The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism

 
 
Wiley-Blackwell (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 29. November 2016
  • |
  • 632 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-92396-2 (ISBN)
 
The Handbook of the Criminology of Terrorism features a collection of essays that represent the most recent criminological research relating to the origins and evolution of, along with responses to, terrorism, from a criminological perspective.
* Offers an authoritative overview of the latest criminological research into the causes of and responses to terrorism in today's world
* Covers broad themes that include terrorism's origins, theories, methodologies, types, relationship to other forms of crime, terrorism and the criminal justice system, ways to counter terrorism, and more
* Features original contributions from a group of international experts in the field
* Provides unique insights into the field through an exclusive focus on criminological conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that engage terrorism and responses to it
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Hoboken
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons Inc
  • Für Beruf und Forschung
  • 5,33 MB
978-1-118-92396-2 (9781118923962)
1118923960 (1118923960)
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Gary LaFree is Director of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) and a Distinguished Scholar and Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland. His most recent book (with Laura Dugan and Erin Miller) is Putting Terrorism in Context (2015).
Joshua D. Freilich is a member of the Criminal Justice Department and the Criminal Justice PhD Program at John Jay College. He is the Creator and co-Director of the United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB), an open source relational database of violent and financial crimes committed by political extremists in the U.S.
1 - Title Page [Seite 5]
2 - Copyright Page [Seite 6]
3 - Contents [Seite 7]
4 - Notes on Contributors [Seite 10]
5 - Part I Introduction [Seite 19]
5.1 - Bringing Criminology into the Study of Terrorism [Seite 21]
5.1.1 - Bringing Criminology into the Study of Terrorism [Seite 21]
5.1.2 - The Criminology of Terrorism [Seite 22]
5.1.3 - Note [Seite 30]
5.1.4 - References [Seite 30]
6 - Part II Etiology [Seite 33]
6.1 - Chapter 1 The Etiology of Radicalization [Seite 35]
6.1.1 - What is Radicalization? [Seite 35]
6.1.2 - Contributions of Social Science Theories [Seite 37]
6.1.3 - Integrating Factors at Multiple Levels [Seite 40]
6.1.4 - How Radicalization Develops Parameters of the Radicalization Process [Seite 42]
6.1.5 - Conclusion [Seite 46]
6.1.6 - References [Seite 46]
6.2 - Chapter 2 Psychological Factors in Radicalization: A "3?N" Approach [Seite 51]
6.2.1 - Needs: Individual Motivation [Seite 52]
6.2.2 - Mechanisms Underlying Extremism [Seite 54]
6.2.3 - Narratives: The Role of Ideology [Seite 57]
6.2.4 - Networks: Group Dynamics [Seite 59]
6.2.5 - Conclusion [Seite 61]
6.2.6 - References [Seite 61]
6.3 - Chapter 3 What Makes Them Do It? Individual-Level Indicators of Extremist Outcomes [Seite 65]
6.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 65]
6.3.2 - Radicalization Outcomes and Processes [Seite 66]
6.3.3 - Empirical Analysis of Radicalization [Seite 68]
6.3.4 - Conclusions [Seite 75]
6.3.5 - Notes [Seite 76]
6.3.6 - References [Seite 77]
6.4 - Chapter 4 The Terrorists' Planning Cycle: Patterns of Pre-incident Behavior [Seite 80]
6.4.1 - Notes [Seite 92]
6.4.2 - References [Seite 92]
6.5 - Chapter 5 Group-level Predictors of Political and Religiously Motivated Violence [Seite 95]
6.5.1 - Data Sources [Seite 96]
6.5.2 - Group-level Predictors of Violence [Seite 100]
6.5.3 - Conclusion [Seite 106]
