The desire to alter and adorn the human body is universal. While specific forms of body decoration, and the underlying motivations, vary according to region, culture, and era, all human societies have engaged in practices designed to augment and enhance their natural appearance. Tattooing, the process of inserting pigment into the skin to create permanent designs and patterns, appears on human mummies by 3200 BCE and was practiced by ancient cultures throughout the world.
Ancient Ink, the first book dedicated to the archaeological study of tattooing, presents new research from across the globe examining tattooed human remains, tattoo tools, and ancient art. It contributes to our understanding of the antiquity, durability, and significance of tattooing and human body decoration and illuminates how different societies have used their skin to construct their identities. Ancient Ink connects ancient body art traditions to modern culture through Indigenous communities and the work of contemporary tattoo artists.
Acknowledgments Introduction / Aaron Deter-Wolf and Lars Krutak
Part One | Skin1. New Tattoos from Ancient Egypt: Defining Marks of Culture / Ren�e FriedmanZ2. Burik: Tattoos of the Ibaloy Mummies of Benguet, North Luzon, Philippines Analyn Salvador-Amores3. Reviving Tribal Tattoo Traditions of the Philippines / Lars Krutak4. The Mummification Process Among the �Fire Mummies� of Kabayan: A Paleohistological Note / Dario Piombino-Mascali, Ronald G. Beckett, Orlando V. Abinion, and Dong Hoon Shin 5. Identifications of Iron Age Tattoos from the Altai-Sayan Mountains in Russia / Svetlana Pankova 6. Neo-Pazyryk Tattoos: A Modern Revival / Colin Dale and Lars Krutak 7. Recovering the Nineteenth-Century European Tattoo: Collections, Contexts, and Techniques / Gemma Angel8. After You Die: Preserving Tattooed Skin / Aaron Deter-Wolf and Lars Krutak
Part Two | Tools9. The Antiquity of Tattooing in Southeastern Europe / Petar N. Zidarov10. Balkan Ink: Europe�s Oldest Living Tattoo Tradition / Lars Krutak 11. Archaeological Evidence for Tattooing in Polynesia and Micronesia / Louise Furey 12. Reading Between Our Lines: Tattooing in Papua New Guinea / Lars Krutak 13. Scratching the Surface: Mistaken Identifications of Tattoo Tools from Eastern North America / Aaron Deter-Wolf, Beno�t Robitaille, and Isaac Walters 14. Native North American Tattoo Revival / Lars Krutak15. The Discovery of a Sarmatian Tattoo Toolkit in Russia / Leonid T. Yablonsky16. Further Evaluation of Tattooing Use-Wear on Bone Tools / Aaron Deter-Wolf and Tara Nicole Clark
Part Three | Art17. What to Make of the Prehistory of Tattooing in Europe? / Luc Renaut 18. Sacrificing the Sacred: Tattooed Prehistoric Ivory Figures of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska / Lars Krutak 19. A Long Sleep: Reawakening Tattoo Traditions in Alaska / Lars Krutak References ContributorsIndex