Functional Neuromarkers for Psychiatry

Applications for Diagnosis and Treatment
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 3. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 498 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-410520-1 (ISBN)
 

Functional Neuromarkers for Psychiatry explores recent advances in neuroscience that have allowed scientists to discover functional neuromarkers of psychiatric disorders. These neuromarkers include brain activation patterns seen via fMRI, PET, qEEG, and ERPs. The book examines these neuromarkers in detail-what to look for, how to use them in clinical practice, and the promise they provide toward early detection, prevention, and personalized treatment of mental disorders.

The neuromarkers identified in this book have a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity higher than 80%. They are reliable, reproducible, inexpensive to measure, noninvasive, and have been confirmed by at least two independent studies. The book focuses primarily on the analysis of EEG and ERPs. It elucidates the neuronal mechanisms that generate EEG spontaneous rhythms and explores the functional meaning of ERP components in cognitive tasks. The functional neuromarkers for ADHD, schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder are reviewed in detail. The book highlights how to use these functional neuromarkers for diagnosis, personalized neurotherapy, and monitoring treatment results.


  • Identifies specific brain activation patterns that are neuromarkers for psychiatric disorders
  • Includes neuromarkers as seen via fMRI, PET, qEEG, and ERPs
  • Addresses neuromarkers for ADHD, schizophrenia, and OCD in detail
  • Provides information on using neuromarkers for diagnosis and/or personalized treatment


Juri D. Kropotov is the former president of the European Chapter of ISNR and the developer of the Mitsar-201 and 202 EEG amplifiers. Author of over 200 scientific papers and 9 books, he has three doctorates in theoretical physics, philosophy, and neurophysiology. He received the USSR State Prize in 1985, and the Copernicus Prize by the Polish Neuropsychological Society in 2009. His 2009 book Quantitative EEG: Event-Related Potentials and Neurotherapy received the award for the year's most significant publication in the field of neurofeedback from the Foundation for Neurofeedback and Applied Neuroscience.
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 40,41 MB
978-0-12-410520-1 (9780124105201)
0124105203 (0124105203)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Acknowledgments
  • Introduction
  • Two recent events that may change psychiatry
  • Mental illness as a challenge to healthcare systems
  • DSM and ICD as dictionaries of psychopathology
  • The hurdles to overcome
  • From symptoms to neuronal circuits
  • From "decade of the brain" to "decade of translation"
  • Concept of biomarker
  • Neuromarkers and neuroimaging
  • Endophenotype in psychiatry
  • Extended endophenotype
  • Genetic and epigenetic factors
  • Common psychiatric diseases are not Mendelian disorders
  • Risk factors
  • Search for nonpharmaceutical methods of treatment
  • Training in clinical neuroscience
  • Human Brain Indices database as a source of reference
  • Personal motives
  • Part 1 - Methods of Assessing Neuromarkers
  • Chapter 1.1 - Theory of Measurement
  • True and observed scores, errors
  • Reliability
  • Validity
  • Distribution across population
  • Percentiles and z scores
  • Sensitivity and specificity
  • Effect size
  • Requirements for introducing a neuromarker into clinical practice
  • Chapter 1.2 - Psychometrics and Neuropsychological Assessment
  • Psychological models
  • Neuropsychological testing
  • Supervisory attentional system model
  • Operations of attentional control
  • Dual mechanisms of cognitive control
  • General factor
  • Reaction time
  • Reaction time variability
  • Continuous performance tasks
  • Infraslow fluctuations in performance
  • Big 5 model
  • Chapter 1.3 - Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Talairach atlas
  • Montreal Neurological Institute atlas
  • Physical basis of magnetic resonance imaging
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging
  • BOLD response
  • BOLD infralow fluctuations
  • 0.1-Hz hemodynamic oscillations
  • Processing steps in functional imaging