6.5.4 - Notes [Seite 107]
6.5.5 - References [Seite 108]
6.6 - Chapter 6 Country-level Predictors of Terrorism [Seite 111]
6.6.1 - Defining and Measuring Terrorism [Seite 112]
6.6.2 - Open-source Data on Terrorism [Seite 112]
6.6.3 - Prior Literature: Correlates of Country-level Terrorism Attacks [Seite 114]
6.6.4 - Conclusions [Seite 130]
6.6.5 - Note [Seite 131]
6.6.6 - References [Seite 132]
7 - Part III Theories [Seite 137]
7.1 - Chapter 7 General Strain Theory and Terrorism [Seite 139]
7.1.1 - An Overview of GST [Seite 140]
7.1.2 - Strain in Current Explanations of Terrorism [Seite 142]
7.1.3 - GSTT [Seite 143]
7.1.4 - Summary [Seite 148]
7.1.5 - References [Seite 149]
7.2 - Chapter 8 Social Learning Theory and Becoming a Terrorist: New Challenges for a General Theory [Seite 151]
7.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 151]
7.2.2 - Defining Terrorists and Their Illegal Actions [Seite 152]
7.2.3 - Towards Understanding the Process of Becoming a Terrorist [Seite 153]
7.2.4 - From Sutherland to Akers: The Evolution of Learning Theory [Seite 153]
7.2.5 - Social Structure and Social Learning: Understanding Radicalization as a Social Learning Process [Seite 155]
7.2.6 - Role of Social Media in Radicalized Learning [Seite 159]
7.2.7 - Summary and Conclusions [Seite 161]
7.2.8 - Notes [Seite 163]
7.2.9 - References [Seite 163]
7.3 - Chapter 9 The Situational Approach to Terrorism [Seite 168]
7.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 168]
7.3.2 - The Line of Least Resistance [Seite 173]
7.3.3 - Displacement and Terrorism: the Critique of Situational Prevention Measures [Seite 173]
7.3.4 - Future Research [Seite 176]
7.3.5 - References [Seite 177]
7.4 - Chapter 10 Victimization Theories and Terrorism [Seite 180]
7.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 180]
7.4.2 - The Non-randomness of Terrorism Victimization [Seite 181]
7.4.3 - Victimization Theories and Criminology [Seite 182]
7.4.4 - Victimization Theories and Terrorism [Seite 185]
7.4.5 - Data Sources for Terrorism Victimization [Seite 186]
7.4.6 - The Future of Victimization Theories and Terrorism [Seite 188]
7.4.7 - References [Seite 190]
7.5 - Chapter 11 Analyzing Radicalization and Terrorism: A Situational Action Theory [Seite 193]
7.5.1 - Importance of Mechanism?based and Integrative Explanations [Seite 194]
7.5.2 - SAT [Seite 196]
7.5.3 - Coda: Outlining a Research Agenda and Its Implications for Prevention [Seite 200]
7.5.4 - Notes [Seite 201]
7.5.5 - References [Seite 202]
8 - Part IV Research Methods [Seite 205]
8.1 - Chapter 12 Measuring Terrorism [Seite 207]
8.1.1 - Introduction [Seite 207]
8.1.2 - Applying Crime Data Collection Strategies to Terrorism [Seite 208]
8.1.3 - Open-Source Data Collection [Seite 210]
8.1.4 - Conclusion [Seite 220]
8.1.5 - Notes [Seite 220]
8.1.6 - References [Seite 221]
8.2 - Chapter 13 Paradigmatic Case Studies and Prison Ethnography: Future Directions in Terrorism Research [Seite 224]
8.2.1 - The Case Study in Terrorism Research [Seite 225]
8.2.2 - The Paradigmatic Case Study [Seite 225]
8.2.3 - Ethnography in Terrorism Research [Seite 228]
8.2.4 - Prison Ethnography [Seite 229]
8.2.5 - Structuring the Prison Interview [Seite 233]
8.2.6 - Conclusions [Seite 235]
8.2.7 - Acknowledgments [Seite 236]
8.2.8 - Notes [Seite 236]
8.2.9 - References [Seite 236]
8.3 - Chapter 14 Social Network Analysis and Terrorism [Seite 239]
8.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 239]
8.3.2 - SNA [Seite 240]
8.3.3 - Influence of SNA in Characterizing Terrorist Group Structure [Seite 241]
8.3.4 - Resiliency and the Security/Efficiency Trade-off [Seite 242]
8.3.5 - Roles in Terrorist Organizations [Seite 244]
8.3.6 - Data Mining, SNA, and Terrorism [Seite 245]
8.3.7 - Dynamic SNA and Terrorism [Seite 246]
