Nickel Sulfide Ores and Impact Melts

Origin of the Sudbury Igneous Complex
 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 23. August 2016
  • |
  • 680 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-804105-5 (ISBN)
 

Nickel Sulfide Ores and Impact Melts: Origin of the Sudbury Igneous Complex presents a current state of understanding on the geology and ore deposits of the Sudbury Igneous Complex in Ontario, Canada. As the first complete reference on the subject, this book explores the linkage between the processes of meteorite impact, melt sheet formation, differentiation, sulfide immiscibility and metal collection, and the localization of ores by magmatic and post-magmatic processes.

The discovery of new ore deposits requires industry and government scientists and academic scholars to have access to the latest understanding of ore formation process models that link to the mineralization of their host rocks. The ore deposits at Sudbury are one of the world's largest ore systems, representing a classic case study that brings together very diverse datasets and ways of thinking.

This book is designed to emphasize concepts that can be applied across a broad range of ore deposit types beyond Sudbury and nickel deposit geology. It is an essential resource for exploration geologists, university researchers, and government scientists, and can be used in rock and mineral analysis, remote sensing, and geophysical applications.


  • Provides the only reference book to focus entirely on the Sudbury Igneous Complex
  • Brings together an understanding of ore deposit and impact melts as a basis for future exploration
  • Authored by a leading expert on the geology of the Sudbury Igneous Complex with 35 years of experience working on nickel sulfide ore deposits


Dr. Peter Lightfoot is a Chief Geologist with the Brownfield Exploration group at Vale Base Metals. He is responsible for technical aspects of the exploration programs at Sudbury, Thompson, and Voisey's Bay and tracks the developments in understanding of the geology and global supply of metals from nickel sulfide and laterite deposits. He received his B.A. from Oxford University in 1980, his M.Sc. degree from the University of Toronto in 1982, and his Ph.D. from the Open University in 1985. Following post-doctoral studies at the University of Toronto, he joined the Ontario Geological Survey in 1987, and worked extensively on Sudbury and undertook a joint program of research on the Noril'sk Deposits. In 1996, Peter joined Inco as Senior Geologist and worked on Inco's Voisey's Bay Project and international project generation. With Vale's acquisition of Inco in 2006, his responsibility continued to focus on global nickel project generation. In 2010, Peter returned to provide technical support in exploration within Vale's mining camps in Canada. Peter is an Adjunct Professor at Laurentian University and Associate Editor of Elsevier's Ore Geology Reviews. For 25 years, Peter has been based in Sudbury, and through his linkages to industry, government and academia has been positioned to develop and assemble the ideas presented in this book.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 107,25 MB
978-0-12-804105-5 (9780128041055)
0128041056 (0128041056)
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  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1 - Sudbury - an introduction to the ore deposits and the impact structure
  • Introduction to Sudbury
  • History of discovery and production at Sudbury
  • Position of the Sudbury Camp as a future producer of nickel
  • The geology of Sudbury in a nutshell
  • Terminology used to describe the geology of the Sudbury structure
  • The Igneous Rocks
  • The Target Country Rocks
  • Sudbury geology at the center of important Earth Science debates
  • Fundamental igneous petrology
  • Origin of the ore deposits
  • The catastrophy that created the Sudbury rocks
  • The deep structure and deformation history of the SIC
  • Attempts to reconcile impact models with igneous processes
  • The impact process and the formation of the sulfide ores
  • Where do all the metals and sulfur in the ores come from?
