Rural Water Systems for Multiple Uses and Livelihood Security

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 3. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 322 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-804138-3 (ISBN)
 

Rural Water Systems for Multiple Uses and Livelihood Security covers the technological, institutional, and policy choices for building rural water supply systems that are sustainable from physical, economic, and ecological points-of-view in developing countries. While there is abundant theoretical discourse on designing village water supply schemes as multiple use systems, there is too little understanding of the type of water needs in rural households, how they vary across socio-economic and climatic settings, the extent to which these needs are met by the existing single use water supply schemes, and what mechanisms exist to take care of unmet demands.

The case studies presented in the book from different agro ecological regions quantify these benefits under different agro ecological settings, also examining the economic and environmental trade-offs in maximizing benefits. This book demonstrates how various physical and socio-economic processes alter the hydrology of tanks in rural settings, thereby affecting their performance, also including quantitative criteria that can be used to select tanks suitable for rehabilitation.


  • Covers interdisciplinary topics deftly interwoven in the rural context of varying geo-climatic and socioeconomic situations of people in developing areas
  • Presents methodologies for quantifying the multiple water use benefits from wetlands and case studies from different agro ecologies using these methodologies to help frame appropriate policies
  • Provides analysis of the climatic and socioeconomic factors responsible for changes in hydrology of multiple use wetlands in order to help target multiple use water bodies for rehabilitation
  • Includes implementable models for converting single use water supply systems into multiple use systems
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 3,31 MB
978-0-12-804138-3 (9780128041383)
0128041382 (0128041382)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • RURAL WATER SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE USES AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY
  • RURAL WATER SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE USES AND LIVELIHOOD SECURITY
  • Copyright
  • CONTENTS
  • LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS
  • PREFACE
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 CONTEXT
  • 1.2 RATIONALE FOR THE BOOK
  • 1.3 A NORMATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYZING THE PERFORMANCE OF MULTIPLE-USE WATER SYSTEMS
  • 1.4 SCOPE OF THE BOOK
  • REFERENCES
  • 2 - Water, Human Development, Inclusive Growth, and Poverty Alleviation: International Perspectives
  • 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 2.2 OBJECTIVES, HYPOTHESIS, METHODS, AND DATA SOURCES
  • 2.3 THE GLOBAL DEBATE ON WATER, DEVELOPMENT, AND GROWTH
  • 2.4 WATER AND INCLUSIVE GROWTH
  • 2.4.1 Can Water Security Ensure Economic Growth?
  • 2.4.2 Linking Human Development With Water Security
  • 2.4.3 Linking Water Security With Inclusive Growth
  • 2.5 IMPACT OF STORAGE DEVELOPMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ARID TROPICS
  • 2.6 IMPACT OF STORAGE DEVELOPMENT ON MALNUTRITION AND CHILD MORTALITY
  • 2.7 MULTIPLE-USE WATER SYSTEMS FOR ALL-ROUND WATER SECURITY IN RURAL AREAS
  • 2.8 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND POLICY
  • REFERENCES
  • 3 - Multiple Water Needs of Rural Households: Studies From Three Agro-Ecologies in Maharashtra
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 SELECTION OF VILLAGES FROM THREE AGRO-ECOLOGIES IN MAHARASHTRA
  • 3.3 SOCIOECONOMIC DETAILS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN THE SELECTED REGIONS
  • 3.3.1 Average Family Size
  • 3.3.2 Education Status and Occupational Profile
  • 3.3.3 Average Land and Livestock Holding
