Pediatric Brain Stimulation

Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain
 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 8. Juli 2016
  • |
  • 500 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-802038-8 (ISBN)
 

Pediatric Brain Stimulation: Mapping and Modulating the Developing Brain presents the latest on this rapidly expanding field that has seen an exponential growth in publications over the past 10 years. Non-invasive modalities like TMS can painlessly map and measure complex neurophysiology in real patients. Neuromodulatory applications like rTMS and tDCS carry increasingly proven therapeutic applications. Rapidly advancing technological methodologies are increasing opportunities and indications.

Despite all these benefits, applications in the more plastic developing brains of children are only just emerging. This book provides a comprehensive overview of brain stimulation in children. Chapters include Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) fundamentals, brain stimulation in pediatric neurological conditions, and invasive brain stimulation.

The main audience for this research will be those interested in applying brain stimulation technologies to advance clinical research and patient care, although a wide variety of clinicians and scientist will find this to be a valuable reference on brain stimulation with specific chapters on a variety of conditions.


  • Provides an overview of recent findings and knowledge of pediatric brain stimulation and the developing brain
  • Edited by renowned leaders in the field of pediatric brain stimulation
  • Presents a great resource for basic and clinical scientists and practitioners in neuroscience, neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 5,98 MB
978-0-12-802038-8 (9780128020388)
0128020385 (0128020385)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • PEDIATRIC BRAIN STIMULATION
  • How to Use
  • PEDIATRIC BRAIN STIMULATION
  • Copyright
  • Contents
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • I - FUNDAMENTALS OF NIBS IN CHILDREN
  • 1 - TMS Basics: Single and Paired Pulse Neurophysiology
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HOW DOES TMS WORK?
  • Principle of TMS
  • Types of TMS Coil
  • NEURONAL STRUCTURES ACTIVATED BY TMS
  • Stimulation of the Motor Cortex
  • Descending Volleys
  • Descending Pathways from the Cerebral Cortex
  • Motor-Evoked Potential
  • Motor Thresholds
  • TMS NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
  • Single-Pulse TMS
  • Stimulus Response Curve
  • Silent Periods
  • Paired-pulse TMS
  • Short-Interval Intercortical Inhibition (SICI)
  • Intracortical Facilitation (ICF)
  • Short-Interval Intracortical Facilitation (SICF)
  • Long-Interval Intracortical Inhibition (LICI)
  • Interhemispheric Inhibition (IHI)
  • TMS Paired With Sensory Activation
  • Short-Latency Afferent Inhibition (SAI)
  • Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS)
  • Repetitive TMS
  • TMS RELIABILITY
  • TMS SAFETY
  • References
  • 2 - Assessing Normal Developmental Neurobiology With Brain Stimulation
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NORMAL DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROBIOLOGY
  • Theoretical Background of Excessive Production of Synapses/Pruning of Synaptic Connectivity
  • Structural Changes to the Developing Brain
  • Different Aspects of Neuromotor Development
  • TMS-EVOKED PARAMETERS THAT REFLECT NEUROMOTOR MATURATION
  • Age Specificity of Resting Motor Threshold
  • Maturational Aspects of MEP Latencies and CMCT
  • Ipsilateral Versus Contralateral Projections - MEP Amplitudes?(Contra-vs. Ipsilateral)
  • Intracortical Inhibition and Connectivity Between Brain Areas - Silent Period, Intracortical Inhibition Paradigms, Interhemisphe...