  • Activation maps of fMRI
  • Model-dependent correlational methods
  • Model-free correlational methods
  • Task-negative and task-positive networks
  • Functional connectivity and diffuse tensor imaging
  • Test-retest reliability
  • fMRI in neurological practice
  • Challenges for clinical fMRI
  • Chapter 1.4 - Positron Emission Tomography
  • Physical basis of positron emission tomography
  • Neuroreceptors
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Neurotransmitters and receptor imaging in clinics
  • Chapter 1.5 - Spontaneous Electroencephalogram
  • How an electroencephalogram is measured
  • Montages
  • Electrical events in the cortex
  • 10-20 International System
  • Frequency bands
  • Electroencephalograms as a reflection of cortical self-regulation
  • Voltage-gated ion channels
  • Nonbrain events (artifacts) in electroencephalograms
  • Spectral analysis of electroencephalograms
  • Interindividual differences
  • Wavelet transformation
  • Coherence
  • Neuronal sources of electrical currents
  • Intracortical connectivity
  • Cortical focus and spikes
  • Volume conductance
  • Inverse problem: dipole approximation
  • Inverse problem: nonparametric solutions
  • Current source density
  • Blind source separation
  • Independent component analysis
  • Individual electroencephalogram decomposition into independent components
  • Group ICA decomposition
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Chapter 1.6 - Event-Related Potentials
  • Definition
  • Information flow
  • Montages
  • Averaging
  • Number of trials
  • Information flow in visual pathways
  • Information flow in local network
  • Two packets of information flow
  • Canonical visual event-related potential
  • Event-related potential paradigms
  • Multiple sources of event-related potentials
  • Separating components: subtraction approach
  • Separating components: Single trial independent component analysis
  • Separating components: group independent component analysis in multiple tasks
  • Separating components: group independent component analysis in a single task
  • Separating components: joint diagonalization of covariance matrixes
  • Test-retest reliability
  • Interindividual variability
  • A roadmap for the development and validation of event-related potential neuromarkers
  • Part 2 - Neuromarkers of Cortical Self-Regulation
  • Chapter 2.1 - Infraslow Electrical Oscillations
  • Arrhythmic electroencephalograms
  • Power-law function of electroencephalogram spectra
  • Infraslow electrical oscillations: history
  • Infraslow fluctuation in thalamic neurons
  • Nonneuronal origin of 0.1-Hz oscillations
  • Responses to tasks
  • Preparatory slow fluctuations
  • Neuronal mechanisms
  • Functional meaning
  • Chapter 2.2 - Alpha Rhythms
  • Historical introduction
  • Types of alpha rhythms
  • Alpha rhythms in the somatosensory cortex
  • Alpha rhythms of the visual system
  • Functional reactivity
  • Parietal alpha rhythm
  • Negative correlation with BOLD signals
  • Age dynamics
  • Frontal alpha asymmetry
  • Alpha rhythms in the dysfunctional brain
  • No alpha rhythms: low-voltage fast electroencephalograms
  • Heritability
  • Neuronal mechanisms
  • Model
  • Chapter 2.3 - Beta and Gamma Rhythms
  • Historical introduction
  • The mystery of multiple beta rhythms
  • Rolandic beta rhythms
  • Correlations with BOLD fMRI
  • Frontal beta rhythms
  • Vertex beta rhythms
  • Occipital rebound beta rhythms
  • Arrhythmic beta activity as an index of cortical activation
  • Neuronal mechanisms
  • Gamma activity
  • Abnormal beta rhythms
  • Chapter 2.4 - Frontal Midline Theta Rhythm
  • Historical introduction
  • Functional features
  • Localization
  • Prevalence
  • Genetic factors
  • Age dynamics
  • Personality traits
  • Cortical metabolism
  • Working memory
  • Conflict monitoring and anxiety
  • Model
  • Abnormal theta rhythms
  • Part 3 - Information Flow Within The Brain
  • Chapter 3.1 - Sensory Systems and Attention Modulation
  • Introduction
  • Separation of ventral and dorsal visual streams by fMRI
  • Attention modulation effects in fMRI
  • Vision as an active process
  • Bottom-up and top-down selection operations
  • Bottom-up operations in the C1 wave of event-related potential
  • N1 wave as index of visual discrimination
