Ethics in Practice

An Anthology
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 11. Februar 2020
  • |
  • 760 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-35888-6 (ISBN)
 

The bestselling and field-defining textbook which has introduced generations of students to the field of practical ethics, now in a new fully-revised fifth edition

For more than twenty years, Ethics in Practice has paved the way for students to confront the difficult ethical questions they will, must, or do already face. Accessible to introductory students yet sufficiently rigorous for those pursuing advanced study, this celebrated collection encourages and guides readers to explore ethical dimensions of important, controversial topics such as euthanasia, environmental action, economic injustice, discrimination, incarceration, abortion, and torture. In combining new and revised modern texts with works of classic scholarship, Ethics in Practice equips readers to consider wide-ranging ideas in practical ethics and to understand the historical basis for contemporary developments in ethical theory.

Revisions and updates to the new edition of Ethics in Practice focus on covering pressing global issues and adding depth to key sections. Many sections have been expanded to offer more thorough coverage of topics in ethical theory. Edited by Hugh LaFollette, highly regarded for his contributions in the field of practical ethics, this important volume:

  • Explores the connections between ethical theory and divisive contemporary debates
  • Includes general and section introductions which map the conceptual terrain, making it easy for students to understand and discuss the theoretical and practical dimensions of the issues
  • Offers up-to-date incisive discussion global, local, and personal ethical issues
  • Provides original essays, new perspectives, and revisions of key critical texts
  • Enables instructors to discuss specific practical issues, broader groupings of topics, and common themes that connect major areas in ethics

Already a market-leading text for introductory and applied ethics courses, the latest edition of Ethics in Practice: An Anthology continues to bean essential resource for instructors and students in philosophy departments around the world.



HUGH LAFOLLETTE is Marie E. and Leslie Cole Emeritus Professor in Ethics at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Encyclopedia of Ethics, published with Wiley Blackwell, and author and editor of several books, including The Practice of Ethics. His work primarily focuses on ethics, political philosophy, and the philosophy of law.