  • Magmatic nickel sulfides - an introduction and overview
  • Process controls in the formation of magmatic sulfide ore deposits
  • Melting of the mantle
  • Migration of the magmas through the crust, and magmatic differentiation
  • Triggers to sulfur saturation of mafic magmas
  • The Importance of gravity-assisted settling of dense magmatic sulfide, and pathways through the crust
  • Controls on the composition of sulfide magmas
  • Sulfide localization and concentration mechanisms in "container rocks"
  • Sulfide differentiation
  • Post magmatic deformation, metamorphism, and hydrothermal modification of sulfide mineralization
  • Evidence for impact origin of Sudbury
  • Compelling evidence for an impact event
  • Supporting evidence for an impact event
  • Some features not resolved by the Sudbury Impact Model
  • Synthesis of the approach used in this book
  • Appendix 1.1 Synthesis of Sudbury Bibliography
  • Chapter 2 - A Synthesis of the Geology of the Sudbury Structure
  • Introduction
  • An Impact Event at the Southern Margin of the Superior Province Craton
  • An overview of the Regional Geological Setting of the Sudbury Structure
  • Geology of the Sudbury Structure
  • The target country rocks
  • Archean granitoid rocks and gneisses of the Superior Province
  • Huronian Supergroup metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks
  • Mafic and ultramafic intrusive rocks in the Sudbury Region
  • Early Proterozoic East Bull Lake Type Intrusions
  • The Nipissing Diabase
  • Sudbury Gabbro Intrusions
  • Felsic Intrusive Rocks in the Sudbury Region
  • Geology of the SIC
  • The Main Mass
  • The Geology of the North and East Range of the Main Mass
  • The Geology of the South Range of the Main Mass
  • Felsic Enclaves within the Norite Stratigraphy of the Main Mass in the South Range
  • Synthesis of the Geology of the Main Mass
  • The Offset Dykes
  • The Radial Offset Dykes
  • The Concentric Offset Dykes
  • The Discontinuous Segmented Offset Dykes
  • Comparative Geology of the Offset Dykes
  • The Contact of the Offset Dykes with the Country Rocks
  • Thickness and Continuity of the Offset Dykes
  • Branching of the Offset Dykes
  • Controlling Influence of Country Rock Contacts and SUBX on the Localization of the Offset Dykes
  • Diversity in Inclusion Type and Content in Offset Dykes
  • Textural and Petrological Diversity in the Matrix of the Offset Dyke
  • Alignment and Reaction of Inclusions with Magma
  • Metamorphic grade and deformation of the Offset Dykes
  • Detailed Geological Relationships: Case Studies of the Worthington and Copper Cliff Offset Dykes
  • The Worthington Offset Dyke
  • The Totten Segment of the Worthington Offset Dyke
  • The Victoria Segment of the Worthington Offset Dyke
  • Synthesis of the Geological Relationships in the Worthington Offset Dyke
  • The Copper Cliff Offset Dyke
  • The Copper Cliff Funnel Segment of the Offset Dyke
  • The Copper Cliff Offset Dyke
  • Synthesis of Geological Relationships in the Offset Dykes
  • The Geology of the Sublayer
  • The Sublayer Norite and Granite Breccia
  • Primary Geometry of the Troughs and Embayments and Variations in Thickness of the Sublayer
  • Case study-the Geology of the Whistle Embayment
  • The Sublayer Norite of the Whistle embayment
  • Geological relationships between inclusions and Sublayer Norite
  • Granite Breccia and Metabreccia
  • Transition from the Whistle Embayment to the Whistle Offset
  • Synthesis of geological relationships at Whistle
  • Magmatic and metamorphic-textured breccias in the Footwall of the SIC
  • Classification of the Breccias
  • The Impact Breccia: Sudbury Brecciia (Pseudotachylite Breccia)
  • Classification and Description of the SUBX
  • Protolith Controls on the Development of SUBX
  • Relationship between Sudbury Breccia and Mineralization at Sudbury
  • Origin of the Sudbury Breccia
