Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 7. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 796 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-800530-9 (ISBN)
 

This foundational work comprehensively examines the current state of the genetics, genomics and brain circuitry of psychiatric and neurological disorders. It consolidates discoveries of specific genes and genomic regions associated with these conditions, the genetic and anatomic architecture of these syndromes, and addresses how recent advances in genomics are leading to a reappraisal of the biology underlying clinical neuroscience. In doing so, it critically examines the promise and limitations of these discoveries toward treatment, and to the interdisciplinary nature of understanding brain and behavior. Coverage includes new discoveries regarding autism, epilepsy, intellectual disability, dementias, movement disorders, language impairment, disorders of attention, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry focuses on key concepts, challenges, findings, and methods in genetics, genomics, molecular pathways, brain circuitry, and related neurobiology of neurologic and psychiatric disorders.

  • Provides interdisciplinary appeal in psychiatry, neurology, neuroscience, and genetics
  • Identifies key concepts, methods, and findings
  • Includes coverage of multiple disorders from autism to schizophrenia
  • Reviews specific genes associated with disorders
  • Discusses the genetic architecture of these syndromes
  • Explains how recent findings are influencing the understanding of biology
  • Clarifies the promise of these findings for future treatment
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 17,59 MB
978-0-12-800530-9 (9780128005309)
0128005300 (0128005300)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry
  • Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • I - The Genome Tools and Methods
  • 1 - The Newly Emerging View of the Genome
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CONCEPTUALIZING DNA
  • INFORMATION FLOW IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
  • KEY DEFINITIONS
  • Cis and Trans
  • Gene
  • Transcript
  • High-Throughput Sequencing
  • THE GENOME (DNA)
  • VISUALIZING THE GENOME
  • LARGE-SCALE STRUCTURES IN THE GENOME
  • Telomeres
  • Subtelomeres
  • Centromeres
  • SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURES IN THE GENOME
  • Protein-Coding Genes
  • Promoters
  • Untranslated Regions
  • Exons
  • Introns
  • Splice Sites
  • Protein-Coding Sequence
  • Noncoding Transcripts/Genes
  • Pseudogenes
  • Long Noncoding RNAs
  • Small Noncoding RNAs
  • Circular RNAs
  • Enhancers
  • Silencers
  • Insulators
  • Repetitive Elements
  • DNA Transposons
  • Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements
  • Long Interspersed Nuclear Elements
  • Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposons
  • MULTIPLE ROLES
  • VARIATION IN THE GENOME
  • Entire Chromosomes
  • Structural Variation
  • Insertions and Deletions
  • Single-Nucleotide Variants
  • Loss-of-Function Variants
  • ETHNICITY AND POPULATION FREQUENCY OF VARIANTS IN THE GENOME
  • VARIATION IN COMPLEX AND MENDELIAN DISORDERS
  • CHROMATIN (DNA, RNA, AND PROTEIN) AND EPIGENETICS
  • Chromatin State
  • Heterochromatin
  • Euchromatin
  • DNA Methylation
  • Histone Proteins
  • Chromatin Remodelers
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cofactors
  • Elongation Factors
  • Cohesins
  • REGULATORY COMPLEXES
  • Preinitiation Complex (PIC)
  • General Transcription Factors
  • RNA Polymerase II
  • Mediator (Coactivator)
  • Proximal Promoter-Pausing Complexes
  • Elongation Complex
  • TRANSCRIPTION (RNA)
  • POSTTRANSCRIPTIONAL MRNA MODIFICATIONS
  • Epitranscriptome
  • RNA Editing
  • RNA Processing
  • TRANSLATION
  • POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATIONS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Contribution of Genetic Epidemiology to Our Understanding of Psychiatric Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • BACKGROUND: EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • Contributions to Psychiatry
  • Genetic Epidemiology
  • Family Studies
  • Twin Studies
  • Adoption Studies
  • GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders
  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Eating Disorders
  • Mood Disorders
  • Anxiety Disorders: Panic Disorder
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Substance Use Disorders
  • Summary
  • APPLICATIONS OF GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY IN MOLECULAR ERA
  • Study Designs and Samples
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies: Case-Control Studies
  • Whole Genome/Exome Sequencing of Case-Control Studies
  • Population Registries and Biobanks
  • Statistical Approaches to Estimate Genetic Influence
  • Phenotypes: Moving Beyond Dichotomous Classification