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978-1-119-35888-6 (9781119358886)
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HUGH LAFOLLETTE is Marie E. and Leslie Cole Emeritus Professor in Ethics at the University of South Florida St. Petersburg. He is Editor-in-Chief of the International Encyclopedia of Ethics, published with Wiley Blackwell, and author and editor of several books, including The Practice of Ethics. His work primarily focuses on ethics, political philosophy, and the philosophy of law.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface for Instructors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Source Acknowledgments
  • General Introduction
  • References
  • Theorizing about Ethics
  • The Need for Theory
  • Is it Just a Matter of Opinion?
  • The Role of Theory
  • Main Types of Theory
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Reading Philosophy
  • Philosophical Language
  • The Centrality of Argument
  • Looking at Others' Views
  • The Rational Consequences of What We Say
  • A Final Word
  • References
  • Writing a Philosophy Paper
  • The Most Common Types
  • Writing
  • Revise, Revise, Revise
  • Learning from Others
  • References
  • The Basics of Argumentation
  • Reference
  • Part I Theory
  • Ethical Theory
  • Reference
  • Chapter 1 Consequentialism
  • The Good is Agent-Neutral and Independent of the Right
  • Probable Consequences, Not Actual Consequences, Are What Count
  • Utilitarianism
  • Consequentialism in Practice
  • Objections to Consequentialism
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Deontology
  • Introduction
  • Common-Sense Morality
  • Varieties of Deontology
  • Defending Deontology
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 3 Rights
  • Features of Rights
  • Kinds of Rights
  • What are Rights?
  • Rights in Practice
  • What Can Have Rights?
  • Rights, Consequentialism, Virtue Ethics, and Deontology
  • Acknowledgment
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Virtue Theory
  • Introduction
  • Virtue (Arete) as Excellence
  • Phronesis (Wisdom)
  • Contemporary Virtue Ethics
  • Eudaimonia
  • Part II Life, Death, and Moral Status
  • Euthanasia
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 5 Justifying Physician-Assisted Deaths
  • The Troubled Distinction between Killing and Letting-Die
  • When Does a Role in Bringing about Death Constitute Killing?
  • Valid Refusal as the Basis of Letting-Die
  • Valid Refusals and Valid Requests
  • The Wrongness in Causing or Assisting in Death
  • The Key Argument in Defense of Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
  • Justifying Policies and Justifying Acts
  • Notes
  • Chapter 6 Against the Right to Die
  • I
  • II
  • IV
  • V
  • VI
  • VII
  • VIII
  • IX
  • X
  • XI
  • XII
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Physician-Assisted Deaths: Policy Choices
  • The Status of the Debate
  • Terminological Preliminaries
  • Why Assist Any Patients to Die?
  • Are There Morally Relevant Distinctions between Withholding Treatment and EAS?
  • The Case for Legal Euthanasia and Assisted Suicide
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 8 Dying at the Right Time: Reflections on (Un)assisted Suicide
  • The Key Questions
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 9 'For Now Have I My Death'1: The 'Duty to Die' Versus the Duty to Help the Ill Stay Alive
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • Notes
  • Abortion
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 10 A Defense of Abortion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 11 On the Moral and Legal Status of Abortion
  • I
  • II
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 12 An Argument that Abortion is Wrong
  • Why the Debate over Abortion Seems Intractable
  • The "Future Like Ours" Account of the Wrongness of Killing
  • Arguments in Favor of the FLO Theory
  • Replies to Objections
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Chapter 13 The Moral Permissibility of Abortion
  • Introduction
  • The Moral Status of Embryos and Early Fetuses
  • Abortion and Gestational Assistance
  • Intimacy, Pregnancy, and Motherhood
  • Norms of Responsible Creation
  • Notes
  • Further Reading
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Virtue Theory and Abortion
  • Virtue Theory
  • Abortion
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Animals
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 15 All Animals are Equal
  • Notes
  • Chapter 16 Moral Standing, the Value of Lives, and Speciesism
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • V
  • VI
  • VII
  • VIII
  • Notes
  • Chapter 17 The Case for Animal Rights
  • Note
  • Chapter 18 The Vegetarian Imperative
  • Why Eating Meat is an Ethical Issue
  • How to Look at Animals
  • Why We Should Be Vegetarians
  • Objections
  • Vegetarianism or Veganism?
  • Taking Responsibility
  • What About Responsible Meat-eating?
  • Vegetarianism and Different Ethical Approaches
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • Notes
  • Further Reading
  • Biomedical Technologies
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 19 Is Women's Labor a Commodity?
  • What Is a Commodity?
  • The Case of Commercial Surrogacy
  • Children as Commodities
  • Women's Labor as a Commodity
  • Commercial Surrogacy, Freedom, and the Law
  • Notes
  • Chapter 20 "Goodbye Dolly?" The Ethics of Human Cloning
  • Cell Mass Division
  • Individuals, Multiples, and Genetic Variation
  • Nuclear Substitution: the Birth of Dolly
  • Human Dignity
  • Instrumentalization
  • It is Better to Do Good
  • Genetic Variability
  • Genetic Identity
  • A Right to Parents
  • Two Parents Good, Three Parents Better
  • What Good is Cloning?
  • Dolly Collapses the Divide between Germ and Somatic Cells
  • Immortality?
  • Procreative Autonomy
  • Acknowlegments
  • Notes
  • Chapter 21 The Wisdom of Repugnance: Why We Should Ban the Cloning of Humans