  • Visual mismatch negativity as index of regularity violation
  • Visual N170 reflects activation of personal memory
  • Visual N250 repetition effect
  • Visual P2 discrepancy effect
  • Latent event-related potential components of visual processing
  • A neuronal model
  • Principles of information flow in the visual system
  • What and where streams in the auditory modality
  • Auditory N1/P2 wave
  • Independent components
  • Auditory mismatch negativity
  • Orienting response
  • Role of dopamine in orienting response
  • Loudness dependence of auditory N1/P2 waves
  • Chapter 3.2 - Executive System and Cognitive Control
  • Introduction
  • Operations of cognitive control
  • Modes of cognitive control
  • Prepotent model of behavior
  • Behavioral paradigms
  • Stroop tasks
  • Models of cognitive control
  • Representations in working memory
  • Preparatory cortical activities
  • Latent ERP Components of Preparatory Activity
  • Frontal lobe functions
  • Basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops
  • Neuronal correlates of cognitive control in the basal ganglia
  • fMRI of cognitive control
  • ERP correlates of cognitive control
  • Independent components of cognitive control
  • Lesion studies
  • Correlation with neuropsychological parameters
  • Latent ERP components of reactive cognitive control
  • Functional meaning of latent components
  • Target P3 (P3b) in oddball tasks
  • P3b and noradrenaline
  • Cortical dopamine and working memory
  • Striatal dopamine as regulator of flexibility
  • Chapter 3.3 - Affective System, Emotions, and Stress
  • Introduction
  • Emotions as a separate dimension
  • Emotions as habitual responses
  • Classification of emotions
  • Three dimensions of temperament
  • Brain model
  • Model of left-right asymmetry in emotions
  • Big Five model
  • Eysenck's and Gray's models
  • Behavioral paradigms
  • Amygdala as detector of fearful stimuli
  • Anxiety is a state of preparing to fear
  • Hypothalamus is involved in expression of emotions
  • Orbitofrontal cortex as a map of rewards and punishers
  • Ventral anterior cingulum and anxiety
  • Connections to cognitive control system
  • fMRI of emotions
  • Stages of reactions of affective system
  • Event-related potentials to emotional stimuli
  • Anxiety enhances visual N1 wave
  • Neuromodulators of affective system
  • Chapter 3.4 - Memory Systems
  • Introduction
  • Temporal aspects of memory
  • Working memory representations
  • Types of long-term memory
  • Hippocampus as a reference to episodic trace
  • Functional neuromarkers of episodic memory
  • Neuronal model of episodic memory
  • Retrieval operations
  • Acetylcholine as neuromodulator of declarative memory
  • Procedural memory system
  • Neuromodulators of procedural memory
  • Part 4 - Methods of Neuro-Modulation
  • Chapter 4.1 - Pharmacological Approach
  • Historical introduction
  • Current crisis of psychopharmacology
  • Chapter 4.2 - Neurofeedback
  • Definition
  • Historical Introduction
  • Conventional Electroencephalogram and Infraslow Fluctuation-Based Neurofeedback
  • Relaxation and Activation Electroencephalogram-based Protocols
  • Coherence and Virtual Intracranial Electroencephalogram Protocols
  • Slow Cortical Potential Neurofeedback
  • Infralow-Frequency Neurofeedback
  • Medical versus Nonmedical Application
  • Neurophysiological Basis: General Facts
  • Neurophysiological Basis: Relative Frontal Beta Training
  • A Need for Theory
  • Bulldozer Principle
  • Personalized Approach
  • Specific and Nonspecific Effects
  • Advantages and Limitations
  • Nonelectrical Neurofeedback
  • Brain-Computer Interface
  • Chapter 4.3 - Electroconvulsive Therapy
  • Historical introduction
  • Parameters of electroconvulsive therapy
  • Neuronal model
  • Mechanisms
  • Efficacy
  • Relapse
  • Contraindications
  • Side-effects
  • Chapter 4.4 - Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
  • Historical introduction
  • Procedure
  • Difference from electroconvulsive therapy
  • Neurophysiological basis
  • Nonlinear collective short-term effects of tDCS
  • Long-term post-tDCS effects
  • NMDA involvement in long-lasting after-effects
  • Safety and side-effects
  • Limitations
  • Chapter 4.5 - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Introduction
  • Physical principles
  • Physiological effect