8.3.8 - Future Directions [Seite 247]
8.3.9 - References [Seite 248]
8.4 - Chapter 15 Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Terrorism and Insurgency [Seite 250]
8.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 250]
8.4.2 - Emergence of Space-Time Analysis of Violence across Multiple Fields [Seite 250]
8.4.3 - Evolution of Space-Time Analysis of Terrorism and Insurgency [Seite 253]
8.4.4 - Suggestions for Future Developments [Seite 257]
8.4.5 - Notes [Seite 258]
8.4.6 - References [Seite 258]
8.5 - Chapter 16 Applying Multilevel Models to Terrorism Research [Seite 262]
8.5.1 - A Brief Overview of Multilevel Models [Seite 263]
8.5.2 - Multilevel Models in Terrorism Research [Seite 267]
8.5.3 - Contextual Measures, Future Directions, and Additional Considerations [Seite 270]
8.5.4 - Notes [Seite 275]
8.5.5 - References [Seite 275]
8.6 - Chapter 17 Methodological Advances in the Study of Terrorism: Using Latent Class Growth Analysis to Estimate Terrorism Trends [Seite 278]
8.6.1 - Introduction [Seite 278]
8.6.2 - LCGA [Seite 279]
8.6.3 - LCGA Applied to Terrorism [Seite 280]
8.6.4 - Limitations and Methodological Issues with LCGA [Seite 286]
8.6.5 - Future Research [Seite 289]
8.6.6 - Conclusion [Seite 290]
8.6.7 - Notes [Seite 290]
8.6.8 - References [Seite 291]
8.7 - Chapter 18 Interrupted Time Series Analysis in the Study of Terrorism [Seite 294]
8.7.1 - Review of Some Applications of Interrupted Time Series Analysis in Terrorism Research [Seite 295]
8.7.2 - Statistical Background on Interrupted Time Series Analysis [Seite 296]
8.7.3 - Impact of Embassy Fortifications on US Diplomatic Attacks [Seite 300]
8.7.4 - Concluding Remarks [Seite 309]
8.7.5 - References [Seite 310]
9 - Part V Types of Terrorism [Seite 313]
9.1 - Chapter 19 Far Right Terrorism in the United States [Seite 315]
9.1.1 - Types of Right-Wing Extremists [Seite 316]
9.1.2 - Early Terror in America [Seite 316]
9.1.3 - Terror Cells in the 1980s [Seite 317]
9.1.4 - No Lack of Effort: Foiled Plots in the 1990s [Seite 319]
9.1.5 - Lone-Offender Terrorism [Seite 321]
9.1.6 - Conclusion [Seite 323]
9.1.7 - Notes [Seite 324]
9.1.8 - References [Seite 325]
9.2 - Chapter 20 Left-wing Terrorism: From Anarchists to the Radical Environmental Movement and Back [Seite 328]
9.2.1 - Traditional Left-wing Movement, 1960-1985 [Seite 329]
9.2.2 - Radical Environmental and Animal Rights Movement, 1970-Today [Seite 335]
9.2.3 - Future of the Left Wing: An Overlap in Ideologies? [Seite 337]
9.2.4 - Conclusion [Seite 338]
9.2.5 - Notes [Seite 338]
9.2.6 - References [Seite 339]
9.3 - Chapter 21 Assessing Aerial Hijacking as a Terrorist Tactic [Seite 341]
9.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 341]
9.3.2 - A Brief History of Aerial Hijackings [Seite 342]
9.3.3 - Offender Decision-Making: Rational Choice Theory [Seite 344]
9.3.4 - The Crime Situation: Routine Activities Theory [Seite 347]
9.3.5 - Examining Terrorism as a Tactic [Seite 349]
9.3.6 - Conclusion [Seite 353]
9.3.7 - Notes [Seite 354]
9.3.8 - References [Seite 355]
9.4 - Chapter 22 Evolution of Suicide Attacks [Seite 357]
9.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 357]
9.4.2 - Conceptual Challenges [Seite 357]
9.4.3 - Methodological Challenges [Seite 360]
9.4.4 - Culture Wars? [Seite 361]
9.4.5 - Organizations or Networks? [Seite 362]
9.4.6 - Strategic and Political Logics of Suicide Attacks [Seite 363]
9.4.7 - Individual-level Debates [Seite 364]
9.4.8 - Conclusions [Seite 365]
9.4.9 - Notes [Seite 366]
9.4.10 - References [Seite 366]
9.5 - Chapter 23 Terrorist Assassinations: A Criminological Perspective [Seite 371]
9.5.1 - Introduction [Seite 371]
9.5.2 - History of Assassination [Seite 372]
9.5.3 - Review of the Assassination Literature [Seite 373]
9.5.4 - Criminology Theories and Terrorism: Implications for Assassinations [Seite 375]