  • 3.3.4 Kitchen Gardens in the Selected Villages
  • 3.3.5 Annual Household Income
  • 3.4 MULTIPLE WATER NEEDS OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS IN THE SELECTED REGIONS
  • 3.4.1 Characteristics of the Village Water Supply Schemes
  • 3.4.2 Households Dependence on Different Sources of Water
  • 3.4.3 Accessibility of the Sources
  • 3.4.4 Average per Capita Water Use for Different Purposes of the Households
  • 3.5 ASSESSING THE VULNERABILITY OF RURAL HOUSEHOLDS TO PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH LACK OF WATER FOR DOMESTIC AND PRODUCTIVE NEEDS
  • 3.6 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • 4 - Multiple-Use Water Systems for Reducing Household Vulnerability to Water Supply Problems
  • 4.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 4.2 EXISTING VILLAGE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN THREE SELECTED REGIONS
  • 4.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF MUWS: FINDINGS FROM A GLOBAL REVIEW
  • 4.4 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR MUWS FOR THREE REGIONS OF MAHARASHTRA
  • 4.5 MUWS MODELS FOR DIFFERENT REGIONS OF MAHARASHTRA
  • 4.5.1 Western Maharashtra
  • 4.5.2 Marathwada Region
  • 4.5.3 Vidarbha Region
  • 4.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE MICRO-LEVEL INSTITUTIONS FOR WATER: FINDINGS FROM A REVIEW
  • 4.6.1 The Review of Micro-Level Water Institutions
  • 4.6.2 The Characteristics of Ideal Institutions MUWS Management
  • 4.7 INSTITUTIONAL SET UP FOR MANAGEMENT OF MUWS
  • 4.8 CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 5 - Sustainability Versus Local Management: Comparative Performance of Rural Water Supply Schemes
  • 5.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 5.2 OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY
  • 5.3 RURAL WATER SUPPLY REFORMS IN MAHARASHTRA
  • 5.4 EVOLUTION OF TECHNO-INSTITUTIONAL SETUP FOR WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT
  • 5.5 PERFORMANCE OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES IN MAHARASHTRA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
  • 5.5.1 Institutional Structure for Managing Rural Water Supplies
  • 5.5.2 Physical Performance
  • 5.5.2.1 Scheme Coverage
  • 5.5.2.2 Adequacy
  • 5.5.2.3 Access and its Link to Quality of Water Supply
  • 5.5.2.4 Distance to the Source
  • 5.5.3 Economic Performance: Cost of Water Supply
  • 5.5.4 Financial Performance: Revenue Recovery
  • 5.5.5 Decentralization and Community Participation
  • 5.5.6 Water Supply Governance
  • 5.5.7 Human Resource Capabilities
  • 5.6 MAJOR FINDINGS
  • 5.7 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY INFERENCES
  • REFERENCES
  • 6 - Influence of Climate Variability on Performance of Local Water Bodies: Analysis of Performance of Tanks in Tamil Nadu
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.1.1 Why This Study?
  • 6.2 TANK IRRIGATION IN TAMIL NADU
  • 6.2.1 Changing Sources of Irrigation
  • 6.3 CLIMATE VARIABILITY AND TANK PERFORMANCE
  • 6.3.1 Trend in Rainfall
  • 6.3.2 Whether Rainfall Has any Bearing on Tank Irrigation?
  • 6.3.3 Factors Determining Tank Irrigation at State Level
  • 6.4 IMPACT OF CLIMATE VARIABILITY ON TANK-BASED AGRICULTURE
  • 6.4.1 Profile of Study Tanks
  • 6.4.2 Tank Level Impacts
  • 6.4.2.1 Tank Performance
  • 6.4.2.2 Impact on Cropping Pattern
  • 6.4.2.3 Impact on Groundwater Dependence
  • 6.4.3 Household-Level Analysis
  • 6.4.3.1 Well Investment
  • 6.4.3.2 Irrigation Details
  • 6.4.3.3 Value of Marginal Product of Water
  • 6.5 COPING AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES
  • 6.5.1 Farmers' Perceptions About Climate Variability and Its Impacts on Tank Water Supply
  • 6.5.2 Growth in Number of Wells
  • 6.5.3 Water Market
  • 6.5.4 Other Coping Strategies Followed
  • 6.6 CONCLUSION AND POLICIES
  • REFERENCES
  • 7 - Groundwater Use and Decline in Tank Irrigation? Analysis From Erstwhile Andhra Pradesh
  • 7.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 7.2 CAUSE OF DECLINE OF TANKS: CONTESTED TERRAINS?
