Food Hygiene and Toxicology in Ready-to-Eat Foods

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 474 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802008-1 (ISBN)
 

Food Hygiene and Toxicology in Ready-to-Eat Foods is a solid reference for anyone in the food industry needing to understand the complex issues and mechanisms of biological control and chemical hazards to ensure food safety. infectious and non-infectious contaminants in raw, minimally processed, and prepared foods are covered in detail, as well as effective measures to avoid foodborne infections and intoxications. The book is written by an international team of experts presenting the most up-to-date research in the field, and provides current applications and guidance to enhance food safety in the food industry. Strategies and recommendations for each food category include, among others, how to avoid cross-contamination of pathogens, the proper uses of antimicrobial coatings and spray cleanings of fresh produce, and acrylamide reduction during processing. leafy vegetables, fruit juices, nuts, meat and dairy products are some of the ready-to-eat foods covered.


  • Provides the latest on research and development in the field of food safety incorporating practical real life examples for microbiological risk assessment and reduction in the food industry
  • Includes specific aspects of potential contamination and the importance of various risks associated with ready-to-eat foods
  • Describes potential harmful agents that may arise in foods during processing and packaging
  • Presents information on psychrotropic pathogens and food poisoning strains, effect of temperature, Salmonella, Listeria, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Norovirus, parasites, fungal microbiota, enterotoxins, and more
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 9,32 MB
978-0-12-802008-1 (9780128020081)
0128020083 (0128020083)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Food Hygiene and Toxicology in Ready-to-Eat Foods
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • I. Trends in food habits
  • 1 Food habits and the increase in ready-to-eat and easy-to-prepare products
  • Introduction
  • Is There a Common Denominator in RTE and ETP Meals?
  • What are the Motives Behind the Growing Demand for RTE and ETP Meals?
  • Beliefs, Attitudes, and Behavior
  • Value System and Food-Related Lifestyles
  • The Motivations of Success
  • Is There a Typical Profile of Individuals Who Choose to Consume RTE and ETP Foods?
  • Discussion and Conclusions
  • References
  • 2 Safety of street foods
  • Street Foods: Definition and Basic Characteristics
  • Safety of Street Foods: A Major Concern
  • Microbiological Contamination of Street Foods
  • Chemical and Physical Hazards in Street Foods
  • Ensuring and Improving Safety of Street Foods
  • Education and Training of Street Food Vendors
  • WHO's "Five Keys to Safer Food" in Street Food Operations
  • Programs, Guidelines, and Manuals for Safety of Street Foods
  • Implementation of HACCP Approach in Street Food Sector
  • Regulation, Registration, and Licensing of Street Food Vendors
  • Awareness Raising Among Street Food Consumers
  • References
  • II. Microbiological hazards
  • 3 Factors influencing microbial safety of ready-to-eat foods
  • Introduction
  • Environmental Factors Affecting Safety of RTE Foods
  • Sources of Microbial Contamination of RTE Foods
  • Hurdles Affecting Microbial Growth in RTE Foods
  • Personnel Hygiene
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 4 Foodborne viruses in ready-to-eat foods
  • Introduction
  • General Aspects of Foodborne Viruses
  • Norovirus
  • Hepatitis A Virus
  • Hepatitis E Virus
  • Risk Ready-to-Eat Food Items
  • Persistence of Foodborne Viruses on Food and Surfaces
  • Virus Transmission Into Food Supply Chain
  • Role of Food Handlers in Transmission Routes of Viruses
  • Foodborne Outbreaks Related to RTE Foods
  • Methods for Detection of Viruses From Food
  • Prevention of Viral Transmission Through Food
  • Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 5 Parasitic protozoa in salad vegetables
  • Introduction
  • Parasitic Protozoa That May Contaminate Salad Vegetables
  • Balantidium coli
  • Cryptosporidium spp.