  • Taking Cloning Seriously, Then and Now
  • The State of the Art
  • The Wisdom of Repugnance
  • The Profundity of Sex
  • The Perversities of Cloning
  • Ban the Cloning of Humans
  • Chapter 22 Cognitive Enhancement
  • I Preliminary Issues
  • II In-Principle Objections
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements
  • Notes
  • References
  • Environment
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 23 The Value of Nature
  • The Value of Naturalness
  • Inherent Worth in Nature
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 24 A Place for Cost-Benefit Analysis*
  • I What is CBA, and What is it For?
  • II Is CBA Anthropocentric?
  • III Does CBA Presuppose Utilitarian Moral Theory?
  • IV Does CBA Tell Us to Sacrifice the One for the Sake of the Many?
  • V Must CBA Treat All Values as Mere Commodities?
  • VI Does CBA Work?
  • VII Must CBA Measure Valuations in Terms of Willingness to Pay?
  • VIII Must Future Generations Be Discounted?
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • V
  • Notes
  • Chapter 26 A Perfect Moral Storm: Climate Change, Intergenerational Ethics, and the Problem of Moral Corruption
  • I The Global Storm
  • II The Intergenerational Storm
  • III The Theoretical Storm
  • IV Moral Corruption
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • References
  • Part III Liberty and Equality
  • Paternalism and Risk
  • Harm to Self
  • Risk to Others
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 27 Freedom of Action
  • Note
  • Chapter 28 Against the Legalization of Drugs
  • Back to the Future
  • Have We Lost?
  • The Benefits of Illegality
  • The Alcohol Problem
  • If I Am Wrong.
  • Note
  • Chapter 29 Why We Should Decriminalize Drug Use
  • I The Meaning of Decriminalization
  • II The Best Reason to Decriminalize Drug Use
  • III Criminalization
  • IV Predictions: A Bad Reason to Criminalize
  • Notes
  • Chapter 30 The Liberal Basis of the Right to Bear Arms
  • I Some Liberal Constraints
  • II Firearms and Autonomy
  • III Risk
  • IV Firearms and Equality
  • V Conclusion
  • VI Epilogue: Liberal Neutrality
  • Notes
  • Chapter 31 Gun Control
  • Justifying Private Ownership of Guns
  • Harm, Danger, and Risk
  • What We Need to Know
  • Assessing the Evidence
  • A Third Way
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Free Speech
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 32 Freedom of Thought and Discussion
  • Note
  • Chapter 33 "The Price We Pay?" Pornography and Harm
  • What Is Pornography?
  • Pornography and Harm
  • A Moral Right to Pornography?
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 34 The Right to Get Turned On: Pornography, Autonomy, Equality
  • I Introduction
  • II What Is Pornography?
  • III Sexual Autonomy
  • IV Sexual Violence
  • V Sexual Inequality
  • VI Making Pornography
  • VII Sexual Identity
  • VIII Conclusion
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 35 Sticks and Stones
  • I Why Protect Freedom of Speech?
  • II Free Speech and the Constitution
  • III Harm and Offense
  • IV Group Harm
  • V Cumulative vs. Individual Harm
  • VI Cumulative Harm to Self-esteem
  • VII Discrimination and Violence as Indirect Harms
  • VIII Offensive Expression and Epithets
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 36 Speech Codes and Expressive Harm
  • I Introduction
  • II Causal Harm
  • III Expressive Harm: Public Actors
  • IV Expressive Harm: Private Actors
  • V Moral Contempt
  • VI Official Condemnation
  • VII Speech Codes
  • Notes
  • References
  • Discrimination, Racism, and Sexism
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 37 Racism as an Ethical Issue
  • The Roots of Racism in the Concept of Race
  • In What Does Ethical Wrong of Racism Consist?
  • The "End of Racism" or Unrecognized Institutional Racism?
  • Does Intent Matter?
  • Can We Move "Beyond Race" and if so How?
  • References
  • Chapter 38 Servility and Self-Respect
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • Notes
  • Chapter 39 Implicit Bias
  • Introduction
  • Awareness of Implicit Bias and Discrimination: Empirical Evidence
  • Responsibility in Degrees
  • Awareness, Responsibility, and Implicit Bias
  • Conclusion
  • Note
  • References
  • Chapter 40 Affirmative Action as Equalizing Opportunity: Challenging the Myth of "Preferential Treatment"
  • Introduction
  • Clarifying the Scope of Affirmative Action Policies
  • Re-envisioning the Rationale for Affirmative Action: From "Preferential Treatment" to "Equal Opportunity"
  • The Limitations of the Compensation Rationale for Affirmative Action
  • The Limitations of the Social Utility Rationales for Affirmative Action
  • Challenging the "Stigma" of Affirmative Action
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 41 Sexual Harassment: Formal ComplaintsAre Not Enough
  • 1 Problems with Excessive Focus on Formal Measures
  • 2 How to Respond: Asking New Questions
  • 3 Cases
  • 4 Objections
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 42 Men in Groups:Collective Responsibility for Rape
  • I The Rapist as Loner or Demon
  • II The Rapist as Victim of Biology
  • III The Rapist as Victim of Society
  • IV The Rapist as Group Member
  • V Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 43 Ideals of Respect: Identity, Dignity and Disability
  • Aims and Methods
  • Example: Kristen's Night Out
  • Kinds of Respect
  • Objects of Respect: Dignity, Excellence and Status
  • Objects of Respect: Identity
  • Respecting the Identity of Persons
  • Identity Respect as a Moral Ideal
  • Notes
  • References
  • Conscience, State, and Religion Introduction
  • References and Further Reading
  • Chapter 44 Resolving Conflicts Between Religious Liberty and Other Values
  • Introduction: The Affordable Care Act Contraceptive Mandate
  • The Contraceptive Mandate and the Free Exercise of Religion
  • Non-Religious Moral Objections to the Contraceptive Mandate
