT: A CRITICAL REVIEW OF RECYCLING AND SUBSTITUTES-CHAPTER 19-BY ISMAR BORGES DE LIMA
    • NEODYMIUM USE AND RECYCLING POTENTIAL-CHAPTER 20-BY VOLKER ZEPF
    • LEACHING OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS: REVIEW OF PAST AND PRESENT TECHNOLOGIES-CHAPTER 21-BY SEBASTIAAN PEELMAN, ZHI H.I. SUN, JI ...
    • SIMULTANEOUS ELECTROCHEMICAL RECOVERY OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND IRON FROM MAGNET SCRAP-CHAPTER 22-BY V. PRAKASH, ZHI H. I. ...
    • METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS IN THE FIELD OF LIQUID ADSORPTION: RECOVERY OF RARE EARTHS WITH FUNCTIONALIZED MIL-101(CR)-CHAPTER ...
    • RARE EARTH EXTRACTION FROM NDFEB MAGNETS AND RARE EARTH OXIDES USING ALUMINUM CHLORIDE/FLUORIDE MOLTEN SALTS-CHAPTER 24-BY ...
    • MINERALOGY AND BENEFICIATION OF VEIN-TYPE APATITE RARE EARTH ELEMENT ORE FROM MUSHGIA KHUDAG, MONGOLIA-CHAPTER 25-BY XIAOSH ...
    • SOME TOPICS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH ON RARE EARTHS
    • Index
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    List of Contributors


    Aida Abbasalizadeh,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    Vassiliki Aggelatou,     Institute of Geology and Mineral Exploration, Athens, Greece

    Zacharias Agioutantis,     Department of Mining Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA

    Uwe Altenberger,     University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Helmut Antrekowitsch,     Chair of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria

    Efthymios Balomenos,     National Technical University of Athens School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Zografos Campus - Athens, Greece

    George Barakos,     HZDR - Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technologies, Freiberg, Germany

    Gregory B. Barnes,     G.B. Barnes & Associates, South Perth, WA, Australia

    Eva Barteková,     United Nations University-MERIT and Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

    Nina K. Boesche

    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Ismar Borges de Lima,     Universidade Estadual de Roraima, UERR, Brazil, & Southern Cross University, SCU, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia

    E. Bourbos,     School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    Maximilian Brell,     Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Panagiotis Davris,     National Technical University of Athens School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Zografos Campus - Athens, Greece

    Els De Canck,     Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis (COMOC), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

    Jeriffa De Clercq,     Department of Industrial Technology and Construction, Industrial Catalysis and Adsorption Technology (INCAT), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

    Jeroen De Decker,     Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Center for Ordered Materials, Organometallics and Catalysis (COMOC), Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium

    Bayarmagnai Enkhzul,     Central Geological Laboratory, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Andrea Ferrari,     D'Appolonia S.p.A., Genoa, Italy

    I. Giannopoulou,     School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    Bertil Grundfelt,     Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm, Sweden

    X. Guo,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    Jens Gutzmer,     Institute of Mineralogy, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany

    Sabrina Herrmann

    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Lars Olof Höglund,     Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm, Sweden

    Sotiris N. Kamenopoulos,     School of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece

    A. Karantonis,     School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    S. Kaya,     Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara, Turkey

    Miranda Keith-Roach,     Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm, Sweden

    James C. Kennedy,     ThREE Consulting, St. Louis, MO, USA

    Kostas Komnitsas,     School of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Chania, Greece

    Friederike Körting

    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Anne Kousa,     Geological Survey of Finland, Kuopio, Finland

    Jukka Laukkanen,     Geological Survey of Finland, GTK Mineral processing, Outokumpu, Finland

    Walter Leal Filho,     Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Research and Transfer Centre "Applications of Life Sciences", Hamburg, Germany

    Ling Zhi Li,     China Western Mining Co., Ltd, Xining, Qinghai, P.R. China

    Batzorig Lkhagvasuren,     Central Geological Laboratory, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Christin Lubitz,     Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Stefan Luidold,     Chair of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria

    Paloma Magistrati,     Fen Minerals A/S, Norway

    Nabeel A. Mancheri,     Institute of Social Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

    Delgermaa Margai,     Mongol Gazar LLC, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Christian Mielke

    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Helmut Mischo,     Institute for Mining and Special Civil Engineering, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany

    Nicolò Olivieri,     D'Appolonia S.p.A., Genoa, Italy

    Dimitrios Panias,     School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    Anne Papenfuß

    Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    University of Potsdam, Potsdam-Golm, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Ioannis Paspaliaris,     School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, Greece

    Sebastiaan Peelman,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    Esa Pohjolainen,     Geological Survey of Finland, Espoo, Finland

    Alexander Poscher,     Chair of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria

    V. Prakash,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    Christian Rogass,     Helmholtz Centre Potsdam-GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Telegrafenberg, Germany

    Roberto V. Santos,     Serviço Geológico do Brasil - CPRM - SGAN 603 Conj. "J" Parte A - 1° andar - CEP 70.830-100 - Brasília - DF, Brazil

    Holger Schnideritsch,     Chair of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria

    Hans K. Schønwandt,     G.B. Barnes & Associates, South Perth, WA, Australia

    Seshadri Seetharaman,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

    Deborah Shields,     Department of Economics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA

    Jilt Sietsma,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    Francisco V. Silveira,     Serviço Geológico do Brasil - CPRM - SGAN 603 Conj. "J" Parte A - 1° andar - CEP 70.830-100 - Brasília - DF, Brazil

    Zhi H.I. Sun,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands

    Lucy Takehara,     Serviço Geológico do Brasil - CPRM - Rua Banco da Província, Porto Alegre - RS, Brazil

    Lidong Teng,     Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Royal...

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