Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Nineteenth Century examines insurgency and counterinsurgency across the globe in the nineteenth century.
The volume includes chapters from distinguished and rising historians from Europe, North and South America and covers irregular wars in Spain, Ireland, France, Latin America, China, USA, Africa, Central Asia and Burma. The authors explore links between insurgencies and nationalism, including learning curves and emulation in counterinsurgency. With a special emphasis on non-Western warfare, this volume includes case studies such as the Katanga and White Lotus rebellions largely unknown to Western readers. The military history of the nineteenth century thus reveals much more than the symmetrical warfare of Napoleon, Grant and Moltke. This volume shows the commonalities of responses more than their differences and refracts these through themes which crop up repeatedly in different times and places. These themes include common problems and solutions: the challenge of commanding local intelligence networks; public opinion; millenarianism, magic and religion; technology; 'hearts and minds'; the legal framework of state violence; racial stereotypes and patterns of forgetting and remembering guerrilla conflicts.
The first recent study to examine Western and non-Western warfare in equal measure, stressing the prevalence of commonalities between guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgency across the globe, Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in the Nineteenth Century will be of great interest to scholars of military and strategic studies, as well as modern military history. It was originally published as a special issue of Small Wars & Insurgencies.
Mark Lawrence is Lecturer in Modern Hispanic and Military History at the University of Kent, UK, and Director of Military History at the University of Kent (2019-2020). He is author of the award-winning Spanish Civil Wars (2017), Nineteenth-Century Spain (2019) and Insurgency, Counterinsurgency and Policing in Centre-West Mexico, 1926-1929: Fighting Cristeros (2020).
1. Introduction: Why a nineteenth-century study?
Part 1: Insurgencies
2. The Peninsular War guerrilla and its antecedents: humiliation forgotten, disaster prefigured: the guerra fantástica of 1762
3. Reluctant guerrillas in early nineteenth century China: the White Lotus insurgents and their suppressors
4. Regular and irregular forces in conflict: nineteenth century insurgencies in South America
Alejandro M. Rabinovich and Natalia Sobrevilla Perea
5. The First Carlist War (1833-40), insurgency, Ramón Cabrera, and expeditionary warfare
6. Holmes' front: constructing a new face of battle for America's Civil War
7. Memory, magic and militias: Cora Indian participation in Mexico's wars, from the reforma to the revolution (1854-1920)
8. Guerrilla warfare in Katanga: the Sanga rebellion of the 1890s and its suppression
Giacomo Macola and Jack Hogan
Part 2: Counterinsurgencies
9. Ireland: rebellion and counter-insurgency, 1848-1867
10. 'The extraordinary successes which the Russians have achieved' - the Conquest of Central Asia in Callwell's Small Wars
11. General Zuo's counter-insurgency doctrine
Kenneth M. Swope
12. A predisposition to brutality? German practices against civilians and francs-tireurs during the Franco-Prussian war 1870-1871 and their relevance for the German 'military Sonderweg' debate
Bastian Matteo Scianna
13. The campaign of the lost footsteps: the pacification of Burma, 1885-95
Ian F. W. Beckett
14. The Force Publique's campaigns in the Congo-Arab War, 1892-1894
15. Remembering and forgetting Mirambo: Histories of war in modern Africa