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 45 Religious Conviction, Parental Authority, and Children's Interests
  • Legal History in the United States
  • Cases
  • Harms Associated with State Intervention
  • Harms Associated with State Inaction
  • Warranting Intervention
  • Mitigating Harms
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 46 Gay Rights and Religious Accommodations
  • I Economic Harm
  • II Dignitary Harm
  • III Stigmatizing Prejudice
  • Notes
  • Chapter 47 Conscientious Objection in Health Care
  • Introduction
  • What is Conscientious Objection?
  • Assessing Approaches to Conscientious Objection in Health Care
  • Conscientious Objection vs. Obstruction
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 48 My Conscience May Be My Guide, But You May Not Need to Honor It
  • Clarifying and Focusing the Options
  • Two Questions
  • When Should Someone Act on His or Her Conscience?
  • What Should Other's Reactions to these Claimants Be?
  • Policy Choices
  • Accommodation without Rights
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Legal Cases
  • References
  • Part IV Justice
  • Punishment
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 49 Punishment and Desert
  • Treating People as They Deserve
  • Why People Should Be Treated as They Deserve
  • Punishment
  • Notes
  • Chapter 50 Does Punishment Work?
  • Introduction
  • The Great Punishment Experiment
  • Justifications for Punishment
  • Deterrence
  • Incapacitation
  • Just Deserts and Retribution
  • Rehabilitation
  • What Does it Take for Punishment to be Effective?
  • Life-Course Development of Offending: Why Punishment Most Often Fails
  • Putting it All Together: Empirical Evidence for the Justifications of Punishment
  • References
  • Chapter 51 In Defense of the Death Penalty
  • The Retributivist Argument
  • The Utilitarian Argument
  • Objections to Capital Punishment
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 52 Against the Death Penalty
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • Notes
  • Chapter 53 Just Deserts in Unjust Societies: A Case-Specific Approach
  • Socioeconomic Deprivation, Crime, and Injustice
  • Socioeconomic Injustice and Blameworthiness
  • A Case-Specific Approach to Assessing Blameworthiness
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 54 To Protect and Serve: What is Wrong with the Policing of Minorities in the US?
  • I Introduction
  • II The Background
  • III Steps Forward
  • IV Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • Notes
  • Economic Justice
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 55 A Theory of Justice
  • The Main Idea of the Theory of Justice
  • The Original Position and Justification
  • Two Principles of Justice
  • The Reasoning Leading to the Two Principles of Justice
  • Notes
  • Chapter 56 The Entitlement Theory of Justice
  • Historical Principles and End-Result Principles
  • Patterning
  • How Liberty Upsets Patterns
  • Redistribution and Property Rights
  • Notes
  • Chapter 57 The Ethical Implications of Benefiting from Injustice
  • Introduction
  • Persuasion
  • Identification
  • Specification
  • Notes
  • References
  • Chapter 58 A Bleeding Heart Libertarian View of Inequality
  • I Bleeding Heart Libertarianism
  • II Markets Bring Inequality But.
  • III The Inequality in Our Market System and the Real Problems
  • IV Global and Domestic Inequality
  • V Government Intervention is the Cause, not the Answer
  • Notes
  • Global Justice
  • Chapter 59 Refugees and the Right to Control Immigration1
  • The Right to Exclude
  • Refugees
  • Notes
  • Chapter 60 The Case for Open Immigration
  • The Problem of Immigration in the Modern World
  • In Defense of Free Immigration
  • Economic Arguments Against Open Borders
  • Nationality and Immigration
  • Immigration and Security
  • Concluding Reflections
  • Note
  • References
  • Chapter 61 Famine, Affluence, and Morality
  • Postscript
  • Notes
  • Chapter 62 Famine Relief and the Ideal Moral Code
  • Introduction
  • A Duty to Prevent Evil?
  • Entitlements
  • The Concept of a Social Moral Code
  • The Ideal Social Moral Code
  • Are Rights Part of the Ideal Code?
  • Is Just Desert Part of the Ideal Moral Code?
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 63 Eradicating Systemic Poverty: Brief for a Global Resources Dividend
  • I Introduction: Radical Inequality and Our Responsibility
  • II Three Grounds of Injustice
  • III A Moderate Proposal
  • IV The Moral Argument for the Proposed Reform
  • V Is the Reform Proposal Realistic?
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Bibliography
  • War and Torture
  • Just War
  • Torture
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 64 War and Moral Consistency
  • The Moral Challenge of War
  • The Puzzle of National Defence
  • The Morality of Participation in War
  • Non- Combatant Immunity in War
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 65 Pacifism: Reclaiming the Moral Presumption
  • Pacifism: Refusing to Participate in War
  • A Pacifist City of Refuge
  • The Pacifist Way of Life: More than Rejecting War and Intentional Killing
  • Just War and Right Killing: The Open Question
  • The Pacifist Moral Vision: Two Constitutive Elements
  • Two Types of Pacifism
  • Human Life: The Ultimate Basis of Moral Value
  • A Response to the Chief Criticism of Pacifism
  • Conclusion
  • Notes
  • Chapter 66 The Justifiability of Humanitarian Intervention
  • Humanitarian Intervention in the Perspective of the Charter
  • Intervention and the Just War
  • Further Questions
  • Notes
  • Chapter 67 Terrorism and Torture
  • 1 Introduction
  • 2 The Conflict between Utilitarian and Deontological Approaches
  • 3 What about Rights?
  • 4 Under What Conditions Is Torture Morally Permissible?
  • 5 What Forms of Torture Are Permissible?
  • 6 Final Remarks
  • Notes
  • Chapter 68 Unthinking the Ticking Time Bomb
  • I
  • II
  • III
  • IV
  • V
  • VII
  • Notes
  • EULA

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