  • Cyclospora cayetanensis
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia duodenalis
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 6 Foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat peanut butter-containing products
  • Introduction
  • Outbreaks
  • Recalls
  • Prevalence of Pathogens
  • Cross-Contamination
  • Survival Studies
  • Intervention Strategies
  • Thermal Inactivation
  • Nonthermal Inactivation
  • Preventive Controls
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 7 Handling of hamburgers and cooking practices
  • Introduction
  • Hamburger: Characteristics and Cookery
  • Hamburger and Ground Beef
  • Ground Beef Production
  • Categories of ground beef products
  • Nutrient and chemical composition of ground beef
  • Lean finely textured beef
  • Handling and Cooking of Hamburger
  • Storage
  • Handling raw hamburger
  • Cooking hamburger
  • Indicators of doneness
  • Previously cooked hamburgers
  • Public Health Implications of Poor Hamburger Hygiene
  • Common Pathogens Found in Ground Beef
  • Escherichia coli
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Other pathogens of concern
  • Hamburger and Pathogen Reduction
  • Regulations and Research
  • A brief history of US regulations regarding hygienic foods
  • Performance standards
  • Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
  • FDA Food Code for restaurants
  • References
  • 8 Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat leafy vegetables
  • Introduction
  • Salmonella
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Salmonella and L. monocytogenes Sources and Contamination Pathways in the Field
  • Control of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes Contamination in RTE Vegetables
  • Conclusion
  • References
  • 9 Foodborne pathogenic bacteria in fresh-cut vegetables and fruits
  • Introduction
  • Sources and Routes of Pathogen Contamination in Fresh-Cut Produce
  • Foodborne Outbreaks Associated with Pathogenic Bacteria in Fresh-Cut Fruits and Vegetables
  • Attachment, Internalization, and Biofilm Development by Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria on Fresh-Cut Fruit and Vegetables
  • Challenges in Fresh-Cut Fruit and Vegetable Safety
  • References
  • 10 Stress adaptation of Listeria monocytogenes in acidic ready-to-eat products
  • Ready-to-Eat Foods
  • High-Risk foods
  • Low-Risk Foods
  • Acidic Foods
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Listeria monocytogenes in RTE Foods
  • Listeria monocytogenes in Acidic RTE Foods
  • Acid Resistance of L. monocytogenes
  • The GAD System
  • Arginine Deiminase System
  • Other Factors Involved in Acid Resistance of L. monocytogenes
  • Agmatine Deiminase System
  • SigB and Acid Resistance
  • Other mechanisms of acid Resistance
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 11 Safety of fresh-squeezed juices
  • Introduction
  • Outbreaks Associated With Fresh-Squeezed Juices
  • Sources of Pathogens in Fresh-Squeezed Juices
  • Prevalence of Human Pathogens in Freshly Squeezed Fruit Juices
  • Internalization of Pathogens in Fruits Used to Obtain Fresh Juice
  • Survival of Pathogen in Fresh Juices and in Produce Used to Prepare Juices
  • Contamination Reduction Strategies
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 12 Safety improvement of fruit juices by novel thermal and nonthermal processing
  • Introduction
  • Fruit Juice Deterioration and Spoilage
  • Fruit Juice Processing
  • Thermal Processing
  • Nonthermal Processing
  • High hydrostatic pressure
  • Pulsed electric field
  • Ultrasound
  • Ultraviolet-C light
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Ozone
  • Combination of Processing Methods or Hurdle Concept
  • Conclusion and Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 13 Safety of ready-to-eat seafood
  • Introduction
  • Environmental Hazards
  • Hazards in Live Bivalve Molluscs
  • Helminth Parasites in Fish Flesh
  • Postharvest Hazards
  • Processing: New Scenarios and New Risks
  • Postharvest Contamination
  • Distribution and Storage: The Life-Time
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 14 Staphylococcal enterotoxins in processed dairy products
  • Staphylococcal Food Poisoning
  • Characterization of SEs
  • SE Genetics and Grouping
  • Superantigenic Activity and Stability of SEs and SEls
  • Bacterial Carrier
  • Prevalence of S. aureus in Human
  • Prevalence of S. aureus in Animals
  • Prevalence of S. aureus or SE in Milk and Dairy Products
  • MRSA in Cows and Dairy Products
  • Cases of SFP From Dairy Products and Prevalence of SE in Human