  • Phenotypic Boundaries
  • Use of Endophenotypes for Classification
  • Computational Phenotype Analysis
  • Incorporation of Environmental Factors
  • Combining Genetic and Environmental Factors
  • Team Science
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Natural Selection and Neuropsychiatric Disease: Theory, Observation, and Emerging Genetic Findings
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY OF NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE
  • THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • HYPOTHESIS TESTING: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EMERGING GENETIC DATA
  • MENDELIAN RANDOMIZATION AND POLYGENIC RISK
  • DE NOVO MUTATION AND MUTATION-SELECTION BALANCE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Genome Tools and Methods: Rare Genetic Variation
  • RARE VARIANTS IN PSYCHIATRIC DISEASE
  • GENETIC VARIATION
  • MODERN TECHNOLOGIES FOR DISCOVERY OF RARE VARIANTS
  • MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY AND LARGE-SCALE COPY NUMBER VARIANTS IN NEURODEVELOPMENTAL AND NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASE
  • COPY NUMBER VARIANT STUDIES OF DISEASE
  • STUDIES OF DE NOVO MUTATION IN TRIO FAMILIES
  • CASE-CONTROL STUDIES
  • ANALYSIS STRATEGIES
  • Genome
  • Pathways
  • Genes
  • SNVs
  • DETECTION OF RARE GENETIC VARIATION BY HIGH-THROUGHPUT SEQUENCING
  • Exome
  • Gene Panels
  • Whole Genome Sequencing
  • RARE GENETIC VARIATION IN NONCODING DNA: A NEW FRONTIER
  • RARE GENETIC VARIANTS AND THE POTENTIAL TO AFFECT CLINICAL CARE
  • REFERENCES
  • 5 - Neuroepigenomics and Human Disease
  • EPIGENETICS
  • EPIGENETICS IN NEUROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
  • THE GENOMIC CONTEXT OF TRANSCRIPTIONAL AND EPIGENETIC MECHANISMS
  • TRANSCRIPTIONAL AND EPIGENETIC REGULATORY MECHANISMS
  • EPIGENETIC PERTURBATION AND EPIGENOME-WIDE ASSAYS
  • CELL TYPE CHOICES IN NEUROEPIGENOMIC STUDIES
  • INTERACTION OF THE GENOME WITH THE EPIGENOME
  • EPIGENETICS MECHANISMS OF BRAIN DISEASES: GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Bioinformatics in Neuropsychiatric Genomics
  • WHAT IS BIOINFORMATICS?
  • DATABASES
  • METHODS
  • TOOLS
  • STANDARDS
  • SUMMARY
  • LIST OF URLS
  • Core Genomic Databases and Portals
  • Genome Browsers
  • Genetic Variation
  • Gene Expression Resources
  • Programming Environments for Bioinformatics
  • Genetic Linkage, Association, and Variation Detection
  • Network and Pathway Analysis
  • Rare Variant Detection and Annotation
  • Identifiers, Ontologies, and Standards
  • Psychiatric/Neuroscience Projects
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Imaging Genomics and ENIGMA
  • INTRODUCTION
  • POWER OF MRI
  • WHAT IS IMAGING GENOMICS?
  • The Endophenotype Concept and Biomarkers
  • MAPPING BRAIN DISEASES IN NEUROLOGY
  • MRI VERSUS CELLULAR MEASURES
  • MAPPING BRAIN DISORDERS: PSYCHIATRY
  • PSYCHIATRIC NEUROIMAGING EXPANDS WORLDWIDE
  • Meta-Analysis
  • ENIGMA STUDIES OF BRAIN DISEASE
  • DEFUSING CONTROVERSY WITH META-ANALYSIS
  • IMAGING GENOMICS AND GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES
  • GENETIC INFLUENCES ON THE BRAIN
  • GENES AND DISEASE RISK
  • MANHATTAN PLOTS
  • CANDIDATE GENES AND GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES
  • GENOME-WIDE SIGNIFICANCE
  • FORMATION OF ENIGMA IN 2009
  • SURPRISES FROM IMAGING GENOMICS CONSORTIA
  • OTHER NEUROIMAGING METHODS
  • MULTIVARIATE IMAGING GENOMICS AND BIG DATA
  • SEARCHING THE BRAIN FOR GENE EFFECTS
  • Cooperative Machine Learning
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Brain in a Dish: Stem Cell Technologies to Study Disorders of the Central Nervous System
  • GENERATING INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS
  • PROGRESS IN MODELING HUMAN CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM PATHOLOGY: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • RETT SYNDROME
  • FRAGILE X SYNDROME
  • ANGELMAN SYNDROME
  • TIMOTHY SYNDROME
  • CONTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT CELL TYPES TO NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • THE NEXT STEP OF INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS: THREE-DIMENSIONAL CULTURES AND MINI-BRAINS
  • LIMITATIONS OF INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELL MODEL
  • GENOME EDITING: CREATING DISEASED EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS
  • DRUG DISCOVERY WITH INDUCED PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Association Strategies
  • COMMON VARIANTS
  • RARE VARIANTS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Reconstructing Causal Network Models of Human Disease
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MODELING BIOLOGICAL DATA
  • CAUSALITY AS A STATISTICAL INFERENCE
  • FROM ASSESSING CAUSAL RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TRAIT PAIRS TO PREDICTIVE GENE NETWORKS
  • Building From the Bottom Up or Top Down?