  • Synaptic Plasticity
  • ASSESSING NEUROPHYSIOLOGIC FUNCTIONING WITH BRAIN STIMULATION IN DEVELOPMENT AND DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • Cerebral Palsy
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs)
  • RASopathies
  • OUTLOOK
  • Cortical Maps/Presurgical Mapping/Virtual Lesion Technique
  • TMS and Other Neuroimaging Methods
  • Neuromodulation/Therapeutic Applications of TMS
  • References
  • 3 - Neuroplasticity Protocols: Inducing and Measuring Change
  • BACKGROUND (IN VITRO AND ANIMAL WORK)
  • Hebbian/Konorski Theories of Plasticity
  • Mammalian Brain and Hippocampus
  • Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS): A Physiological Approach?to LTP Induction
  • Physiological Significance of LTP
  • OVERVIEW OF REPETITIVE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION (RTMS)
  • TYPES OF RTMS
  • Conventional rTMS
  • Very Low-Frequency rTMS
  • ~OneHz rTMS
  • >OneHz rTMS ("High"-Frequency rTMS)
  • Paired Associative Stimulation (PAS)
  • Theta Burst Stimulation (TBS)
  • Repetitive Paired-Pulse (PPS) and Quadripulse Stimulation (QPS)
  • Metaplasticity
  • STUDY DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
  • Type of Studies
  • Patient Selection and Safety
  • rTMS Procedure
  • Statistical Analysis
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 4 - Therapeutic rTMS in Children
  • INTRODUCTION: FROM BIOMARKER OF PLASTICITY AND EXCITABILITY?TO INDUCER OF THERAPEUTIC CHANGES?
  • METHODS: TYPES OF REPETITIVE TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC?STIMULATION (RTMS)
  • MOST COMMON REPETITIVE TMS METHODS
  • BRIEF OVERVIEW OF CLINICAL TRIALS AND INDICATIONS IN YOUNG ADULTS
  • BRIEF OVERVIEW OF REGISTERED CLINICAL TRIALS INVOLVING CHILDREN
  • BRIEF OVERVIEW OF PUBLISHED CLINICAL TRIALS INVOLVING CHILDREN
  • WHERE TO NEXT WITH RTMS TREATMENT IN CHILDREN?
  • References
  • 5 - Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (tDCS): Principles and Emerging Applications in Children
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PRINCIPLES AND CORTICAL EFFECTS OF TRANSCRANIAL?DIRECT-CURRENT STIMULATION
  • TDCS METHODOLOGY: ELECTRODES, CURRENT, AND PROTOCOLS
  • TDCS DOSAGE: COMPUTATIONAL MODELING EVIDENCE
  • TDCS DOSAGE: NEUROPHYSIOLOGY EVIDENCE
  • TDCS IN HEALTHY CHILDREN TO ENHANCE MOTOR LEARNING
  • SAFETY, ADVERSE EVENTS, AND TOLERABILITY
  • CLINICAL APPLICATION OF TDCS
  • Stroke Rehabilitation
  • Major Depression
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 6 - Insights Into Pediatric Brain Stimulation Protocols From Preclinical Research
  • STIMULATING THE IMMATURE BRAIN
  • THE IMMATURE BRAIN IS HYPEREXCITABLE
  • INHIBITORY CONTROL DEVELOPS WITH AGE
  • GABAERGIC DYSMATURITY IN NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISEASE
  • SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPING BRAIN
  • RELEVANCE TO TRANSLATIONAL BRAIN STIMULATION
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 7 - Pediatric Issues in Neuromodulation: Safety, Tolerability and Ethical Considerations
  • BRAIN STIMULATION TECHNIQUES USED IN CHILDREN
  • DIRECT EFFECTS OF BRAIN STIMULATION IN CHILDREN
  • DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROPLASTICITY
  • SIDE EFFECTS OF STIMULATION
  • Heating
  • Hearing Deficits
  • Seizures
  • Syncope
  • Headache and Scalp Sensations
  • Cognitive and Psychiatric Changes
  • ETHICAL APPLICATION OF NEUROMODULATION IN CHILDREN
  • Autonomy
  • Beneficence
  • Non-maleficence
  • Justice
  • NEURO-ENHANCEMENT IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS
  • ADVISEMENTS FOR SAFE ADMINISTRATION OF NIBS IN CHILDREN
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • II - NIBS IN PEDIATRIC NEUROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
  • 8 - TMS Applications in ADHD and Developmental Disorders
  • INTRODUCTION
  • KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR TMS RESEARCH IN CHILDREN WITH?DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
