Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections

Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 20. Juni 2016
  • |
  • 312 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-804576-3 (ISBN)
 

The Microbiology of Respiratory System Infections reviews modern approaches in the diagnosis, treatment, and prophylaxis of respiratory system infections. The book is very useful for researchers, scientists, academics, medical practitioners, graduate and postgraduate students, and specialists from pharmaceutical and laboratory diagnostic companies. The book has been divided into three sections according to the types of respiratory pathogens.

The first section contains reviews on the most common and epidemiologically important respiratory viruses, such as influenza virus, severe acute respiratory system coronavirus, and recently discovered Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

The second section is devoted to bacterial and fungal pathogens, which discusses etiology and pathogenesis including infections in patients with compromised immune system, and infections caused by fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus and Pneumocystis.

The third section incorporates treatment approaches against different types of bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract. This section reviews classical antimicrobial and phytomedical approaches as well as the application of nanotechnology against respiratory pathogens.


  • Offers the most up to date information on the microbiology of lower respiratory system infections
  • Features contributors from across the world, presenting questions of interest to readers of both developed and developing countries
  • Reviews the most common and epidemiologically important respiratory viruses
  • Discusses the etiology and pathogenesis of bacterial and fungal pathogens including infections in patients with compromised immune system, and infections caused by fungal pathogens, such as Aspergillus and Pneumocystis
2451-9006
  • Englisch
  • Saint Louis
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 14,13 MB
978-0-12-804576-3 (9780128045763)
0128045760 (0128045760)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 - Influenza virus infections: clinical update, molecular biology, and therapeutic options
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Classification
  • 3 - Virion structure and genomic architecture
  • 4 - Viral replication
  • 5 - Clinical features and pathogenesis in humans
  • 6 - Genesis of antigenic influenza variants and pandemics
  • 7 - Influenza treatment
  • 8 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 2 - Influenza viral infection in the respiratory system-potential ways of monitoring
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Probes involved in influenza detection
  • 2.1 - Influenza detection by antibody
  • 2.2 - Influenza detection by aptamer
  • 2.3 - Influenza detection by glycan
  • 3 - Detection of Influenza virus
  • 3.1 - Immunochromatographic test
  • 3.2 - Surface plasmon resonance
  • 3.3 - Surface plasmon fluorescence spectroscopy
  • 3.4 - Waveguide mode sensor
  • 3.5 - Gold nanoparticle based colorimetric assay
  • 3.6 - Disc platform-interferometry
  • 3.7 - Fluorescent capturing
  • 3.8 - Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  • 4 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 3 - SARS coronavirus infections of the lower respiratory tract and their prevention
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Inactivated whole virus vaccines
  • 3 - Recombinant spike protein vaccines
  • 4 - SARS-associated eosinophilic lung immunopathology
  • 5 - SARS pathology in the elderly
  • 6 - Prevention of vaccine-exacerbated SARS lung immunopathology
  • 7 - Conclusions and future prospects
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 4 - The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus respiratory infection: an emerging infection from the Arabian Peni...
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - The organism
  • 3 - MERS-CoV epidemiology
  • 4 - Clinical presentations
  • 5 - Treatment of MERS-CoV
  • 6 - Preventive and control of MERS-CoV
  • 7 - Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 5 - Respiratory infections of the human bocavirus
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - HBoV biology
  • 3 - Epidemiology
  • 4 - Clinical features
  • 5 - Coinfections and persistence
  • 6 - Diagnostics
  • 7 - Summary and perspective
