Criminal Circumstance

A Dynamic Multi-Contextual Criminal Opportunity Theory
 
 
Routledge (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 6. Februar 2018
  • |
  • 264 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-351-52495-7 (ISBN)
 
The main objective of this book is to propose an alternative criminal opportunity theory. The authors build upon social control and routine activities to develop a dynamic, multi-contextual criminal opportunity theory. Emphasizing the importance of contextual explanations of criminal acts, they propose two levels of analysis: individual and environmental. At each level, the theory pivots on three broad organizing constructs--offenders motivated to commit criminal acts, targets such as persons or property suitable as objects of criminal acts, and the presence or absence of individuals or other defensive mechanisms capable of serving as guardians against criminal acts. Crime is profoundly real, possessing qualities that make its occurrence and prevention pressing and persistent matters for individuals and societies. Theory, in contrast, is seen as highly abstract and removed from the seriousness of "real life." Theory almost seems to be a peculiar sport of an academic class. The practically minded, even some academic criminologists, are often perplexed by the seeming obsession some scholars have with theory, which, after all, is nothing more than an explanation of facts. The practically minded, seeing a compelling need to identify the crucial factors that could be used to predict and prevent crime, wonder why anyone would invest precious time and energy into speculating about the abstract, underlying details of why crime occurs when and where it does.The authors contend that every intervention, prevention, and policy is based on some theoretical explanation of the causes of human behavior. The improvement of interventions, preventions, and policies is thus directly related to the improvement of theoretical understandings of the abstract, underlying details of the causes of crime. The development of explanations of events, when properly done, is a crucial component to understanding and possibly improving the "real world." This work does just that.
  • Englisch
  • Somerset
  • |
  • USA
Taylor & Francis Ltd
  • Für höhere Schule und Studium
978-1-351-52495-7 (9781351524957)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Half Title
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Figures
  • List of Tables
  • Acknowledgments
  • Preface
  • 1 Theory Generally and a General Theory of Crime: Some Preliminary Considerations
  • Why Bother?
  • What Is Theory
  • Assessing Theory
  • How Do Models Fit In?
  • Toward a Dynamic Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory
  • Plan of the Book
  • 2 Criminal Opportunity: A Necessary Condition and Central Construct
  • The Origins and Foundations of Criminal Opportunity Theory
  • Multilevel Opportunity Models of Crime/Victimization
  • Opportunity Models of Reactions to Crime/Victimization
  • 3 A Multicontextual Approach
  • Integrating Social Control and Routine Activities Theory
  • Integrative Compatibility among Constituent Theories
  • A Dynamic, Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory
  • 4 Evidence and Specification of Main Effects
  • Conceptualizations and Measurements: Some Caveats
  • Motivated Offenders
  • Suitable Targets
  • Capable Guardianship
  • Conclusion: Toward a Specification of Main Effects
  • 5 Evidence and Specification of Moderating Effects
  • Statistical Interaction Effects
  • Ambient Opportunity and its Moderating Effects
  • Grounding Theoretical Principles and Logic
  • Key Propositions
  • Compatibility with Extant Research
  • Conclusion
  • 6 Implications for Reactions to Crime
  • Rationality and the Fear of Crime
  • Propositions Regarding Main Effects
  • Propositions Regarding Moderating Effects
  • Compatibility with Extant Research
  • 7 A Dynamic Perspective
  • Rhythm, Tempo, and Timing
  • Developmental, Life-Course Criminology
  • A Dynamic, Multilevel Criminal Opportunity Theory
  • Theoretical Implications
  • 8 Possibilities and Limitations for Empirical Research
  • Testing a Dynamic, Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory: Multilevel Modeling
  • Dynamic, Multicontextual Criminal Opportunity Theory: Other Methods
  • 9 Implications for Policy and Practice
  • Social Control of Crime
  • Social Control and Criminal Opportunity
  • Toward Multidimensional Crime Policy and Practice
  • Ethics of Limiting Criminal Opportunity
  • References
  • Index

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