Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering, Volume 1

 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 4. Dezember 2015
  • |
  • 1024 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-118-44695-9 (ISBN)
 
A multidisciplinary reference of engineering measurementtools, techniques, and applications--Volume 1
"When you can measure what you are speaking about, and expressit in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannotmeasure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledgeis of a meager and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning ofknowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to thestage of science." -- Lord Kelvin
Measurement falls at the heart of any engineering discipline andjob function. Whether engineers are attempting to staterequirements quantitatively and demonstrate compliance; to trackprogress and predict results; or to analyze costs and benefits,they must use the right tools and techniques to produce meaningful,useful data.
The Handbook of Measurement in Science and Engineering isthe most comprehensive, up-to-date reference set on engineeringmeasurements--beyond anything on the market today. Encyclopedicin scope, Volume 1 spans several disciplines--Civil andEnvironmental Engineering, Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering,and Industrial Engineering--and covers:
* New Measurement Techniques in Structural Health Monitoring
* Traffic Congestion Management
* Measurements in Environmental Engineering
* Dimensions, Surfaces, and Their Measurement
* Luminescent Method for Pressure Measurement
* Vibration Measurement
* Temperature Measurement
* Force Measurement
* Heat Transfer Measurements for Non-Boiling Two-Phase Flow
* Solar Energy Measurements
* Human Movement Measurements
* Physiological Flow Measurements
* GIS and Computer Mapping
* Seismic Testing of Highway Bridges
* Hydrology Measurements
* Mobile Source Emissions Testing
* Mass Properties Measurement
* Resistive Strain Measurement Devices
* Acoustics Measurements
* Pressure and Velocity Measurements
* Heat Flux Measurement
* Wind Energy Measurements
* Flow Measurement
* Statistical Quality Control
* Industrial Energy Efficiency
* Industrial Waste Auditing
Vital for engineers, scientists, and technical managers inindustry and government, Handbook of Measurement in Science andEngineering will also prove ideal for members of majorengineering associations and academics and researchers atuniversities and laboratories.
1. Auflage
  • Englisch
John Wiley & Sons
  • 43,96 MB
978-1-118-44695-9 (9781118446959)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
MYER KUTZ holds engineering degrees from MIT and RPI. Hewas vice president and general manager of Wiley's STM Division andhas consulted and/or authored for most of the major professionaland technical publishing houses. He is the author of nine books andthe editor of more than a dozen handbooks.