  • References
  • Chapter 6 - Circulation of respiratory pathogens at mass gatherings, with special focus on the Hajj pilgrimage
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Respiratory tract infections at the Hajj
  • 2.1 - Syndromic surveillance data
  • 2.2 - Isolation of respiratory pathogens in ill Hajj pilgrims
  • 2.2.1 - Viruses
  • 2.2.2 - Bacteria
  • 2.3 - Systematic screening of respiratory pathogens in Hajj pilgrims before and after the pilgrimage
  • 2.3.1 - Viruses
  • 2.3.2 - Bacteria
  • 3 - Respiratory tract infections at other mass gatherings
  • 3.1 - Religious mass gatherings
  • 3.2 - Sport mass gatherings
  • 3.3 - Festivals and private mass gatherings
  • 4 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 7 - Indoor air pollution due to mycoflora causing acute lower respiratory infections
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 - Direct association of fungi with development of asthma
  • 1.2 - Characterization of fungi
  • 1.3 - Historical background
  • 1.4 - Diseases caused by molds in humans
  • 2 - Association of mold with asthma and allergies-major aspects
  • 2.1 - Pathophysiology
  • 2.1.1 - Toxic metabolites
  • 2.1.2 - TTC concept
  • 2.1.3 - Role of prick test
  • 2.1.4 - Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
  • 2.1.5 - Sensitization to ABPA
  • 2.2 - Ecological studies
  • 2.2.1 - Studies by James Scott
  • 2.2.2 - Studies by Dubey
  • 2.2.3 - Studies by Baxter
  • 2.2.3.1 - Criteria for building classification
  • 2.3 - Methods to study
  • 2.3.1 - Collection of sample
  • 2.3.2 - Preparation and microscopic analysis of spore trap samples
  • 2.3.3 - Identification and counting of spores
  • 2.3.4 - Calculation of the limit of detection
  • 2.3.5 - Interpretation of spore count data
  • 2.4 - Induced outbreak of mold allergies due to human activity-case study
  • 3 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 8 - Is there a link between environmental allergens and parasitism?
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Allergens
  • 2.1 - Allergens as cause of sensitization
  • 2.2 - Allergens as type I allergies' diagnoses and treatment tools
  • 2.3 - The biological function and nature of allergens
  • 2.4 - Defining the concept of allergens
  • 3 - Helminth parasites and allergy
  • 4 - Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 9 - Respiratory infections in immunosuppressed patients
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Pathophysiology predisposing patients to infections
  • 3 - Bacterial pneumonia
  • 4 - Fungal infections
  • 5 - Cytomegalovirus
  • 6 - Community respiratory viruses
  • 7 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10 - Metallo-beta-lactamase producer Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An opportunistic pathogen in lungs
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - P. aeruginosa resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics
  • 3 - Detection tests of MBLs in P. aeruginosa
  • 3.1 - Combined disk (CD) test
  • 3.2 - Carbapenem Inactivation Method
  • 3.3 - Nonphenotypic tests
  • 4 - Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 11 - Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Clinical and microbiological aspects
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Description of causal microorganism
  • 3 - Respiratory disease caused by M. tuberculosis
  • 3.1 - Latent tuberculosis
  • 3.2 - Active tuberculosis
  • 4 - Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
  • 4.1 - Clinical diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis
  • 4.2 - Laboratory diagnostic of pulmonary tuberculosis
  • 4.2.1 - Microbiological tests
  • 4.2.2 - Molecular tests
  • 4.2.3 - Indirect tests
  • 4.3 - New perspectives in TB diagnostic
  • 5 - Conclusion and future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 12 - Pulmonary aspergillosis: diagnosis and treatment
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Classification and microbiology of pulmonary aspergillosis
  • 2.1 - Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
  • 2.2 - Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis
  • 2.3 - Tracheopulmonary aspergillosis
  • 2.4 - Invasive aspergillosis or Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis
  • 3 - Relationship of pulmonary aspergillosis with immunocompromised patients
  • 4 - Morphological and molecular identification of Aspergilli
  • 5 - Clinical diagnosis of aspergillosis