  • rTMS at low and high frequency
  • Model
  • Safety
  • Chapter 4.6 - Deep Brain Stimulation
  • Introduction
  • Procedure
  • Neuronal mechanism
  • Advantages and limitations
  • Part 5 - Neuromarkers in Psychiatry
  • Chapter 5.1 - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Historical introduction
  • Symptoms
  • Latent classes in ADHD symptoms
  • Prevalence
  • Age onset
  • Persistence in adulthood
  • Outcome
  • Comorbidity
  • Environmental factors
  • Genetic factors
  • Rolandic focus
  • Executive functions
  • Heterogeneity of neuropsychological profile
  • Inhibition deficit
  • Delay aversion
  • Reaction time variability
  • Interference with default mode
  • State regulation and energization function
  • Hypoarousal hypothesis
  • Maturation delay in neurodevelopment
  • Theta/beta ratio
  • QEEG endophenotypes in ADHD
  • Frontal beta synchronization in childhood ADHD
  • Magnetic resonance imaging correlates
  • fMRI correlates
  • Decreased P3b wave
  • ERP correlates of cognitive control in children
  • Event-related potential correlates of cognitive control in adult ADHD
  • Pharmacological treatment
  • Event-related potential predictors of response to psychostimulants
  • Dopamine hypothesis
  • Neurofeedback
  • tDCS
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Chapter 5.2 - Schizophrenia
  • Historical introduction
  • Symptoms
  • Prevalence
  • Timecourse
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Heterogeneity
  • Heritability
  • Environmental risk factors
  • Treatment
  • Neuropsychological assessment
  • Volumetric studies
  • Motor abnormalities
  • Spontaneous electroencephalography
  • Sensory-related neuromarkers
  • Automatic predicting ability failure
  • Object recognition deficit in N170
  • P3b as endophenotype
  • P3b as a predictor of psychosis
  • Proactive cognitive control deficit
  • Reactive cognitive control in schizophrenia
  • Hypofrontality-fMRI studies
  • Hypofrontality as predictor of response to medication
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Neuronal model
  • tDCS
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Chapter 5.3 - Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Historical introduction
  • Symptoms
  • Prevalence
  • Development
  • Heterogeneity
  • Heritability
  • Comorbidity
  • Neuropsychological profile
  • Lesions
  • Structural magnetic resonance imaging
  • fMRI in symptom provocation
  • fMRI in conflict conditions
  • Quantitative electroencephalography
  • Error-related negativity and N2 event-related potential waves
  • Latent components of cognitive control
  • Neuronal model
  • Neurotransmitters
  • First-line treatment
  • Psychosurgery and deep-brain stimulation
  • Neurofeedback
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Part 6 - Assessing Functional Neuromarkers
  • Chapter 6.1 - Working Hypothesis
  • Reasons for assessment
  • Conventional diagnostic categories as a starting point
  • Multiple causes of ADHD
  • Theses to test
  • Prognostic power
  • Chapter 6.2 - Technical Implementation
  • Arrangement of the working space
  • QEEG/ERP databases
  • Arsenal of the 21st century psychiatrist
  • Selecting the behavioral paradigm
  • Correcting artifacts
  • Chapter 6.3 - Testing Working Hypotheses: Spontaneous EEG
  • Rolandic spikes
  • Excessive theta/beta ratio
  • Excess of frontal beta activity
  • Excessive frontal midline theta rhythm
  • Excessive alpha activity
  • Individual Independent Components for Neuromodulation Protocols
  • Chapter 6.4 - Testing Working Hypotheses: Event-Related Potentials
  • Independence from other functional neuromarkers
  • Selective deficit of cognitive control
  • Chapter 6.5 - Monitoring Treatment Effects
  • Pharmaco-electroencephalography
  • Pharmaco-event related potentialS
  • Neurofeedback
  • Part 7- The State of the Art: Overview
  • Chapter 7.1 - Objective Measures of Human Brain Functioning
  • Chapter 7.2 - Rhythms of the Healthy Brain
  • Chapter 7.3 - Information Flow in the Healthy Brain
  • Chapter 7.4 - Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
  • Chapter 7.5 - Functional Neuromarkers in Diseased Brain
  • Chapter 7.6 - Implementation in Clinical Practice
  • Postscriptum
  • References
  • Further Readings
  • Subject Index
  • Back cover

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