  • Methods for SE Detection in Dairy Products
  • Dairy Product Safety
  • References
  • 15 Sporeforming bacterial pathogens in ready-to-eat dairy products
  • Introduction
  • Pathways of Contamination of Dairy Products
  • Anaerobic Sporeforming Bacteria
  • C. botulinum in RTE Dairy Products
  • Aerobic Sporeforming Bacteria
  • B. cereus in RTE Dairy Products
  • Control of Sporeforming Bacteria in Dairy Industry
  • Control at Farm Level
  • Control at Plant Level
  • Food Handling Prior to Consumption
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 16 Sporeforming bacteria associated with bread production: spoilage and toxigenic potential
  • Introduction
  • Sporeforming Bacterial Species Associated With Rope Spoilage of Bread
  • Toxigenic Sporeforming Bacteria
  • Spore Heat Resistance of Bacillus Species
  • Predictive Microbiology to Evaluate the Contamination Risk in Bread
  • Microbial Biotechnology to Reduce Rope Spoilage
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 17 Molds and mycotoxins in nuts
  • Introduction
  • Fungal Contamination of Nuts
  • Mycotoxins in Nuts
  • Peanuts
  • Tree Nuts
  • Prevention of Field Mycotoxin Contamination
  • Postharvest Strategies
  • Harvest and Drying
  • In-Shell Storage
  • Processing: Lot Segregation, Sorting, and Roasting
  • Lot segregation by AF level
  • Sorting
  • Roasting
  • Legislation
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 18 Potential industrial applications of decontamination technologies for fresh produce
  • Introduction
  • Decontamination Technologies for Fresh Vegetables and Fruits
  • Chemical Intervention Technologies
  • Gaseous and aqueous chlorine dioxide
  • Ozone
  • Acidic electrolyzed water
  • Electrostatic spraying
  • Organic acids
  • Peroxyacetic acid
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Other antimicrobial substances
  • Physical Intervention Technologies in Fresh Vegetables and Fruits
  • Ultrasound
  • Irradiation
  • UV light
  • Pulsed light
  • Nonthermal plasma treatment
  • Photosensitization
  • Decontamination Technologies and Environment
  • Future Perspectives
  • References
  • 19 Microbiological risk assessments in food industry
  • Introduction
  • Introduction to Risk-Based Food Safety Management
  • Mathematical and Probabilistic Tools Developed in MEA
  • Modeling Initial Level
  • Modeling Microbial Inactivation
  • Microbial Growth
  • Modeling Recontamination
  • Probabilistic Techniques
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • III. Toxicological hazards
  • 20 Acrylamide in ready-to-eat foods
  • Introduction
  • Formation Pathways
  • Occurrence of Acrylamide in Food
  • Mitigation of Acrylamide
  • Raw Material
  • Variety
  • Climate
  • Agronomy
  • Storage conditions
  • Processing
  • Pretreatment
  • Soaking and blanching
  • Milling
  • Additives
  • Asparaginase
  • Antioxidants
  • Amino acids
  • Recipe
  • Temperature
  • Time
  • Surface-to-volume ratio
  • Frying medium
  • Fermentation
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 21 Furan in processed foods
  • Introduction
  • Furan
  • Toxicological Aspects
  • Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
  • Toxicity
  • Acute, subacute, and subchronic oral toxicity studies
  • Chronic oral toxicity studies
  • Analytical Methods
  • Formation and Occurrence of Furan in Foods
  • Thermal-Induced Formation of Furan
  • Foods processed in closed containers
  • Coffee
  • Cereal products
  • Nonthermal-Induced Formation of Furan
  • Human Exposure, Risks, and Mitigation Strategies
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 22 Biogenic amines in ready-to-eat foods
  • Introduction
  • Biogenic Amines
  • Toxicological Effects of Biogenic Amines
  • Biogenic Amines as Quality Indicators
  • Biogenic Amines in Different Types of Food
  • Seafood
  • Cheese and Other Dairy Products
  • Meat Products
  • Vegetables and Seasonings
  • Alcoholic Beverages
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • 23 Regulated disinfection byproducts in minimally processed vegetables and beverages
  • Introduction
  • Generation and Occurrence of Regulated DBPs in Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables
  • Manufacturing Principles
  • THMs and HAAs in MPFVs
  • Generation and Occurrence of Regulated DBPs in Beverages
  • Manufacturing Principles
  • Water in Reconstituted Juices and Soft Drinks
  • THMs and HAAs in Beverages
  • Conclusions
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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