  • 7.3 NEED FOR POSTULATING AN ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS ON TANK DEGRADATION
  • 7.4 TANK MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN ERSTWHILE ANDHRA PRADESH
  • 7.4.1 Characteristics of Tanks in Andhra Pradesh
  • 7.4.2 The Tank Management Programme
  • 7.5 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES, APPROACH, METHODOLOGY, AND DATA SOURCES
  • 7.6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • 7.6.1 Impact of Well Irrigation on Tank Hydrology
  • 7.6.2 Differential Impacts of Well Irrigation on Tanks Across Different Regions
  • 7.6.3 Impact of Catchment Land Use on Tank Performance: Analysis of Field Data
  • 7.6.4 Agricultural Activities in the Command and Catchment of Tanks
  • 7.6.4.1 Tank 1: Parumanchala Tank, Parumanchala Village, Nandikotkur Mandal, Kurnool District
  • 7.6.4.2 Tank 2: Padmaraja Tank of Indireswaram Village, Atmakur Mandal, Kurnool District
  • 7.6.4.3 Tank 3: Jukkul Tank, Bhavanipet Village, Machareddy Mandal, Nizamabad District
  • 7.6.4.4 Tank 4: Gundla Tank, Domakonda Village and Mandal, Nizamabad District
  • 7.6.4.5 Tank 5: Pedda Tank, Rellivalasa, Vizianagaram District
  • 7.6.4.6 Tank 6: Nalla Tank of Pinavemali, Vizianagaram Mandal and District
  • 7.6.5 Performance of Tanks Against Their Physical and Socioeconomic Attributes
  • 7.7 FINDINGS
  • 7.8 CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 8 - Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Variability: Forecasting Droughts in Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra, Western India
  • 8.1 RATIONALE
  • 8.2 CURRENT APPROACHES TO DROUGHT FORECASTING
  • 8.2.1 Various Indices Used for Drought Assessment
  • 8.2.2 Drought Assessment in Maharashtra
  • 8.3 PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
  • 8.4 FEATURES OF THE PROJECT AREA
  • 8.5 PROJECT APPROACH
  • 8.6 SETTING UP OF DST
  • 8.6.1 Methods
  • 8.6.2 Modeling Results
  • 8.6.2.1 Relationship Between Annual Rainfall and Rainy Days
  • 8.6.2.2 Relationship Between Rainfall and Water-Level Fluctuations in Open Wells and Bore Wells
  • 8.6.2.3 Assessing the Probability of Occurrence of Rainfall of Different Magnitudes
  • 8.6.2.4 Estimation of Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) and Drought Frequency Analysis
  • 8.6.2.5 Identifying the Factors Determining Water-Level Fluctuation in Wells During the Monsoon and the Factors Influencing the Net Groundwater Balance
  • 8.6.2.6 Estimation of Total Rainfall Infiltration From Rainfall
  • 8.6.2.7 Estimation of Utilizable Recharge From Measured Values of Annual Rainfall
  • 8.6.2.8 Predicting the Occurrence of Meteorological Droughts
  • 8.6.2.9 Predicting the Cropping and Irrigation Intensity Trends From Measured Values of Rainfall
  • 8.6.2.10 Predicting Summer Water Levels and Drinking Water Scarcity Based on Known Trends in Rainfall
  • 8.6.2.11 Estimating Groundwater Discharge During Lean Season
  • 8.7 CONCLUSIONS AND AREAS FOR FUTURE WORK
  • REFERENCES
  • 9 - Sustainable Access to Treated Drinking Water in Rural India
  • 9.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 9.2 INDIA WATER LANDSCAPE: CHALLENGES AND EMERGING TRENDS
  • 9.3 GROWING NEED FOR TREATED DRINKING WATER IN RURAL AREAS
  • 9.4 THE EVOLVING POLICY FRAMEWORK AND PUBLIC INITIATIVES
  • 9.5 CHALLENGE OF SUSTAINING SERVICES AND ENSURING QUALITY
  • 9.5.1 Is Universal Piped Water Supply a Pipe-Dream?
