The detection of marine pollution requires a scientific and operational response to identify contaminants, chemicals and hydrocarbons, and to support contrasting observations. Remote Detection and Maritime Pollution originates from the proceedings of CEDRE Information Day, held on October 13, 2016 in Brest, France. Containing four parts encompassing 13 chapters, this book explores remote detection channels for the multiform marine pollutions of today and of the future. With a focus on transatlantic cooperation, it covers remote detection sensors, the state of the art of maritime surveillance with regard to the interests of national and international authorities, the benefits of response strategy, and geophysical exploration. Future vectors (airplanes, drones, satellites, among others) and sensors (radar, optical, hyperspectral and so on) are also studied. This book is a valuable resource for practical solutions for marine authorities, industries (chemical, energy, aerospace, petroleum, shipping), lawyers and scientists.
In cases of maritime pollution by HNS (Hazardous and Noxious Substances), specific methods of identification and characterization are needed. The project POLLUPROOF (which started in January 2014 and ended in mid-2017) aims to test and validate the use of optical sensing methods, including hyperspectral and radar sensors, in order to detect, locate and classify six HNS. In this chapter, the experimental approach followed during the project is detailed: the calibration of optical sensors in mesoscale experiments and the validation of optical and radar sensors in a realistic experiment at sea. The promising results obtained are specifically explained in the other chapters.
Maritime shipping activities are responsible for about 20% of the pollution at sea. Pollutants discharged accidentally or deliberately can endanger the biodiversity and eco-balance of our oceans. Exhaust emissions and cargo mishaps associated with an increase in vessel traffic are sources of pollution that affect both the marine environment (acidification, contamination of flora and fauna) and land (acid rain). This issue has become a priority at the national (Grenelle de la Mer) and regional (European - directives 2005/35 and 2005/33) levels, as demonstrated by the implementation of several international conventions (e.g. OPRC-HNS Protocol [OPR 00], MARPOL (completed in 1978) [MAR 73]). Obviously, the removal or drastic reduction of pollution resulting from maritime activities is a desirable objective. The magnitude of the problem is highlighted by the quantity of goods transported by sea: of an estimated 8,000 million tonnes (Mt) of chemicals transported worldwide, 350 Mt are transported via European waterways. It is estimated that there are more than 100 incidents per year involving the illegal discharge of noxious liquid substances in these waters. For over 25 years, French Customs (DGDDI) have deployed aircraft equipped with remote sensing instruments (radar and scanner IR/UV), in order to successfully prosecute ships involved in oil spill incidents. The effectiveness of this policy has been demonstrated through a significant reduction in oil pollution in the waters under French jurisdiction (during the period between 2006 and 2012, the number of ships caught polluting was reduced by threefold).
This chapter presents the POLLUPROOF project through its objectives and the experimental approach used to achieve them. Results from the experimental parts are beyond the scope of this chapter and will be part of other chapters.
1.2. POLLUPROOF project
The POLLUPROOF (PROOF improvement of HNS maritime POLLution by airborne radar and optical facilities) project would enhance the capabilities of French Customs to detect, locate and classify pollutants (other than hydrocarbons) originating from ship emissions (including particulates), in order to collect evidence for the prosecution of offenders while ensuring an effective intervention in the case of accidental discharge at sea.
The project is funded by ANR ECO-TECH 2013, and the members of the consortium have a recognized and complementary expertise in the field of aerial detection and marine pollution: ONERA, DGDDI, CEDRE, CEPPOL, Agenium, AVDEF and DRDC. In addition to the consortium, Transport Canada (TC) acts as an end-user and member of the steering committee. The project began in January 2014 and concluded in mid-2017.
The objectives of this project are:
- 1) to verify the ability to detect, locate and classify at least three of the six most noxious liquid substances transported by sea in Europe;
- 2) to achieve a reduction of spilled noxious liquid substances equivalent to the level for hydrocarbon emissions;
- 3) to develop a stronger policy to control the release of noxious gases within the sulfide emission control areas (SECA).
These objectives will be achieved by:
- - deployment of radar (SAR/SLAR) and optical sensing (hyperspectral cameras) capabilities for detecting liquid pollutants at sea;
- - evaluation of the complementarity of optical and radar information;
- - identification of gaseous discharges of engine emissions and liquid pollutants using hyperspectral analysis.