9.5.5 - Assassination Data [Seite 379]
9.5.6 - Future Research [Seite 383]
9.5.7 - Conclusion [Seite 384]
9.5.8 - References [Seite 384]
10 - Part VI Terrorism and other Types of Crime [Seite 389]
10.1 - Chapter 24 Organized Crime and Terrorism [Seite 391]
10.1.1 - Current Approaches to Understanding Crime and Terrorism [Seite 392]
10.1.2 - An Alternative Formulation of Crime-Terror Interactions [Seite 398]
10.1.3 - References [Seite 400]
10.2 - Chapter 25 Similar from a Distance: A Comparison of Terrorism and Hate Crime [Seite 403]
10.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 403]
10.2.2 - Definitional Properties [Seite 404]
10.2.3 - Conceptual Properties [Seite 406]
10.2.4 - Correlates and Determinants [Seite 407]
10.2.5 - Pathways Connecting Terrorism and Hate Crime [Seite 412]
10.2.6 - Conclusion [Seite 414]
10.2.7 - Notes [Seite 415]
10.2.8 - References [Seite 416]
10.3 - Chapter 26 Studying Extremist Homicide in the United States [Seite 420]
10.3.1 - Introduction [Seite 420]
10.3.2 - Comparative Homicide Research [Seite 421]
10.3.3 - Comparative Research on Extremist Homicide [Seite 426]
10.3.4 - Future Directions for Extremist Homicide Research [Seite 429]
10.3.5 - Conclusion [Seite 431]
10.3.6 - Notes [Seite 431]
10.3.7 - References [Seite 432]
10.4 - Chapter 27 Financial Terror: Financial Crime Schemes Involving Extremists Linked to the American Far Right and al-Qaeda and Affiliated Movements [Seite 438]
10.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 438]
10.4.2 - Terrorism and Financial Crime [Seite 439]
10.4.3 - Conceptualizing Financial Crime Schemes [Seite 440]
10.4.4 - Data and Methods [Seite 440]
10.4.5 - Findings and Discussion [Seite 441]
10.4.6 - Conclusion [Seite 446]
10.4.7 - Notes [Seite 447]
10.4.8 - References [Seite 448]
10.5 - Chapter 28 An Empirical Analysis of Maritime Terrorism Using the Global Terrorism Database [Seite 451]
10.5.1 - Prior Research on Maritime Terrorism [Seite 451]
10.5.2 - Weapons Used in Maritime Terrorism [Seite 452]
10.5.3 - GBTA [Seite 455]
10.5.4 - Applying GBTA to the Maritime Terrorist Attacks of 44 Countries [Seite 457]
10.5.5 - Case Studies of the Eight Most Active Terrorist Organizations [Seite 461]
10.5.6 - Discussion and Conclusions [Seite 463]
10.5.7 - Notes [Seite 464]
10.5.8 - References [Seite 465]
11 - Part VII Countering Terrorism [Seite 467]
11.1 - Chapter 29 Empowering Communities to Prevent Violent Extremism: A Report on the August 2014 National Summit [Seite 469]
11.1.1 - Background on Countering Violent Extremism [Seite 469]
11.1.2 - Background on the National Summit [Seite 470]
11.1.3 - Reporting on the Summit [Seite 471]
11.1.4 - Summit Recommendations [Seite 473]
11.1.5 - Law Enforcement-focused [Seite 473]
11.1.6 - Other Government Agency-focused [Seite 476]
11.1.7 - Community-focused [Seite 480]
11.1.8 - The Year Following the Summit [Seite 483]
11.1.9 - Notes [Seite 484]
11.1.10 - References [Seite 484]
11.2 - Chapter 30 Terrorist Plots the United States: What We have Really Faced, and How We Might Best Defend Against It [Seite 486]
11.2.1 - Introduction [Seite 486]
11.2.2 - Methods and Plots Coding Scheme [Seite 488]
11.2.3 - Results [Seite 491]
11.2.4 - Discussion and Conclusions [Seite 497]
11.2.5 - References [Seite 498]
11.3 - Chapter 31 The Ten Commandments for Effective Counterterrorism [Seite 500]
11.3.1 - First Commandment-Reduce the Opportunities for Terrorists to Attack [Seite 501]
11.3.2 - Second Commandment-Reduce Opportunities Proactively and Responsively, Combining Offensive and Defensive Measures [Seite 501]
11.3.3 - Third Commandment-Execute Proactive Offense Based on Quality, Available and Timely Intelligence, and Operational Capabilities [Seite 503]
11.3.4 - Fourth Commandment-Implement "Target Hardening" Based on a Risk Analysis for Vulnerabilities [Seite 504]