CHAPTER 1


NEW AND EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING


MERIT ENCKELL, JACOB EGEDE ANDERSEN, BRANKO GLISIC, AND JOHAN SILFWERBRAND

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Background

1.3 New and emerging technologies

1.3.1 General

1.3.2 Fiber-optic sensors (FOS)

1.3.3 The global positioning system (GPS)

1.3.4 Microelectromechanical Systems

1.3.5 Corrosion monitoring

1.3.6 B-WIM, WIM

1.3.7 Nondestructive testing (NDT)

1.3.8 Interferometric radar

1.3.9 Photogrammetry

1.3.10 Smart technical textiles

1.3.11 Specific issues around usage of new technologies

1.3.12 Chosen technologies and motivation

1.4 Fiber-optic technology

1.4.1 General

1.4.2 Sensors based on Sagnac, Michelson, and Mach-Zehnder interferometers

1.4.3 Sensor based on the Fiber Bragg Gratings

1.4.4 Sensors based on Fabry-Perot interferometry

1.4.5 Best performances of discrete FOS

1.4.6 Distributed sensors

1.5 Acoustic emission

1.5.1 Theory of acoustic emission

1.5.2 Sources of acoustic emission

1.5.3 The development of acoustic emission in industry and civil engineering

1.5.4 Acoustic emission systems

1.5.5 Codes, standards, and recommended practice in acoustic emission

1.6 Radar technology

1.6.1 General

1.6.2 Ground-penetrating radar

1.6.3 Interferometric radar

1.7 Global Positioning System

1.8 Corrosion monitoring systems

1.9 Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems

1.9.1 Weigh-in-motion

1.9.2 Railway weigh-in-Motion

1.9.3 Bridge weigh-in-Motion

1.10 Components of structural health monitoring system

1.10.1 Sensory system

1.10.2 Data acquisition system

1.10.3 Data processing and control system

1.10.4 User interface

1.10.5 Maintenance tools

1.11 Structural health monitoring system design

1.11.1 Structural analysis for new structure

1.11.2 Structural analysis for existing structure

1.11.3 Sensor selection

1.11.4 Data acquisition issues

1.11.5 Responsibilities and installation planning

1.12 System procurement and installation

1.12.1 System procurement

1.12.2 Commissioning

1.12.3 Installation

1.12.4 Lifetime support

1.12.5 System efficiency and redundancy

1.12.6 Dismantling environmental issues

1.13 Application of structural health monitoring systems

1.13.1 High-rise building, Singapore-2001

1.13.2 The New Årsta Railway Bridge, Sweden-2005

1.13.3 Stonecutters Bridge, Hong Kong-2010

1.13.4 Severn River Crossing, UK-2010

1.13.5 A4 Hammersmith Flyover, UK-2010

1.13.6 Streicker Bridge, United States-2010

1.13.7 Messina Bridge, Italy-2018

1.14 Discussion

1.14.1 Development of new and emerging technologies

1.14.2 Obstacles

1.14.3 Need for education and collaboration

1.14.4 Future use and development

1.15 Conclusion

Acknowledgments

References

1.1 INTRODUCTION


Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and modern sensory technology together with advanced data acquisition are currently available for various applications. The area of monitoring is also very wide and incorporates several disciplines. Civil engineers working with monitoring have to cooperate very closely with various kinds of specialists to assure that the chosen monitoring system provides the information that they are looking for.

Organized SHM became a well-known concept during the last decades. Health Monitoring according to Aktan et al. (2000), may be defined as

the measurement of the operating and loading environment and the critical responses of a structure to track and evaluate the symptoms of operational incidents, anomalies, and/or deterioration or damage indicators that may affect operation, serviceability, or safety reliability

SHM helps to control and verify structural behavior: the condition or changes in the condition of a structure. SHM gives more improved and precise information than visual inspection about the real condition of the structure at real time. Decision making concerning the maintenance, economy, and the safety of the structures is easier with an appropriate Structural Health Monitoring System (SHMS).

Factors such as shortened construction periods, increased traffic loads, new high speed trains causing new dynamic and fatigue problems, new materials, new construction solutions, slender constructions, limited economy, and need for timesaving demanded for better control as well as verification and benefited for SHM.

Old deteriorated structures, especially, the ones that do suffer about fatigue effects may have malfunction and could collapse. But also structures that are not at the end of their lifetime do fail. Some serious collapses have taken place in recent years, for example, Sport Arena Bad Reichenhall in south Germany and Arena in Katowice, south Poland in 2006; I-35W Mississippi River bridge in Minnesota, United States in 2007. Many people were killed and injured caused by these mentioned collapses. The newly built bridges called Gröndal Bridge and Alvik Bridge in Stockholm revealed extensive cracking in the webs of their concrete hollow box girder sections just after a few years of operation (Sundquist and James, 2004), and two tension rods and a crossbeam from a recently installed repair collapsed in Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco in 2009, causing the bridge to be closed temporarily. Structures also do collapse during the construction period, and workers may be killed or injured as recently for the cable-stayed bridge across the Chambal River in India. SHM can start with a sensor installation and monitoring already during the construction period and therefore provide information throughout the whole life span of the structure: construction, testing, operation and also demolition. It may capture the behavior that visual inspection does not accomplish and therefore there is possibility that it may save human life.

The rapid development of technology in the fields of sensors, data acquisition and communication, signal analysis and data processing provide SHM with great profit. Buildings, bridges, wind farms, nuclear power plants, geotechnical structures, historical buildings and monuments, dams, offshore platforms, pipelines, ocean structures, airplanes, wind plants, turbine blades, and so on, may be objects for monitoring activities. The monitoring can be periodic or continuous, short term or long term, local or global, and the monitoring system can consist of a few sensors up to hundreds or even thousands of them depending on the demands of the monitoring object.

Structural Health Monitoring System for a structure consists of sensors, data acquisition systems, data transfer and storage systems, data management that normally includes data analysis as well as presentation, and data interpretation. The number of sensors used in monitoring is endless. Different applications with various techniques such as electrical, optical, acoustical, and geodetical are available. Various parameters such as strain, displacement, inclination, stress, pressure, humidity, temperature, different chemical quantities, and environmental parameters such as wind speed and direction can be monitored.

Conventional sensors used for civil engineering such as strain gauges, traditional accelerometers, inclinometers, load cells, vibrating wires, linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) are able to measure many parameters and have a long experience in use. On the other hand, the evolution of emerging technologies together with computer-based data acquisition, advanced signal and data communication have made the evaluation of new techniques and sensors for civil engineering purposes possible.

Fiber-optic sensors, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), optical distance measurement techniques, acoustic emission, and different type of lasers and radars have been under great development in recent years and are now available on the market. They are characterized by high accuracy, straightforward usage, and data-collecting concept. These techniques often allow very delicate measuring in harsh conditions and in various applications. The automatic collection of the data saves time, and it has advantages with respect to manual measurements. The reliability and durability of the sensors become significant when choosing the appropriate instrumentation. These new high-tech sensors also allow for not only high accuracy but also high precision, high and constant sensitivity, stability over time, no drift, and they are often temperature compensated.

The market with fiber-optic sensors and their applications is massive. There are several different techniques and various kinds of sensors that also can be modified for unique monitoring needs for a particular structure. Fiber-optic sensors allow for measurements that have been unpractical or too costly with the traditional sensor technology. Hundreds measuring points along the same fiber, as well as distributed sensing, versatility, insensitivity for electromagnetic fields, operability...

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