  • Thermal Metamorphism of the Footwall: the Metabreccias
  • The Whitewater Group: Subsidence, Magmatism, and Sedimentation Following the Impact Event
  • The Onaping Formation
  • Mechanism of Formation of the Onaping
  • The Vermilion Formation
  • The Onwatin Formation
  • The Chelmsford Formation
  • Significance of the Whitewater Group to the evolution of the SIC
  • Regional magmatic events that postdate the SIC
  • Structural Geology of the Sudbury Region
  • Importance of structures predating the Sudbury Event
  • The Structural Effect of the Sudbury Event
  • Structural evolution of the Sudbury Region after the 1.85 Ga impact event
  • Major Fault Groups of the Sudbury Region
  • The Creighton-Murray Fault Set
  • The Sandcherry-Fecunis Fault Set
  • The Waddell-Amy Lake Fault set
  • The Cameron Creek and Cliff Lake Faults, and the South Range Shear Zone
  • The Sudbury Structure at Depth
  • Geochronology of the Sudbury Structure
  • A sequence of events at Sudbury
  • Chapter 3 - Petrology and Geochemistry of the Sudbury Igneous Complex
  • Introduction and objectives
  • The Main Mass
  • A petrological and geochemical traverse through the north range
  • Petrology and mineralogy
  • Geochemical stratigraphy
  • A petrological, Geophysical property, and Geochemical traverse through the Main Mass in the South Range
  • Petrological variations
  • Physical property and geochemical stratigraphy
  • The South Range Norite
  • The South Range Quartz Gabbro
  • The South Range Granophyre
  • Lateral variations in geochemistry, South Range
  • Lateral variations in geochemistry, North Range
  • Comparison of the Main Mass in the North and South Range rock units
  • Implications of Main Mass petrology and geochemistry
  • A single parental magma composition
  • Differentiation of the Main Mass
  • Variations in Ni and Cu abundance through the Norite stratigraphy
  • The Offset Dykes
  • Petrology of the QD
  • Geochemistry of the QD and MIQD
  • Representative sampling and nomenclature
  • Geochemical variations along strike and across the Offset Dykes
  • Geochemical relationships between the Offset Dykes
  • Ni and Cu Abundances in the Offset Dykes
  • Comparison of the QD to average crust
  • Summary: Features of the Offset Quartz Diorite
  • The sublayer
  • Petrology of the Sublayer Norite and the inclusions
  • Petrology of The Granite Breccia
  • Establishing the matrix composition of inclusion-bearing noritic rocks
  • Lithogeochemistry of the matrix and inclusions in the SLNR
  • Sublayer matrix
  • Mafic and ultramafic inclusions
  • Granite Breccia
  • Genesis of the Sublayer
  • The Sudbury Breccia
  • Petrology of Sudbury Breccia
  • Geochemistry of the matrix of SUBX
  • Significance of the petrology and geochemistry of the Sudbury Breccia matrix
  • Metamorphic and partial melt textures in the footwall of the SIC
  • Melt segregations, dykes, and vitric fragments in the Onaping Formation
  • Geochemistry of melt bodies and glass shards
  • Parent Magma composition, differentiation, and sulfide saturation history of the sudbury melt sheet
  • Composition of the parental magma of the Sudbury melt sheet
  • Contrasting Main Mass differentiation trends in the North and South Ranges
  • Sulfide saturation history of the SIC
  • source of the base and precious metals in the ore deposits
  • Source of the sulfur in the SIC and the associated mineralization
  • Sequence of events in the crystallization of the SIC
  • Geochemical variation, distribution and thickness of the melt sheet
  • Summary
  • Appendix 3.1 Lithogeochemical data for rocks from the Main Mass in the South Range of the SIC along selected profiles. Loca...
  • Appendix 3.2 Compilation of Sr and Nd isotope ratio data from Faggart et al. (1985b), Faggart et al. (1985a), Dickin et al....
  • Appendix 3.3 Average composition of the matrix of SUBX and the host rocks that contain the SUBX. Samples come from Creighto...