  • 5.1 - Microscopy
  • 5.2 - Histopathology
  • 5.3 - Galactomannam antigen test
  • 5.4 - Beta-d-Glucan test
  • 5.5 - Chest radiography and computed tomography
  • 5.6 - Lateral flow device
  • 5.7 - Volatile organic compounds
  • 6 - Treatment of aspergillosis
  • 6.1 - Amphotericin B
  • 6.2 - Voriconazole
  • 6.3 - Itraconazole
  • 6.4 - Posaconazole
  • 7 - Multidrug resistance
  • 8 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 13 - Laboratory diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Laboratory diagnosis of PcP
  • 2.1 - Current methods for diagnosis of PCP
  • 2.1.1 - Biological specimens
  • 2.1.1.1 - Specimens obtained by invasive methods
  • 2.1.1.2 - Specimens obtained by noninvasive methods
  • 2.1.2 - Staining methodologies
  • 2.1.2.1 - Cytochemical staining methods
  • 2.1.2.1.1 - Methods that stain the cysts wall
  • 2.1.2.1.2 - Methods that stain the nuclei of the developing forms
  • 2.1.2.2 - Immunohistochemical staining methods
  • 2.1.3 - Molecular diagnosis of PCP
  • 2.1.3.1 - Usefulness of molecular detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in PcP diagnosis
  • 2.1.3.2 - Molecular detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA in respiratory specimens
  • 2.1.3.3 - Molecular techniques for Pneumocystis jirovecii DNA detection
  • 2.1.3.4 - Molecular typing for disease and transmission tracking
  • 2.2 - New alternatives for the diagnosis of PCP
  • 2.2.1 - Usefulness of blood in the diagnosis of PcP
  • 2.2.2 - Blood biomarkers for diagnosis of PcP
  • 3 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 14 - Antimicrobial approaches against bacterial pathogens which cause lower respiratory system infections
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Bacterial pathogens which cause lower respiratory system infections
  • 2.1 - WHO's data about antimicrobial resistance
  • 3 - Antimicrobial therapies
  • 3.1 - Antimicrobial approaches following clinical guidelines
  • 4 - Probiotic treatment
  • 5 - Natural medicines
  • 6 - Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 15 - Nanotechnological applications for the control of pulmonary infections
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Some important pulmonary infections
  • 2.1 - Pneumonia
  • 2.2 - Tuberculosis
  • 2.3 - Pulmonary aspergillosis
  • 2.4 - Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infection
  • 3 - Existing treatments for pulmonary infections
  • 4 - Limitations and side effects of the treatment of pulmonary infections
  • 5 - Nanotechnology in medicine
  • 5.1 - Applications of different nanoparticles for the treatment of pulmonary infections
  • 5.2 - Nanotechnology for pulmonary drug delivery
  • 6 - Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 16 - Volatile oils: Potential agents for the treatment of respiratory infections
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 2 - Traditional remedies in respiratory infections
  • 3 - Screening of the antibacterial effects of essential oils
  • 3.1 - Laboratory methods of evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oils
  • 3.1.1 - Solid diffusion assays
  • 3.1.2 - Vapor diffusion assays
  • 3.1.3 - The dilution method (agar or liquid broth)
  • 4 - Screening of the antiviral effects of essential oils
  • 5 - Role of inflammation in respiratory tract infections
  • 6 - Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • Chapter 17 - Current therapeutics and prophylactic approaches to treat pneumonia
  • 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 - Microbiology and pathogenesis of streptococcus pneumoniae-the major cause of pneumonia
  • 1.2 - Biology of pneumococcal pneumonia
  • 2 - Childhood pneumonia
  • 3 - Adult pneumonia and community-acquired pneumonia
  • 4 - Vaccination
  • 4.1 - HIB vaccine
  • 4.2 - Pneumococcal vaccines
  • 5 - Current antiinfective treatments against bacterial pathogens
  • 5.1 - Current antiinfective antimicrobials
  • 6 - Current antiinfective treatments against viral pathogens
  • 7 - Antibiotic resistance and its impact
  • 8 - Advances in antibiotic treatment for pneumonia
  • 9 - Newer targets for the next generation antimicrobials for combating drug resistance
  • 9.1 - Targeting bacterial proteins
  • 9.2 - Combining ß-lactamase enzyme with ß-lactam antibacterial drugs
  • 9.3 - Immunomodulatory strategies
  • 10 - Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • Subject Index

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