  • An Integrative Genomics Approach to Constructive Predictive Network Models
  • Integrating Genetic Data as a Structure Before Enhancing Causal Inference in the Bayesian Network Reconstruction Process
  • Incorporating Other -Omics Data as Network Priors in the Bayesian Network Reconstruction Process
  • Elucidating the Complexity of Human Disease: From the Metabolic to the Psychiatric
  • APPLICATION OF PREDICTIVE NETWORK MODELS TO HIGH-THROUGHPUT SCREENING
  • CONCLUSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Gene Networks in Neuropsychiatric Disease
  • INTRODUCTION
  • RNA, PROTEIN, AND EPIGENETIC MOLECULAR LEVELS IN NEUROBIOLOGY
  • THE CHALLENGE OF SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL HETEROGENEITY IN THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • GENE NETWORKS PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR NEUROBIOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION
  • GENE NETWORKS IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS
  • Genome-Wide Approaches
  • Seed-Based Approaches
  • Protein-Protein Interaction Networks
  • Integrative Network Approaches
  • Themes From Cross-Method Comparisons
  • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 12 - Somatic Mosaicism and Neurological Diseases
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CORTICAL CLONAL ARCHITECTURE AND SOMATIC MUTATIONS
  • SOMATIC MUTATIONS IN NORMAL BRAIN
  • SOMATIC MUTATION IN NEUROLOGICAL DISEASE
  • ``Brain-Only'' Somatic Mutations
  • ``Second-Hit'' Mutations Produce Mosaicism
  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders Caused by Somatic Mutations
  • Neurological Diseases Caused or Modulated by Somatic Mutations
  • TYPES OF SOMATIC VARIANTS
  • Large-Scale Chromosomal Abnormalities
  • Copy Number Variants
  • Single-Nucleotide Variants
  • TISSUE TYPE CONSIDERATIONS
  • TOOLS TO STUDY SOMATIC VARIATION IN THE BRAIN
  • Copy Number Variants
  • Cytogenetics
  • Microarrays
  • Single-Cell Copy Number Analyses
  • Digital Droplet Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Single-Nucleotide Variants, Including Insertions and Deletions
  • Sanger Sequencing
  • Subcloning Followed by Sanger Sequencing
  • Next-Generation Sequencing
  • Single-Cell Sequencing
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • II - A New Neuroanatomy
  • 13 - The Molecular Landscape of the Developing Human Central Nervous System
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE CELLULAR AND STRUCTURAL COMPLEXITY OF THE HUMAN BRAIN
  • GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF HUMAN NEOCORTICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Neurogenesis and Neuronal Migration
  • Glial Cell Genesis and Differentiation
  • Neural Circuit Formation and Developmental Plasticity
  • Regional Patterning and Interhemispheric Lateralization
  • TRANSCRIPTIONAL LANDSCAPE OF THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BRAIN
  • Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Human Brain Transcriptome
  • Transcriptional Architecture Underlying Cellular and Regional Specification of the Human Brain
  • Transcriptional Insights Into Maturational Trajectories of the Human Neocortex
  • Interhemispheric Neocortical Transcriptomes
  • EPIGENOMIC AND REGULATORY LANDSCAPES OF THE DEVELOPING HUMAN BRAIN
  • DNA Methylation in Human Brain Development
  • Histone Modification and Functional Regulatory Elements in Human Brain Development
  • Noncoding RNAs in Human Brain Development
  • INSIGHTS INTO PSYCHIATRIC AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS
  • CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 14 - Optogenetic Approaches to Neural Circuit Analysis in the Mammalian Brain
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TOOLS FOR FUNCTIONAL NEURAL CIRCUIT DISSECTION
  • Definition of Opsins
  • Expression of Opsins in the Mammalian Brain
  • Cell Type-Specific Targeting of Opsins Using Promoters
  • Cell Type-Specific Targeting of Opsins Using Cre/loxP Recombinase
  • Intersectional Approaches
  • FUNCTIONAL CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
  • Ex Vivo Synaptic Input Specificity
  • In Vivo Neural Circuit Analysis in Freely Moving Animals
  • TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 15 - Brain Imaging With Magnetoencephalography During Rest and During Speech and Language Processing
  • BRAIN IMAGING WITH MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY (MEG)
  • SENSING THE BRAIN'S MAGNETIC FIELDS
  • FROM SENSING TO IMAGING
  • Forward Models Describing Brain Activity and Measurements
  • Inverse Models for Reconstructing Brain Activity From Measurements
  • Sources of Noise in Magnetoencephalography
  • Temporal and Spatial Resolution of Magnetoencephalography Imaging
  • From Single-Subject Reconstructions to Group-Level Inference
  • MAGNETOENCEPHALOGRAPHY STUDIES IN AGING AND DEMENTIA
  • Resting Magnetoencephalography Studies in Aging and Dementia
  • Activation Magnetoencephalography Studies in Aging and Dementia
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 16 - Resting-State Functional MRI: A Novel Tool for Understanding Brain Networks in Neuropsychiatric Disorders
  • A BRIEF HISTORY OF RESTING-STATE FUNCTIONAL MRI
  • HEALTHY SKEPTICISM DRIVES DEEPER EXPLORATIONS
  • ATTRIBUTES OF RESTING-STATE NETWORKS
  • DEFAULT-MODE AND SALIENCE NETWORKS
  • APPLICATIONS TO BRAIN DISEASE
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 17 - Neuroimaging Advances in Alzheimer's Disease
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE DEFINED
  • IMAGING CHARACTERISTICS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • Structural MRI
  • Functional MRI
  • [18F]Fluoro-2-Deoxy-d-Glucose Positron Emission Tomography
  • Amyloid Positron Emission Tomography
  • Tau Positron Emission Tomography
  • PROGRESSION OF NEUROIMAGING ABNORMALITIES: AN AMYLOID CASCADE?
  • Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • Dementia and Limitations of the Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis
  • UNDERLYING MECHANISMS OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE PATHOLOGY
  • Amyloid Plaques Form in Regional Hubs
  • Tau Spreads Through Functional Networks
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 18 - Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Related Parkinsonian Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EACH NEURODEGENERATIVE SYNDROME REFLECTS A NETWORK
  • Class-Wide Principles of Network-Based Neurodegeneration
  • PARKINSONIAN SYNDROMES: PARKINSON DISEASE AND OTHERS
  • Parkinson Disease: Clinical and Anatomical Features
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome: Clinical Features
  • Corticobasal Syndrome: Clinical Features
  • NETWORK ARCHITECTURE OF NEURODEGENERATIVE PARKINSONIAN SYNDROMES
  • Network Architecture of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome
  • Network Architecture of Corticobasal Syndrome
  • CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION IN PROGRESSIVE SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY AND CORTICOBASAL DEGENERATION
  • Multiple Proteinopathies Can Cause Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome and Corticobasal Syndrome
  • Pathological Causes of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Syndrome
  • Pathological Causes of Corticobasal Syndrome
  • Progressive Supranuclear Palsy and Corticobasal Degeneration Histopathology Can Cause Multiple Clinical Syndromes
  • General Principles of Syndromic Diversity
  • Other Syndromes Caused by Progressive Supranuclear Palsy or Corticobasal Degeneration
  • GENETIC FACTORS IN PROGRESSIVE SUPRANUCLEAR PALSY AND CORTICOBASAL DEGENERATION
  • Rare Monogenic Causes
  • Risk Factors
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies
  • CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 19 - A New Neuroanatomy of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
  • ANATOMIC OVERVIEW OF BASAL GANGLIA
  • CLINICAL BASAL GANGLIA DISORDERS
  • Parkinson Disease
  • Huntington Disease
  • CLASSICAL BASAL GANGLIA MICROANATOMY
  • PROBING BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUITRY IN ANIMAL MODELS
  • Recordings in Animals
  • Ablation Studies
  • Optogenetics
  • Animal Studies Reveal Flaws in the Classical Model of Basal Ganglia Circuitry
  • EMERGING TECHNIQUES TO STUDY BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUITRY IN ANIMALS
  • Calcium Imaging
  • Voltage Sensors
  • Optogenetics
  • Striatal Interneurons
  • PROBING BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUITRY IN HUMANS: INVASIVE PHYSIOLOGY
  • NONINVASIVE STUDIES OF BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUITRY IN HUMANS
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 20 - Brainstem Circuitry and Emotions
  • THE STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATION OF THE BRAINSTEM
  • RETICULAR FORMATION
  • Chemical Properties of the Reticular Nuclei
  • Noradrenergic Cell Groups
  • Serotonergic Cell Groups
  • Dopaminergic Cell Groups
  • Cholinergic Cell Groups
  • RETICULAR FORMATION MODULATES BEHAVIOR
  • Sleep Cycle
  • Mood
  • CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 21 - Apathy: Frontal and Basal Ganglia Circuits
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEFINITION AND DIAGNOSIS OF APATHY
  • CLINICAL VARIANTS, DIAGNOSIS, AND MEASUREMENT OF APATHY
  • MEASUREMENT AND RATING SCALE
  • MOLECULAR AND NEUROANATOMICAL BASIS OF APATHY
  • PREFRONTAL CORTEX IN PRIMATES
  • PREFRONTAL CORTEX IN HUMANS
  • MOTIVATION AND REWARD SYSTEM: BASAL GANGLIA STRUCTURES AND CORTICOSTRIATAL LOOP
  • STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY IN APATHY
  • DOPAMINE REGULATION IN MOTIVATION AND REWARD SYSTEM
  • APATHY IN NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DISEASES
  • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Schizophrenia
  • Stroke
  • Parkinson Disease
  • Huntington Disease
  • Alzheimer Dementia
  • Frontotemporal Dementia
  • GENETICS STUDIES OF APATHY
  • Huntington Disease
  • Parkinson Disease and Parkinsonism
  • Alzheimer Dementia
  • Frontotemporal Dementia
  • Schizophrenia
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 22 - Emotional Dysfunction in Psychopathology and Neuropathology: Neural and Genetic Pathways
  • EMOTIONAL DYSFUNCTION IN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND NEUROPATHOLOGY: NEURAL AND GENETIC PATHWAYS
  • EMOTIONS AND EMOTIONAL PROCESSES EMOTIONS: SHORT AND DISCRETE
  • EMOTIONAL PROCESSES
  • Emotional Reactivity
  • Emotional Regulation
  • Emotional Affiliation
  • EMOTIONAL FUNCTIONING: NEURAL PATHWAYS
  • EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY
  • Anterior Cingulate Cortex
  • Amygdala
  • Hypothalamus
  • Brain Stem
  • Insula
  • EMOTION REGULATION
  • Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex
  • Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
  • Anterior Midcingulate Cortex
  • Inferior Parietal Lobe
  • EMOTIONAL AFFILIATION
  • Superior Temporal Sulcus
  • Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex
  • Ventral Striatum
  • Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex
  • Septal Area
  • EMOTION FUNCTIONING: GENETIC PATHWAYS
  • MODEL OF THE GENETIC PATHWAY
  • EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY
  • Serotonin-Related Genes
  • Other Genes
  • EMOTION REGULATION
  • Dopamine-Related Genes
  • Other Genes
  • EMOTIONAL AFFILIATION
  • Oxytocin-Related Genes
  • Other Genes and Affiliation
  • NEURAL AND GENETIC PATHWAYS: CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS
  • EMOTIONAL DYSFUNCTION IN PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND NEUROPATHOLOGY
  • Emotional Reactivity
  • Emotion Regulation
  • Emotional Affiliation
  • EMOTION IN DIAGNOSIS
  • Psychopathology: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
  • Psychopathology: Research Domain Criteria
  • Neuropathology
  • EMOTION IN TREATMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 23 - The Anatomy of Delusion
  • INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION
  • PHENOMENOLOGY AND ANATOMY
  • The Two-Factor Hypothesis and the Role of the Right Prefrontal Cortex
  • Attention Bias and Faulty Assignment of Salience to External Stimuli: The ``Aberrant Salience'' Model
  • The Theory of Mind in People With Delusions
  • CONTENT-SPECIFIC DELUSIONS
  • Paranoid Delusions
  • The Capgras Delusion
  • GENETICS
  • REFERENCES
  • 24 - Beyond Dopamine: The Role of the Serotonergic System and Treatments in Understanding and Treating Visual Hallu ...
  • SIMPLE VERSUS COMPLEX VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS
  • THE VISUAL PATHWAY AND MECHANISMS OF DISRUPTION LEADING TO VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS
  • COMPLEX VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS: THE ROLE OF LESION LOCATION
  • SYNUCLEINOPATHY AND VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS
  • The Origins of Visual Hallucinations in Parkinson Disease
  • THE SEROTONERGIC SYSTEM AND VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS
  • Anatomy of the Serotonergic System
  • Psilocybin and the Serotonergic System
  • Parkinson Disease and the Serotonergic System
  • PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR VISUAL HALLUCINATIONS IN PARKINSON DISEASE
  • D2 Antagonism
  • Serotonin Antagonism
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • III - Clinical Phenomenologie
  • 25 - Risk Overlap Between Clinical Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE, NEUROLOGY, AND PSYCHIATRY
  • THE DISEASES AND DISORDERS IN SECTION III
  • OVERLAP
  • GENOMICS AS A WAY TO UNDERSTAND RISK OVERLAP
  • WIELDING GENOMIC TOOLS
  • THE GENETIC ARCHITECTURES OF SECTION III ENTITIES
  • RISK OVERLAP
  • CONCLUSION
  • FINANCIAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
  • LIST OF URLS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • REFERENCES
  • 26 - The NIMH Research Domain Criteria Project: Toward an Integrated Neuroscience of Mental Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • WHY RESEARCH DOMAIN CRITERIA?
  • RESEARCH DOMAIN CRITERIA PROCESS AND STRUCTURE
  • INTERMEDIATE PHENOTYPES AND ENDOPHENOTYPES
  • LOOSENING THE CONSTRAINTS OF RESEARCH
  • RESEARCH DOMAIN CRITERIA AND GENETICS
  • MEETING IN THE MIDDLE
  • RESEARCH DOMAIN CRITERIA AND BIG DATA
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • COMPETING INTERESTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 27 - Schizophrenia
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ARCHITECTURE
  • THE GENOMICS ERA
  • GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES
  • Genetic Architecture of Schizophrenia
  • Overlap Across Disorders
  • Localizing Risk Genes
  • Functional Effects of Common Variants
  • Risk Prediction
  • STRUCTURAL VARIATION STUDIES
  • SEQUENCING STUDIES
  • NEXT STEPS IN GENE DISCOVERY
  • CIRCUITS AND PATHWAYS
  • Dopaminergic Signaling
  • Calcium Channel Genes
  • Glutamatergic Signaling
  • Activity-Regulated, Cytoskeleton-Associated Protein Regulation
  • Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interactors
  • Immune Function
  • Chromatin Regulators
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 28 - The Emergence and Underlying Neurobiology of Psychosis
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE CLINICAL EMERGENCE OF PSYCHOSIS
  • CLINICAL PHENOTYPE TO ENDOPHENOTYPE
  • NEUROCOGNITION
  • NEUROIMAGING
  • NEURODEVELOPMENTAL PERSPECTIVE
  • LINKS TO GENOMICS: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 29 - Autism Spectrum Disorder: Genes to Pathways to Circuits
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Phenomenology
  • Associated Psychiatric and Medical Features
  • Psychiatric Comorbidities
  • Prevalence
  • GENETICS AND GENOMICS