To accomplish these activities, the POLLUPROOF project will analyze the needs of French Customs regarding aerial detection and will proceed with:
- - calibration of optical measurements on liquid pollutants in mesoscale (test-tank) experiments located at CEDRE;
- - airborne measurements of sea spills using hyperspectral optical and radar sensors, following the test-tank analysis;
- - algorithm development for detection, location and classification of pollutants. The consortium will then produce a data gathering evidence methodology. French Customs staff will evaluate the effectiveness and applicability of these advances using a human-machine interface.
1.2.2. Hazardous and noxious substances
Six chemical substances have been chosen to evaluate the capability of remote sensing sensors: rapeseed oil, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME), toluene, heptane, xylene and methanol. These chemicals are among the most transported substances by maritime freight in Europe. Methanol and liquid chemicals represent 46% of the 165 million tonnes annually transported by chemical carriers, while vegetable oil accounts for 29% [OLA 09]. Some of these chemicals are classified as the most noxious substances in the IBC Code (IMO website), which provides an international standard for the safe carriage by sea of HNS in bulk. These chemicals have already been involved in accidents at sea, for example Poona sank in 1971 with 600 T of rapeseed oil, Grape One sank in 1993 with 3,000 T of xylene, Cape Horn carrying a cargo of 14,000 T of methanol was seriously damaged by an explosion in the port of Livorno in 2003 [CED 15, CUN 15]. Rapeseed oil and FAME are part of the vegetable oil family; toluene, heptane and xylene are petrochemical products; methanol is part of the family of alcohols and derivatives. Their main properties are described below.
Rapeseed oil: rapeseed or colza oil is a vegetable oil obtained from crushed colza seeds. At ambient pressure and temperature, rapeseed oil is a viscous liquid with a specific gravity of 0.910. Rapeseed oil is insoluble in water and does not evaporate (vapor pressure below 0.01 kPa at 25°C); these characteristics classify rapeseed oil as a floater F in the SEBC.
FAME: fatty acid methyl esters are biofuel directly added to conventional fuels such as diesel. At ambient pressure and temperature, they are a liquid with a specific gravity of 0.888. This product is virtually insoluble in water (solubility of 0.023 mg.L-1 at 20°C) and has a relatively low evaporative potential (vapor pressure of 0.42 kPa at 25°C) making it a floater F in the SEBC.
Toluene: toluene, also named methylbenzene or phenylmethane, is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is commonly used as a chemical reagent or solvent, particularly in the industrial sector. Toluene is a liquid at ambient pressure and temperature and has a specific gravity of 0.867. Toluene is nearly insoluble in water (535 mg.L-1 at 25°C) and tends to evaporate relatively easily (vapor pressure of 2.91 kPa at 20°C). Considering the SEBC classification, toluene is a floating and evaporating (FE) substance.
Heptane: heptane is the generic term to identify one of the nine isomers of C7H16, and is a saturated hydrocarbon of the linear alkane family. This is a constituent of fuel and is used as an extraction solvent, a synthesis intermediate in the chemical industry and as a solvent for glues, inks, rubbers and plastics. At ambient pressure and temperature, heptane is a volatile liquid (6-7.7 kPa at 20°C) and nearly insoluble in water (< 2 mg.L-1 at 20°C). With a specific gravity of 0.710, heptane is lighter than water and floats. According to the SEBC classification, heptane is considered as an evaporator E.
Xylene: xylene or dimethylbenzene is a group of aromatic hydrocarbons with one methyl derivative on benzene. It is naturally present in oil and can be observed in (diesel) engine exhaust gases, either as a residual oil chemical or formed during incomplete combustion. Xylene is also produced from oil in the petrochemical industry and is one of the 30 most produced chemicals in the USA. It is used in the printing, rubber and leather industries mainly as a solvent. Xylene is an inflammable liquid with a pleasant fragrance. Chemical properties are similar from one isomer to another. Its specific gravity of 0.87 makes it float on water. Xylene is slightly soluble in water (solubility below 20 mg.L-1 at 20°C) and is not likely to evaporate (vapor pressure of 0.89 kPa at 20°C). Due to these characteristics, xylene is considered as an FE (floater and evaporator) in the SEBC classification.
Methanol: methyl alcohol or methanol is the simplest alcohol with the chemical formula CH3OH. At ambient temperature, this polar liquid is used as antifreeze (for coolant, for example), solvent or fuel (in aeromodeling, for example). Methanol is not present in large amounts in nature and is industrially produced. It is mainly used as the basic material for chemical synthesis of more complex chemical products. Nearly 40% of methanol is converted into formaldehyde, which is then...