  • Chapter 4 - The mineral system characteristics of the Sudbury Ni-Cu-Co-PGE sulfide ore deposits
  • Introduction
  • Objectives of this chapter
  • The mineral system concept
  • Petrology and mineralogy of the sulfide mineralization at Sudbury
  • Mineralogy of the sulfide ores
  • The principal Fe-S-Ni minerals
  • The principal Cu-Fe-S minerals
  • Minor and trace sulfide minerals
  • The platinum group minerals
  • Paragenetic sequence for the crystallization of sulfide melts
  • Geochemistry of the Sudbury ores
  • Geochemistry of the sulfides
  • Trace element composition of Sudbury sulfides
  • Cobalt
  • Zinc and lead
  • Arsenic and antimony
  • Selenium
  • Platinum group elements and gold
  • The offset and breccia belt mineral systems
  • Frood and stobie
  • Geological relationships
  • Styles of mineralization
  • Geochemistry of Frood
  • Geochemistry of Stobie
  • Comparative geochemistry of the Stobie and Frood sulfide mineralization
  • Important features of Frood-Stobie
  • Totten
  • Geological relationships
  • Principal styles of mineralization
  • Geochemistry
  • Geological model
  • Copper cliff
  • Geological relationships
  • Characteristics of the mineralization
  • Geochemistry
  • Geological model
  • Other offset dykes
  • Contact and footwall mineral systems
  • Mineral systems in the South Range
  • Creighton
  • Geological Relationships
  • Characteristics of mineralization
  • Geochemistry
  • Geological Model
  • Garson
  • Geological Relationships
  • Characteristics of the Mineralization
  • Geochemistry
  • Geological Model
  • Other South Range contact-footwall mineral systems
  • Falconbridge
  • Blezard and Lindsley
  • Little Stobie
  • Murray and McKim
  • Crean Hill
  • Primary contact and footwall mineralization
  • Structural modification and kinesis of primary magmatic sulfide mineralization
  • North and East Range mineral systems
  • Levack-Coleman
  • Geological Relationships
  • Characteristics of the Mineralization
  • Geochemistry
  • Geological Relationships
  • Victor, Nickel Rim South, and Capre
  • Geological Relationships
  • Characteristics of the Sulfide Mineralization
  • Geochemistry
  • Similarities and Differences between the East Range Mineral Systems
  • The Whistle-Podolsky mineral system
  • The Trillabelle mineral system
  • Synthesis of geological relationships in the North Range mineral systems
  • Process of formation of the Sudbury mineral systems
  • Role OF sulfide kinesis during deformation
  • Chapter 5 - The relationship between the impact melt sheet and the Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineral systems at Sudbury
  • Introduction and objectives
  • The impact record of the solar system
  • Impact Crater record beyond earth
  • Record of crater embayment structures
  • Morphology of the crater floor and walls
  • Extraterrestrial impact melts and breccias
  • The global terrestrial impact crater record
  • Scale of terrestrial impact melt sheets
  • Topography of the base of terrestrial melt sheets
  • Terrestrial Impact Melt Dykes
  • Terrestrial Melt Sheet Compositions
  • Pseudotachylite
  • Do other terrestrial impact craters host ore deposits?
  • Modification of pre-existing mineralization
  • Syngenetic impact-related mineralization
  • Epigenetic impact-related mineralization
  • Regional controls on ore deposit endowment at Sudbury
  • Melt sheet differentiation
  • Chemostratigraphic modeling of the Main Mass
  • Composition of the parental magma to the SIC
  • Process models for melt sheet evolution and ore formation
  • Metal-depletion signature of the Main Mass
  • Siderophile and chalcophile metal tenor variations in the Main Mass
  • Ni and Cu tenors of sulfide in Mafic Norite above barren versus mineralized contacts
  • Modelling of the siderophile and chalcophile metal tenor variations in the Main Mass
  • Reconciling the composition of the melt sheet and the mineralization
  • Sulfur Capacity of the Melt Sheet
  • Effect of Superheat on Sulfide Solubility in the Melt Sheet
  • Additional Assimilation of Mafic Fragments and Footwall Rocks
  • Possible Contribution of Magma from the Mantle
  • Proto-ores Tapped by the Sudbury Event?