  • Genes and Environment in Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Early Efforts at Gene Discovery in Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Genome-Wide Association Strategies
  • De Novo and Rare Variation in Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • De Novo Single-Nucleotide Variants and Insertion-Deletions in ASD
  • Recessive Alleles and Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • FROM GENES TO BIOLOGY IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER
  • Functional Convergence
  • Spatiotemporal Convergence
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 30 - Molecular Architecture and Neurobiology of Bipolar Disorder
  • DESCRIPTIVE EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • COMORBIDITY
  • GENETIC EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • Family Studies of Bipolar Disorder
  • Family Studies of Bipolar Disorder and Major Depression
  • Family Studies of Bipolar Disorder and SCZ
  • Family Studies of Bipolar Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Twin Studies
  • Adoption Studies
  • MOLECULAR GENETICS
  • Linkage Studies
  • Association Studies
  • Sequencing Studies
  • INTERMEDIATE TRAITS AND THE BIOLOGY OF BIPOLAR DISORDER
  • Cognitive Endophenotypes
  • Premorbid Cognitive Impairment in Bipolar Disorder
  • NEUROIMAGING INTERMEDIATE TRAITS
  • Cross-Cutting Endophenotypes
  • Neurodevelopmental Contributions to Bipolar Disorder
  • Circadian Disturbances in Bipolar Disorder
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 31 - Conceptualizing Major Depression: From Genes to Neuroanatomy to Epidemiology
  • PREVALENCE OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • RISK FACTORS FOR MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • DIAGNOSTIC HETEROGENEITY IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • NEUROANATOMY OF MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • FUNCTIONAL NEUROIMAGING IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER
  • HERITABILITY
  • ENDOPHENOTYPES
  • GENETICS
  • TREATMENT FOR MAJOR DEPRESSION
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 32 - Speech and Language Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • LANGUAGE NETWORKS AND PATHWAYS
  • The Ventral Pathway
  • The Dorsal Pathway
  • NEURODEVELOPMENTAL LANGUAGE DISORDERS
  • Childhood Apraxia of Speech
  • Clinical Features
  • Genetics
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Developmental Dyslexia
  • Clinical Features
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neuropathology
  • Genetics
  • PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE APHASIA
  • Nonfluent Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia
  • Clinical Features
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neuropathology
  • Genetics
  • Semantic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia
  • Clinical Features
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neuropathology
  • Genetics
  • Logopenic Variant Primary Progressive Aphasia
  • Clinical Features
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neuropathology
  • Genetics
  • REFERENCES
  • 33 - Molecular Pathways Leading to the Clinical Phenomenology of Frontotemporal Dementia
  • INTRODUCTION TO FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA AND ASSOCIATED CLINICAL SYNDROMES
  • THREE UNIQUE GENETIC MECHANISMS CONVERGING ON FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA SPECTRUM DISORDERS
  • MAPT
  • Mapping
  • Molecular Pathogenicity
  • GRN
  • Mapping
  • Molecular Pathogenicity
  • C9ORF72
  • Mapping
  • Molecular Pathogenicity
  • NEUROANATOMICAL CIRCUITS AND CLINICAL SYNDROMES IN AUTOSOMAL DOMINANT FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION
  • Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Provides Insight Into the Anatomical Correlates of Behavior
  • Toward a Circuit-Based Understanding of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • Characterizing Genetic Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration With Structural and Functional Brain Circuitry
  • Future Questions
  • REFERENCES
  • 34 - The Genetic Basis of Alzheimer's Disease: Findings From Genome-Wide Studies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GENETICS OF EARLY-ONSET FAMILIAL ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN
  • PRESENILIN GENES (PSEN1 AND PSEN2)
  • OTHER EARLY-ONSET FAMILIAL ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE GENES
  • LATE-ONSET SPORADIC FORM OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
  • APOLIPOPROTEIN E
  • ADAM METALLOPEPTIDASE DOMAIN 10
  • TRIGGERING RECEPTOR EXPRESSED ON MYELOID CELLS 2
  • CD33 (MYELOID CELL SURFACE ANTIGEN CD33
  • SIALIC ACID-BINDING IMMUNOGLOBULIN-LIKE LECTIN 3)
  • CAS SCAFFOLDING PROTEIN FAMILY MEMBER 4
  • COMPLEMENT COMPONENT (3B/4B) RECEPTOR 1
  • BRIDGING INTEGRATOR 1
  • CLUSTERIN
  • ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE-BINDING CASSETTE, SUBFAMILY A (ABC1), MEMBER 7
  • PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-BINDING CLATHRIN ASSEMBLY PROTEIN
  • MEMBRANE-SPANNING 4 DOMAIN SUBFAMILY A MEMBERS 4A AND 6A
  • CUGBP, ELAV-LIKE FAMILY MEMBER 1
  • SORTILIN-RELATED RECEPTOR, LDLR CLASS A REPEATS CONTAINING
  • INOSITOL POLYPHOSPHATE-5-PHOSPHATASE
  • CD2-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN
  • MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX CLASS II, DRß1 AND 5
  • EPH RECEPTOR A1
  • MYOCYTE ENHANCER FACTOR 2C
  • NME/NM23 FAMILY MEMBER 8
  • ZINC FINGER, CW TYPE WITH PWWP DOMAIN 1
  • FERMITIN FAMILY MEMBER 2
  • PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE 2ß
  • RAS AND RAB INTERACTOR 3 (RIN3) AND SOLUTE CARRIER FAMILY 24 SODIUM/POTASSIUM/CALCIUM EXCHANGER, MEMBER 4 (SLC24A4)
  • CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 35 - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: From Circuits to Genes
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Translational Neuroscience and Psychiatry: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Model
  • Importance of Large Science Consortia and Public/Private Partnerships
  • Targeted Interventions and Preventions, From Bench to Bedside
  • CLINICAL ASPECTS OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER DIAGNOSIS
  • NEURAL CIRCUITS OF FEAR AND EXTINCTION, AND THEIR DYSREGULATION IN POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
  • Fear Processing
  • Amygdala
  • Medial Prefrontal Cortex
  • Hippocampus
  • GENETIC STUDIES OF POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
  • Candidate Gene Studies
  • FK506 Binding Protein 5
  • ADCYAP1R1
  • Monoaminergic System Candidate Genes
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies
  • Retinoid-Related Orphan Receptor Alpha
  • COBL
  • Long Intergenic Noncoding RNA
  • PRTFDC1
  • PGC Consortium
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENT
  • DISCLOSURES
  • REFERENCES
  • 36 - Neurodevelopmental Disorders, Causes, and Consequences
  • NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS, CAUSES, AND CONSEQUENCES
  • CAUSES OF DISORDERS OF NEURODEVELOPMENT
  • GENETICS OF NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • MECHANISMS OF ACTION AND CONSEQUENCES ON THE CIRCUITS OF COGNITION AND BEHAVIOR
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 37 - Molecular Architecture and Neurobiology of the Epilepsies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PROGRESS IN EPILEPSY GENETICS
  • Linkage Analysis
  • Genome-Wide Association Studies
  • Next-Generation Sequencing
  • GENETIC ARCHITECTURE OF THE EPILEPSIES
  • Copy Number Variation in the Epilepsies
  • De Novo Mutations in the Epilepsies
  • Complex Epilepsies
  • Interpreting the Genetic Architecture
  • VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELOPATHIES
  • Sodium Channels
  • SCN1A
  • SCN2A
  • SCN1B
  • Potassium Channels
  • KCNQ2 and KCNQ3
  • KCNA1
  • KCNT1
  • Calcium Channels
  • CACNA1H
  • LIGAND-GATED CHANNELOPATHIES
  • Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors
  • CHRNA4, CHRNB2, and CHRNA2
  • Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid Receptors
  • GABRG2 and GABRA1
  • N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
  • GRIN2A
  • GRIN2B
  • VESICLE TRAFFICKING DYSREGULATION
  • STX1B
  • STXBP1
  • DNM1
  • SYN1
  • MISCELLANEOUS GENES
  • SLC2A1
  • LGI1
  • SYNGAP1
  • DEPDC5
  • GNAO1
  • INTERPRETATION
  • MANAGEMENT/THERAPEUTIC IMPLICATIONS
  • Ketogenic Diet
  • Quinidine, Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate, and Bryostatin
  • Memantine
  • Retigabine
  • FUTURE STUDIES AND CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 38 - Clinical Syndromes of Substance Use Disorder
  • INTRODUCTION
  • OVERVIEW OF SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER
  • CIRCUITS AND PATHWAYS THAT MEDIATE SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • Mesolimbic Dopamine System
  • Neurophysiological Mechanisms of Reward Learning: Role in Drug Seeking
  • Neurocircuitry Underlying Drug Withdrawal
  • CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR PATHOLOGY OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • Synaptic Plasticity
  • Intracellular Signaling
  • GENETIC FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER
  • CONCLUSION
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • 39 - Immunologic and Genetic Aspects of Type 1 Narcolepsy
  • INTRODUCTION TO THE CLINICAL CONDITION AND ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • TYPE 1 NARCOLEPSY IS CAUSED BY A LOSS OF HYPOCRETIN NEURONS
  • GENETIC ASSOCIATION OF NARCOLEPSY WITH THE HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN
  • NON-HUMAN LEUKOCYTE ANTIGEN GENES ARE ALSO ASSOCIATED WITH NARCOLEPSY
  • NARCOLEPSY IN ASSOCIATION WITH OTHER SYNDROMIC GENETIC DISORDERS
  • IS TYPE 1 NARCOLEPSY AN AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE?
  • INVOLVEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN NARCOLEPSY
  • H1N1 PANDEMRIX VACCINATION LEADING TO AN INCREASE IN NARCOLEPSY INCIDENCE
  • PERSPECTIVES
  • REFERENCES
  • 40 - Genomic Landscape of Brain Tumors
  • INTRODUCTION
  • MENINGIOMAS
  • GLIOMAS
  • Adult Low-Grade Gliomas
  • Adult High-Grade Gliomas
  • Malignant Progression of Adult Low-Grade Gliomas
  • Pediatric Low-Grade Gliomas
  • Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas
  • MEDULLOBLASTOMAS
  • EPENDYMAL TUMORS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • 41 - White Matter Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY OF WHITE MATTER RESEARCH
  • WHITE MATTER ANATOMY
  • CLINICAL SYNDROMES
  • Clinical Approach
  • Vascular Cognitive Impairment
  • Risk Factors and Clinical Phenotypes
  • Structural and Functional Neuroimaging
  • Genetics
  • Pathology
  • Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy
  • Clinical Phenotype
  • Imaging
  • Genetics
  • Pathology
  • Diagnosis
  • Treatment
  • Cerebral Autosomal Recessive Arteriopathy With Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy
  • Adult Polyglucosan Body Disease
  • Hereditary Leukodystrophy With Neuronal Spheroids
  • Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Background
  • Clinical Phenotype
  • Structural and Functional Neuroimaging
  • Genetics
  • Pathology
  • REFERENCES
  • 42 - Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis 1 and Many Diseases
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • CLINICAL FEATURES
  • CLINICAL SUBTYPES OF AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS
  • AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS ANATOMY
  • AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS PATHOLOGY
  • AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS GENETICS BY PUTATIVE MECHANISM
  • Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Coiled-Coil-Helix-Coiled-Coil-Helix Domain-Containing Protein 10
  • Protein Degradation and Autophagy Impairment
  • Ubiquilin 2
  • Sequestosome 1
  • Valosin-Containing Protein
  • Charged Multivesicular Body Protein 2b or Chromatin-Modifying Protein 2B
  • Optineurin
  • FIG4
  • TANK-Binding Kinase 1
  • RNA Metabolism and Processing Impairment
  • TAR DNA-Binding Protein
  • Fused in Sarcoma/Translated in Liposarcoma Protein
  • Chromosome 9 Open Reading Frame 72 Hexanucleotide Repeat Expansion
  • TATA-Binding Protein-Associated Factor 15
  • Ewing Sarcoma Breakpoint Region 1
  • Angiogenin
  • Senataxin
  • Ataxin2
  • Heterogeneous Ribonucleoproteins
  • Matrin 3
  • Excitotoxicity
  • d-Amino-Acid Oxidase (DAO)
  • Cytoskeleton Disruption and Cellular and Axonal Transport Dysfunction
  • Neurofilament Heavy Chain
  • Dynactin
  • Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein-Associated Protein B
  • Peripherin
  • Spastin
  • Profilin 1
  • Tubulin Alpha 4A Protein
  • Uncertain Mechanism
  • Spatacsin
  • Alsin
  • Gene Modifiers
  • Ephrin Receptor
  • Kinesin-Associated Protein 3
  • UNC13A
  • RNA Elongator Acetyltransferase Complex Subunit 3
  • Possible Genetic Modifiers of C9orf72
  • AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS MODELS
  • DISCUSSION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 43 - Eating Disorders
  • CLINICAL SYNDROMES
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • Binge-Eating Disorder
  • Subphenotypes That Cross-Cut the Eating Disorders
  • Common Comorbid Conditions
  • Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Depressive and Bipolar Disorders
  • Substance Use Disorders
  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • HUMAN GENETIC RESEARCH
  • Family and Twin Studies
  • History of Genetic Studies in Eating Disorders
  • Current Status of Genetic/Genomic Research
  • Emerging Epigenetic Research
  • NEURAL CIRCUIT DISSECTION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR RELATED TO EATING DISORDERS
  • Common Behavioral Strategies for Studying Adaptive and Maladaptive Feeding in Animal Models
  • Genetic Targeting and Optogenetic Actuation of Neuronal Subtypes to Regulate Feeding
  • Neural Circuits That Regulate Feeding and Related Phenotypes Relevant to Eating Disorders
  • Circuits for Promoting Excessive Feeding
  • Critical Neuronal Circuits for the Suppression of Feeding
  • Summary and Future Directions
  • Applying Data Generated in the Clinic to Identify and Validate Neurocircuit Underpinnings of Eating Disorders
  • Transcriptional Profiling of Genetically Defined Neurons That Regulate Feeding
  • CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • IV - Clinical Translation and Drug Development
  • 44 - Psychiatric Pharmacogenomics: Translating Genomics
  • DEFINITION AND OVERVIEW
  • CONNECTION TO GENOMICS IN PSYCHIATRY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTURE
  • CHALLENGES
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS BY THERAPEUTIC AREA
  • Antidepressants and Anxiolytics
  • Efficacy Studies
  • Tolerability Studies
  • Antipsychotics
  • Efficacy Studies
  • Tolerability Studies
  • Lithium, Anticonvulsants, and Opiates
  • Anticonvulsants
  • Lamotrigine
  • Topiramate
  • Opiates
  • EFFORTS AT CLINICAL TRANSLATION
  • Clinical Trials
  • Cost-Effectiveness Studies
  • APPLICATIONS IN CLINICAL INVESTIGATION
  • POLICY AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS
  • EMERGING DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • X
  • Y
  • Z
  • Back Cover

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