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Memory and Action Selection in Human-Machine Interaction

Munéo Kitajima(Autor*in)
Wiley-ISTE (Verlag)
Erschienen am 5. Januar 2016
162 Seiten
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978-1-119-26863-5 (ISBN)
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The first goal of this book is to extend Two Minds originating from behavioral economics to the domain of interaction, where the time dimension has to be dealt with rigorously; in human-machine interaction, it is of crucial importance how synchronization between conscious processes and unconscious processes is established for a sense of smoothness, and how memory processes and action selection processes are coordinated. The first half this book describes the theory in detail. The book begins by outlining the whole view of the theory consisting of action selection processes and memorization processes, and their interactions. Then, a detailed description for action selection processes theorized as a nonlinear dynamic human behavior model with real-time constraints is provided, followed by a description for memorization processes. Also, implications of the theory to human-machine interactions are discussed.
The second goal of this book is to provide a methodology to study how Two Minds works in practice when people use interactive systems. The latter half of this book describes theory practices in detail. A new methodology called Cognitive Chrono-Ethnography (CCE) is introduced, which adds the time dimension to Hutchins' Cognitive Ethnography, in order to practice "know the users" systematically by designing user studies based on a simulation of users' mental operations controlled by Two Minds. The author then shows how CCE has been applied to understanding the ways in which people navigate in real physical environments by walking and by car, respectively, and explores the possibility of applying CCE to predict people's future needs. This is not for understanding how people use interfaces at present but to predict how people want to use the interfaces in the future given they are currently using them in a certain way
Finally, the book concludes by describing implications of human-machine interactions that are carried out while using modern artefacts for people's cognitive development from birth, on the basis of the theories of action selection and memorization.
Muneo Kitajima is Professor at both the Nagaoka University of Technology and The University of Tokyo, Japan. His current research interests include cognitive architecture that is capable of simulating human beings' daily decision-making and action selection, ecology of networked society, and understanding synchronization between consciousness and unconsciousness behavior under real time constraints.
  • Cover
  • Title Page
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • Introduction
  • I.1. The key principle of designing human-machine interaction is "know the users"
  • I.2. Designing human-machine interaction for Two Minds
  • I.3. Organization of the book
  • I.3.1. Theoretical foundation for dealing with action selection and memorization as a cyclic nonlinear process
  • I.3.2. Theoretically motivated methodology for understanding users
  • I.3.3. Conditions for sustainable HMI
  • PART 1: Theoretical Foundation for Dealing with Action Selection and Memorization
  • Chapter 1: A Unified Theory of Action Selection and Memory
  • 1.1. Organic self-consistent field theory
  • 1.1.1. Self-consistent field theory in physics
  • 1.1.2. "Organic" SCFT
  • 1.1.3. Human beings considered in O-SCFT
  • 1.1.4. Scale mix
  • 1.2. Development of brain architecture model under the NDHB model/RT
  • 1.2.1. O-PDP
  • 1.2.2. The guideline for architecture selection
  • 1.2.3. Development of cross-networks of neurons in the brain
  • Chapter 2: NDHB-Model/RT: Nonlinear Dynamic Human Behavior Model with Realtime Constraints
  • 2.1. Maximum satisfaction architecture
  • 2.1.1. Happiness goals
  • 2.1.2. Society layers
  • 2.1.3. Brain layers
  • 2.1.4. Conditions to make people feel satisfaction
  • 2.2. Brain information hydrodynamics
  • 2.2.1. The time axis is central to information flow
  • 2.2.2. Cerebrum formation process
  • 2.2.3. Information flows in the brain
  • 2.2.4. Emergence of emotion in BIH
  • 2.2.5. Biorhythm of information flow
  • 2.2.6. Role of language
  • 2.2.7. Multiple personality disorder
  • 2.3. Structured meme theory
  • 2.3.1. Meme
  • 2.3.2. Memes propagate by means of resonance
  • 2.3.3. Characteristics of meme propagation
  • 2.4. NDHB-model/RT
  • 2.5. MHP/RT: Model human processor with real-time constraints
  • 2.5.1. MHP/RT's basic flow
  • 2.5.2. Basic MHP/RT behaviors
  • Four operation modes of MHP/RT
  • Four processing modes of MHP/RT
  • Four processing modes and adaptation
  • 2.6. Two Minds and emotions
  • 2.6.1. Dynamics of consciousness-emotion interaction: an explanation by MHP/RT