  • Onset of Sulfide Saturation in the Melt Sheet
  • Sulfide saturation history of the Sudbury melt sheet
  • Sequence of events in the formation of the SIC
  • Melt sheet thickness: prospectivity of the contact and offset dykes
  • Distribution of mineralization
  • Thickness of the metal-depleted Norite stratigraphy
  • Relationship between norite thickness and mineralization
  • Scale of sulfide localization in the melt sheet
  • THE Differentiation of sulfide melt
  • A foundation in Unmetamorphosed natural systems
  • Base and precious metal partitioning between monosulfide solid solution and sulfide liquid
  • Models of sulfide differentiation
  • Exploration implications of models of sulfide differentiation
  • Compositional variation in disseminated sulfides
  • Sulfide differentiation: differences between North and South Range mineral systems
  • Effects of regional deformation on mineral systems
  • Effects of hydrothermal processes on mineral systems
  • A guide to future applied research on Sudbury and impact craters
  • Basal topography of impact melt sheets
  • Morphology of the crater wall
  • Sulfide saturation history and melt sheet evolution
  • Sulfide fractionation
  • Ancient impact Craters
  • Chapter 6 - Sudbury Nickel in a Global Context
  • Introduction
  • The role of exploration
  • Extensions to known ore deposits
  • Exploration near to known ore deposits
  • Exploration Beyond Known Mineral Zones in mining camps
  • Converting a past discovery into a future mine
  • Greenfield exploration
  • The exploration challenge at Sudbury
  • The decision process and the technology used to explore
  • Reporting standards for reserves and resources
  • Exploring beyond the footprint a known ore deposit
  • Favorable geology at or below the lower contact of the SIC
  • The basal contact of the SIC
  • The footwall of the SIC
  • The Offset Dykes
  • The morphology of the basal contact of the SIC and the Offset Dykes
  • Petrology of the host rocks
  • Thickness of the metal-depleted norite stratigraphy
  • Application of sulfide geochemistry
  • Structural features of the container rocks of the Sudbury ore deposits
  • Exploring the extents of known ore deposits
  • Exploration technology
  • Geophysical signature of the Sudbury ore deposits
  • Regional Geophysical Signature of Ore Deposits at Sudbury
  • The Geophysical Signature of Offset Dykes and Associated Mineral Systems
  • The Geophysical Signature of Contact and Footwall Mineral Systems
  • Testing targets with diamond drill technology
  • Ore body characterization and geometallurgy
  • Sudbury in the context of global nickel sulfide deposits
  • Case studies of other major magmatic sulfide mineral systems
  • Noril'sk
  • Geology of the Talnakh and Kharaelakh Intrusions
  • The cuprous ores
  • The Disseminated Sulfides
  • The Ni-rich Massive Sulfides
  • Compositional Diversity in Sulfides
  • Jinchuan
  • Voisey's Bay
  • Thompson
  • Structural pathways that control magmatic sulfide ore deposits
  • Rhomboid-shaped intrusions with funnel cross-section
  • Discontinuous dykes and sheets
  • Tubiform chonoliths
  • Relative roles of settling and transportation in sulfide localization
  • The igneous rocks associated with magmatic sulfides
  • The evidence for sulfide segregation from comagmatic basaltic magmas at Noril'sk
  • MgO content of the parental magma
  • Sulfide differentiation models
  • Sulfide differentiation in the Bessemer Furnace
  • Deformation and sulfide kinesis
  • Sudbury informed by global magmatic sulfides
  • Similarities between Sudbury and other magmatic sulfide deposits
  • Differences between Sudbury and other magmatic sulfide deposits
  • The future of nickel production
  • Nickel laterite deposits
  • Sudbury as a future global nickel producer
  • References and Sudbury Bibliography
  • Back cover

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