11.3.5 - Fifth Commandment-Constantly Create a Hostile Operating Environment for Terrorists through Bottleneck Passages that Generate Intelligence Footprints [Seite 505]
11.3.6 - Sixth Commandment-Conducting Drills in Order to Train Security Forces in Effective Methods of Delaying Attacks That have Already been Launched [Seite 506]
11.3.7 - Seventh Commandment-Secure, Evacuate, Restore Order, and Collect Evidence and Intelligence at an Attack Scene-Effectively and Rapidly [Seite 506]
11.3.8 - Eighth Commandment-Deploy, Equip, and Train Fast Response Teams [Seite 507]
11.3.9 - Ninth Commandment-Clearly Define the Division of Authority and Responsibility, and Practice Crucial Procedures and Inter/intra-agency Cooperation and Partnerships [Seite 508]
11.3.10 - Tenth Commandment-Educate, Communicate, and Update the Public before, during, and after a Terrorist Event [Seite 509]
11.3.11 - Conclusion [Seite 510]
11.3.12 - References [Seite 511]
11.4 - Chapter 32 Prosecuting Terrorism post-9/11: Impact of Policy Changes on Case Outcomes [Seite 513]
11.4.1 - Introduction [Seite 513]
11.4.2 - Impact of Changes to the Attorney General's Guidelines [Seite 514]
11.4.3 - Impact of the USA PATRIOT Act [Seite 517]
11.4.4 - Military Commissions [Seite 521]
11.4.5 - Summary [Seite 522]
11.4.6 - References [Seite 523]
11.5 - Chapter 33 Prisons: Their Role in Creating and Containing Terrorists [Seite 526]
11.5.1 - Do Prisons Create Terrorists? [Seite 526]
11.5.2 - Conversion, Radicalization, and Terrorism [Seite 527]
11.5.3 - Prison Characteristics and Terrorist Outcomes [Seite 530]
11.5.4 - Theoretical and Methodological Issues [Seite 531]
11.5.5 - Confinement Policies [Seite 532]
11.5.6 - References [Seite 534]
11.6 - Chapter 34 The Individual Risk Assessment of Terrorism: Recent Developments [Seite 538]
11.6.1 - Backdrop: The risk assessment of terrorism [Seite 538]
11.6.2 - Risk Factors for Terrorism [Seite 539]
11.6.3 - From "Promising" Risk Factors to "Validated" Risk Factors [Seite 546]
11.6.4 - Conclusion [Seite 547]
11.6.5 - Notes [Seite 548]
11.6.6 - References [Seite 548]
11.7 - Chapter 35 Legislative Efforts to Prevent Eco?terrorist Attacks [Seite 553]
11.7.1 - Introduction [Seite 553]
11.7.2 - Background and the Development of Eco-Terrorism [Seite 553]
11.7.3 - Direct Action and Green Anarchism [Seite 554]
11.7.4 - Environmental and Animal Rights Movement [Seite 554]
11.7.5 - Research on Eco-terrorism [Seite 556]
11.7.6 - Disentangling the Criminal Intention of Eco-Terrorism [Seite 557]
11.7.7 - Countermeasures against Eco-terrorism in the World [Seite 558]
11.7.8 - Countermeasures against Eco-terrorism in the United States [Seite 558]
11.7.9 - Eco-terrorism-related Legislation [Seite 559]
11.7.10 - Legal Analysis on Legislation [Seite 561]
11.7.11 - Legal Analysis of Cases in the United States [Seite 564]
11.7.12 - Conclusion [Seite 565]
11.7.13 - Notes [Seite 566]
11.7.14 - References [Seite 567]
11.8 - Chapter 36 On the Relevance of Cyber Criminological Research in the Design of Policies and Sophisticated Security Solutions against Cyberterrorism Events [Seite 571]
11.8.1 - Introduction [Seite 571]
11.8.2 - Known-Knowns: What do We Know about Cyberterrorism? [Seite 572]
11.8.3 - Known-Unknowns: What do We Still Need to Know About Cyberterrorism? [Seite 574]
11.8.4 - Key Criminological Theories for Guiding Cyberterrorism-related Research and Policies [Seite 575]
11.8.5 - Methods for Data Collection [Seite 578]
11.8.6 - Unknown-Unknowns: What We do not Know that We do not Know about Cyberterrorism [Seite 580]
11.8.7 - Future Research/Public Policy Recommendations [Seite 581]
11.8.8 - References [Seite 582]
12 - Index [Seite 586]
13 - EULA [Seite 630]

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