  • Ethics, Minimal Risk, and Safety
  • TMS Biomarker Research: Statistical Considerations
  • Biomarkers
  • "Abnormal" TMS Results
  • Overlap With Controls-Spectrum Diagnoses
  • Heterogeneous, Non-specific, Overlapping and Comorbid Diagnoses
  • Study Designs for TMS Biomarker Research in Developmental Disorders
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Correlational Studies
  • Bias in Adult Studies
  • TMS IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND REPRESENTATIVE RESULTS
  • Getting Children to "Sit Still"
  • TMS Techniques for Studying Motor Cortex Physiology
  • Depolarization Thresholds: Resting and Active Motor Thresholds (RMTs and AMTs)
  • Technique
  • Pitfalls
  • Results and Interpretations
  • Recruitment Within Motor Cortex: Input-Output?Curves (I-O Curve)
  • Input-Output Technique
  • Pitfalls
  • Motor Cortex Inhibition: The Cortical Silent Period (CSP)
  • Technique
  • Pitfalls
  • Results and Interpretations
  • Interhemispheric Signaling: Interhemispheric Inhibition (IHI)?and Ipsilateral Silent Period (ISP)
  • Techniques
  • Pitfalls
  • Results and Interpretations
  • IHI Future Directions
  • Paired Pulse TMS Studies
  • General Technique in Paired-Pulse Studies
  • General Pitfalls
  • Motor Cortex Inhibition Biomarker? Short-Interval?Cortical Inhibition (SICI)
  • SICI in ADHD
  • SICI and Medications
  • Future Directions for SICI and Other Paired-Pulse TMS Measures
  • Motor Cortex Inhibition Biomarker? Functional Short-Interval Cortical Inhibition (SICI)
  • References
  • 9 - TMS Mapping of Motor Development After Perinatal Brain Injury
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS
  • FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS
  • FUNCTIONAL IMAGING
  • MR TRACTOGRAPHY
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE I: FUNCTIONAL THERAPY
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE II: EPILEPSY SURGERY
  • PERSPECTIVE: BRAIN STIMULATION
  • References
  • 10 - The Right Stimulation of the Right Circuits: Merging Understanding of Brain Stimulation Mechanisms and Systems Neuroscience for Effective Neuromodulation in Children
  • INTRODUCTION
  • FOCAL STIMULATION TO KNOWN CIRCUITS: LESSONS FROM DEEP BRAIN STIMULATION FOR PARKINSON'S DISEASE
  • BRAIN STIMULATION IN PEDIATRIC HEMIPARESIS: WHICH CIRCUITS?
  • TARGETING MOTOR CORTEX: WHICH STIMULATION MODALITY?
  • FOCAL STIMULATION VERSUS GENERAL PLASTICITY AND TASK-SPECIFIC?TRAINING
  • CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
  • References
  • 11 - Therapeutic Brain Stimulation Trials in Children With Cerebral Palsy
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE IN THERAPEUTIC BRAIN STIMULATION IN CHILDREN?WITH CP: SUMMARY OF CURRENT INTERVENTIONAL TRIALS
  • rTMS
  • tDCS
  • TRIAL DESIGN
  • Environment
  • Timing
  • Study Criteria and Recruitment
  • Inclusion Criteria
  • Diagnosis
  • Baseline Level of Function
  • Communication Ability
  • Cortical Excitability
  • Age
  • Exclusion Criteria
  • Diagnoses
  • Skin Integrity
  • Contraindications
  • Sample Size, Effect Size, and Power Considerations
  • Data Sharing/Multicenter Trials
  • Control Groups, Blinding, and Placebo/Sham Interventions
  • Institutional Review Board (IRB)
  • Medical Monitor and Data Safety and Monitoring Board (DSMB)
  • Adverse Events Management/Risk Mitigation/Stopping Rules
  • Endpoints
  • Analysis and Assessment of Intervention Fidelity
  • Replication, Trial Registration, and Consolidated Standards of?Reporting Trials (CONSORT)
  • Research Team
  • CONCLUSIONS
  • References
  • 12 - Brain Stimulation in Children Born Preterm-Promises and Pitfalls
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE MOTOR THRESHOLD
  • SHORT-INTERVAL INTRACORTICAL INHIBITION AND FACILITATION
  • LONG-INTERVAL INTRACORTICAL INHIBITION AND THE CORTICAL?SILENT PERIOD
  • TRANSCALLOSAL INHIBITION
  • NEUROPLASTICITY INDUCED WITH NON-INVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION
  • OTHER CONSIDERATIONS
  • WHERE TO NOW?