  • 9.5.2 Tariff, Cost Recovery, and Willingness to Pay
  • 9.6 THE POSSIBLE COMMERCIAL SOLUTION
  • 9.6.1 Commercial Models in Community Water Systems
  • 9.6.1.1 Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs)
  • 9.6.1.2 Case Study: Punjab
  • 9.6.2 Community-Managed Systems
  • 9.6.2.1 Case Study: Participation
  • 9.6.3 Private Enterprises
  • 9.6.3.1 Case Study: The Market at Jattari
  • 9.7 SUSTAINABILITY OF TREATED DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS
  • 9.7.1 Governance and Decentralised Management
  • 9.7.2 Key Issues in Decentralized Management
  • 9.7.3 Emerging Market and Opportunities
  • REFERENCES
  • 10 - Positive Externalities of Surface Irrigation on Farm Wells and Drinking Water Supplies in Large Water Systems: The Case of Sardar Sarovar Project
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 POSITIVE EXTERNALITIES OF GRAVITY IRRIGATION FROM LARGE WATER SYSTEMS
  • 10.3 STUDY LOCATION, METHODS, AND DATA
  • 10.4 CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER AVAILABILITY AND QUALITY IN THE SSP COMMAND AREA
  • 10.5 SOCIAL BENEFITS FROM NARMADA CANAL IRRIGATION
  • 10.5.1 Positive Externalities of Narmada Irrigation
  • 10.5.1.1 Energy-Saving Benefits for Well Irrigators in Command Area
  • 10.5.1.2 Reduction in Failure of Wells in the Command Area
  • 10.5.1.3 Incremental Income of Well Irrigators From Crop Production
  • 10.5.1.4 Incremental Income of Well Irrigators From Dairy Production
  • 10.5.1.5 Incremental Farm Surplus of Well Irrigators due to Canal Irrigation
  • 10.5.1.6 Reduction in Cost of Domestic Water Supplies in the Command Area Villages and Towns
  • 10.6 FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 11 - Re-Imagining the Future: Experiencing Sustained Drinking Water for All
  • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2 VILLAGE WATER MANAGEMENT: LOCAL INGENUITY MEETS SUPPORTIVE GOVERNMENT
  • 11.3 BUILDING SUPPORT FOR CHANGE
  • 11.4 CO-MANAGING WATER RESOURCES
  • 11.5 COMPETING TO REDUCE GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION
  • 11.6 WATER SHARES FOR GREATER STAKES
  • 11.7 TANKAS TO SHORE UP DOMESTIC SUPPLIES
  • 11.8 WORKING WITHIN "WATER DISCHARGE LIMITS"
  • 11.9 THE WATER FUND FOR SUSTAINABILITY
  • 11.10 LOCAL VARIATIONS ON A COMMON THEME
  • 11.11 THE DISTRICT PICTURE: MODERN SCIENCE MEETS SMART GOVERNANCE
  • 11.12 THE FIVE PILLARS OF CHANGE
  • 11.13 STATE INSTITUTIONS: VISIONING A NEW REALITY
  • 11.14 SUPPORTING COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT THROUGH LAWS
  • 11.15 INTEGRATING THE WATER INSTITUTIONS
  • 11.16 CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • 12 - Building Resilient Rural Water Systems Under Uncertainties
  • 12.1 RESILIENT MULTIPLE-USE WATER SYSTEMS: SUMMARY OF EVIDENCE FROM DIFFERENT TYPES OF SYSTEMS
  • 12.2 PLANNING OF RESILIENT RURAL WATER SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE USES
  • 12.3 MANAGEMENT OF RURAL WATER SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE USES
  • 12.3.1 Quantity of Water
  • 12.3.2 Quality of Water
  • 12.3.3 Modifying System Operations to Address Multiple Water Needs
  • 12.3.4 Technical Infrastructure
  • 12.4 INSTITUTIONS AND POLICIES
  • 12.4.1 Deciding on the High-Priority Water Uses in a Basin or Region
  • 12.4.2 Quantification of Water Needs
  • 12.4.3 Ownership Rights Over Water
  • REFERENCES
  • INDEX
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Back Cover

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