  • Interaction between consciousness and emotion
  • Onset of consciousness
  • Conscious activities
  • Emergence of emotion
  • Determination of next behavior
  • Summary
  • Synchronization between the C layer and the A2BC layer:MHP/RT's perspective
  • 2.6.2. Taxonomy of emotions: behavioral perspective
  • Chapter 3: Layered-structure of Memory and its Development
  • 3.1. MHP/RT modules and their associated memories
  • 3.1.1. Memory formation process
  • 3.1.2. MD memory frames
  • 3.1.3. Memory functions via resonance
  • 3.1.4. Memory operates in pipelining
  • 3.2. Hierarchical structure of human action selection
  • 3.2.1. Three-layered structure of interneurons system
  • 3.2.2. Formation process
  • 3.3. Emotion initiation via memory processes
  • Chapter 4: Implication for Human-Machine Interaction: Autonomous System Interaction Design (ASID) based on NDHB-Model/RT
  • 4.1. Users modeled by MHP/RT with MD memory frames
  • 4.2. Autonomous systems versus linear systems
  • 4.2.1. Linear systems
  • 4.2.2. Autonomous systems
  • 4.3. Needs that a society of information systems must meet
  • 4.4. Outline of ASI
  • 4.5. Conclusions
  • PART 2: Theoretically Motivated Methodology for Understanding Users
  • Chapter 5: Cognitive Chrono-ethnography
  • 5.1. Understanding people's behavior in real life
  • 5.2. Cognitive chrono-ethnography
  • 5.2.1. Requirements for the methodology (CCE) to study human beings' behavior in real life
  • What to understand
  • How to understand
  • 5.2.2. CCE procedure
  • 5.2.3. Behavior selection shaping factors
  • Two Minds
  • Meme that mediates individuals and society
  • Multiplicity of behavioral goals
  • Usage of memory under strong interaction between environment and behavior
  • Chapter 6: A CCE Study: Slow Self-paced Navigation
  • 6.1. Introduction: navigation in a train station by following signs
  • 6.2. Steps 1 and 2 of CCE
  • 6.2.1. Attention, planning and working memory
  • 6.2.2. An MHP/RT simulation of navigation behavior
  • Specification of navigation behavior to be simulated
  • Higher level description of navigation behavior
  • Preparation for simulating navigation behavior
  • MHP/RT simulation
  • Sensory information filter
  • Resonance
  • Feedback from consciousness
  • Frame Rate
  • 6.3. Step 3 of CCE: monitor recruiting
  • 6.3.1. Investigation of cognitive aging characteristics
  • 6.4. Steps 4 and 5 of CCE: monitor behavior observation and individual model construction
  • 6.4.1. Train stations, tasks and participants
  • 6.4.2. Method
  • 6.5. Step 6 of CCE: socioecological model construction
  • 6.6. Discussion
  • 6.6.1. Two modes of navigation
  • Anticipation-based navigation
  • Event-based navigation
  • 6.6.2. Web navigation
  • 6.6.3. Nature of complicated navigation processes
  • 6.7. Conclusions
  • Chapter 7: Fast Externally-paced Navigation
  • 7.1. Introduction
  • 7.2. Steps 1 and 2 of CCE
  • 7.2.1. Designing a CCE study
  • Outline of the study
  • First session: know each other
  • Second session: use case-based knowledge for providing useful information
  • Third session: use general knowledge for providing useful information
  • 7.3. Step 3 of CCE: monitor recruiting
  • 7.3.1. Screening
  • 7.3.2. Interview for the final selection
  • 7.4. Steps 4 and 5 of CCE: monitor behavior observation and individual model construction
  • 7.4.1. Data analysis
  • Data coding
  • Evaluation of the provided information
  • 7.4.2. Information necessary for safe and enjoyable driving
  • Category 1: guidance for routing
  • Category 2: support for safe driving
  • Category 3: provision of miscellaneous information
  • 7.4.3. Examples
  • Episode 1
  • Episode 2
  • Episode 3
  • Episode 4
  • 7.5. Conclusions
  • Chapter 8: Designing for Future Needs
  • 8.1. Introduction
  • 8.2. Making inaccessible future needs accessible: t-translation invariant principle
  • 8.3. A case study of CCE: why do fans repeat visits to the ballpark?
  • 8.3.1. Steps 1 and 2 of CCE
  • 8.3.2. Step 3 of CCE: monitor recruiting
  • 8.3.3. Step 4 of CCE: field observation
  • 8.3.4. Step 5 of CCE: conduct retrospective interviews
  • 8.3.5. Step 6 of CCE: socioecological model construction
  • Results: developmental processes of repeaters
  • Progressing from the pre-fan stage to the fan stage
  • Advancing from the fan stage to the loyal-fan stage
  • 8.3.6. Results: developing from a pre-fan to a repeater
  • Defining future needs by CCE
  • 8.4. Discussion
  • 8.4.1. Selection of elite monitors
  • 8.4.2. CCE interview
  • 8.4.3. Applicability of CCE
  • 8.5. Conclusions
  • Conclusion: Technique versus Skill Viewed from MHP/RT's Four-Processes
  • Two distinct forms of HMI in using artifacts: technique and skill
  • Technique
  • Skill
  • Conditions for sustainable and evolving HMI
  • Bibliography
  • Index

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