  • References
  • 13 - Brain Stimulation to Understand and Modulate the Autism Spectrum
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TMS MEASURES OF ASD PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  • Single-Pulse TMS
  • Paired-Pulse TMS
  • rTMS
  • TMS AS A THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION IN ASD
  • Low-Frequency Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation
  • High-Frequency Prefrontal Cortex Stimulation
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 14 - Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Epilepsy: Diagnostic and Therapeutic Uses
  • INTRODUCTION
  • DIAGNOSTIC USES OF TMS
  • Evaluating Cortical Excitability
  • Using TMS to Characterize Epilepsy
  • Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsies
  • Focal Epilepsies
  • Using TMS to Characterize Mechanism of Action in Epilepsy Treatments
  • Using TMS as a Biomarker of Drug Response
  • Functional Mapping
  • THERAPEUTIC USES OF TMS
  • Repetitive TMS for Treatment of Refractory Focal Epilepsy
  • Patient Selection
  • Stimulation Parameters
  • Repetitive TMS for Seizure Cessation
  • THERAPEUTIC USES OF TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT-CURRENT STIMULATION
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 15 - Brain Stimulation in Pediatric Depression: Biological Mechanisms
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PRECLINICAL
  • NEUROPHYSIOLOGY
  • NEUROIMAGING
  • PERIPHERAL BIOMARKERS
  • NEUROCOGNITION
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 16 - Brain Stimulation in Childhood Mental Health: Therapeutic Applications
  • INTRODUCTION
  • APPLICATIONS
  • Depression
  • Need for Novel Approaches and Biological Rationale for Targets
  • Evidence
  • Summary for Depression
  • Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  • Need for Novel Approaches and Biological Rationale for Targets
  • Evidence
  • Summary for ADHD
  • Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Disorders
  • Need for Novel Approaches and Biological Rationale for Targets
  • Evidence
  • Summary for ASD and Developmental Disorders
  • Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia
  • Need for Novel Approaches and Biological Rationale for Targets
  • Evidence
  • Summary for Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia
  • Tourette Syndrome
  • Need for Novel Approaches and Biological Rationale for Targets
  • Evidence
  • Summary for Tourette Syndrome
  • DISCUSSION
  • WHERE DO WE STAND AND WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 17 - Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Neurophysiology of Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
  • EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • OUTCOME
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • Changes in Cortical Excitability Following TBI
  • Neuroplasticity Following TBI
  • INSIGHTS ABOUT TBI USING TMS: A LITERATURE REVIEW
  • MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • SEVERE TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • TREATMENT STUDIES USING RTMS
  • TMS IN PEDIATRIC MILD TRAUMATIC BRAIN INJURY
  • SAFETY AND TOLERABILITY
  • RESULTS
  • SUMMARY
  • References
  • 18 - Brain Stimulation Applications in Pediatric Headache and Pain Disorders
  • HISTORY OF NEUROSTIMULATION IN HEADACHE AND PAIN
  • PEDIATRIC HEADACHE
  • SAFETY AND TOLERABILITY OF NEUROSTIMULATION IN CHILDREN
  • PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HEAD PAIN AND MIGRAINE
  • Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Understand Headache and Pain Neurophysiology
  • PEDIATRIC DATA
  • THERAPEUTICS
  • Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation
  • Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation
  • Peripheral Stimulation
  • Occipital Nerve Stimulation
  • Clinical Data in Supraorbital and Combined ONS/Supraorbital Nerve Stimulation
  • Vagus Nerve Stimulation in Migraine
  • Auriculotemporal Nerve Stimulation
  • Other Headache Disorders
  • Cluster Headache
  • FUTURE AVENUES IN PEDIATRIC BRAIN STIMULATION FOR PAIN
  • References
  • III - INVASIVE BRAIN STIMULATION IN CHILDREN
  • 19 - Deep Brain Stimulation in Children: Clinical Considerations
  • HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  • PRIMARY DYSTONIAS AND DBS
  • PHYSIOLOGY OF DBS EFFECT IN PRIMARY DYSTONIAS
  • EFFICACY OF DBS ON DYT-1-POSITIVE AND DYT-1-NEGATIVE DYSTONIAS
  • SEGMENTAL VERSUS GENERALIZED DYSTONIA AND DBS
  • EFFECTS OF SWITCHING DBS "OFF"
  • DBS FOR SECONDARY DYSTONIAS
  • DBS FOR NEURODEGENERATION WITH BRAIN IRON ACCUMULATION (NBIA)
  • PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DYSTONIA RESPONSES TO DBS
  • SECONDARY DYSTONIAS AND FUNCTIONAL IMAGING BEFORE AND AFTER DBS
  • PATIENT SELECTION FOR DBS
  • POOLED COHORTS OF DBS DATA
  • CHILDREN WITH DYSTONIA AND DBS
  • Baseline Severity, Skeletal Maturity, and DBS Outcome in Cerebral Palsy
  • Proportion of Life Lived With Dystonia (PLD) and Response to DBS
  • Limitations in BFMDRS-M Percentage Change Outcome
  • What Matters Most to Children With Dystonia and Their Caregivers
  • The Impact of Dystonia in Children
  • Interventional Studies for Dystonia in Childhood and Outcome Measures
  • Improving Patient Selection for DBS in Children
  • Neuroimaging and Neurophysiology Biomarkers?
  • Cerebral Plasticity in Children
  • Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography CT (18FDDPET-CT) Brain Scanning
  • TECHNICAL ISSUES INFLUENCING DBS EFFICACY
  • DBS and Cognitive Function in Children
  • DBS and Compulsive and Impulsive Behaviors
  • Complications and Safety
  • Challenges for DBS in Children
  • Ethics and DBS in Children: "The Broad Clinical Gaze"
  • References
  • 20 - Deep Brain Stimulation Children - Surgical Considerations
  • BACKGROUND
  • TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF DBS
  • CLINICAL INDICATIONS
  • TREATMENT EFFICACY
  • PHYSIOLOGY OF NEUROMODULATION, NEUROPLASTICITY,?AND PEDIATRIC CONSIDERATIONS
  • FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS AND INNOVATION
  • References
  • 21 - Invasive Neuromodulation in Pediatric Epilepsy: VNS and Emerging Technologies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • EPILEPSY IN CHILDREN
  • SURGICAL TREATMENTS FOR EPILEPSY
  • VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION (VNS)
  • Rationale of Neuromodulation in Epilepsy
  • Anatomy and Surgical Details
  • Mechanism of Action
  • Clinical Efficacy
  • Long-Term Results
  • VNS Studies in Children
  • Adverse Effects
  • QOL and Other Health-Related Indices
  • Recent Advances in VNS
  • TRIGEMINAL NERVE STIMULATION
  • INTRACRANIAL NEUROSTIMULATION FOR EPILEPSY
  • Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus Stimulation
  • Adverse Effects
  • Hippocampus Stimulation
  • Responsive Neurostimulation
  • Other Neuromodulatory Devices
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • 22 - Emerging Applications and Future Directions in Pediatric Neurostimulation
  • TRANSCRANIAL MRI-GUIDED FOCUSED ULTRASOUND
  • ROBOTICS
  • BRAIN-COMPUTER INTERFACES (BCI)
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR SINGLE- AND PAIRED-PULSE TMS STUDIES
  • BRAIN STIMULATION BIOMARKERS
  • Biomarkers in Heterogeneous Neurobehavioral Syndromes
  • Biomarkers in Single-Gene Disorders
  • FUNCTIONAL TMS
  • TMS FOR BIOFEEDBACK
  • NON-INVASIVE LOW-CURRENT ELECTRICAL STIMULATION
  • SHIFTING MEMBRANE POTENTIALS WITH TRANSCRANIAL DIRECT-CURRENT STIMULATION
  • ENTRAINING OR DISRUPTING INTRINSIC BRAIN OSCILLATIONS WITH TRANSCRANIAL ALTERNATING-CURRENT STIMULATION
  • CONCLUSION
  • References
  • Index
  • A
  • B
  • C
  • D
  • E
  • F
  • G
  • H
  • I
  • J
  • K
  • L
  • M
  • N
  • O
  • P
  • Q
  • R
  • S
  • T
  • U
  • V
  • W
  • Y
  • Back Cover

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