Internal Combustion Engines

Applied Thermosciences
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 4. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 28. August 2020
  • |
  • 656 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-45453-3 (ISBN)
 
A comprehensive resource covering the foundational thermal-fluid sciences and engineering analysis techniques used to design and develop internal combustion engines

Internal Combustion Engines: Applied Thermosciences, Fourth Edition combines foundational thermal-fluid sciences with engineering analysis techniques for modeling and predicting the performance of internal combustion engines.

This new 4th edition includes brand new material on:
* New engine technologies and concepts
* Effects of engine speed on performance and emissions
* Fluid mechanics of intake and exhaust flow in engines
* Turbocharger and supercharger performance analysis
* Chemical kinetic modeling, reaction mechanisms, and emissions
* Advanced combustion processes including low temperature combustion
* Piston, ring and journal bearing friction analysis

The 4th Edition expands on the combined analytical and numerical approaches used successfully in previous editions. Students and engineers are provided with several new tools for applying the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer to internal combustion engines.

Each chapter includes MATLAB programs and examples showing how to perform detailed engineering computations. The chapters also have an increased number of homework problems with which the reader can gauge their progress and retention. All the software is 'open source' so that readers can see in detail how computational analysis and the design of engines is performed. A companion website is also provided, offering access to the MATLAB computer programs.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Dr. Kirkpatrick is a Professor in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Colorado State University. He has BS and PhD degrees in Mechanical Engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As an internationally recognized authority in the applied thermal-fluid sciences, he has published four books and over 100 publications in the internal combustion engine, combustion instability, fluid jets, and engineering education areas. He is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Ben Sparks Medal by ASME.
Preface ix

Acknowledgements xi

1 Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines 1

1.1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 5

1.3 ENGINE CYCLES 7

1.4 ENGINE PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS 11

1.5 ENGINE CONFIGURATIONS 25

1.6 EXAMPLES OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES 31

1.7 ALTERNATIVE POWERTRAIN TECHNOLOGY 35

1.8 FURTHER READING 41

1.9 REFERENCES 41

References 41

1.10 HOMEWORK 41

2 Ideal Gas Engine Cycles 43

2.1 INTRODUCTION 43

2.2 GAS CYCLE ENERGY ADDITION 44

2.3 CONSTANT VOLUME ENERGY ADDITION 45

2.4 CONSTANT PRESSURE ENERGY ADDITION 50

2.5 LIMITED PRESSURE CYCLE 54

2.6 MILLER CYCLE 54

2.7 IDEAL FOUR-STROKE PROCESS AND RESIDUAL FRACTION 60

2.8 FINITE ENERGY RELEASE 69

2.9 REFERENCES 89

References 89

2.10 HOMEWORK 90

3 Thermodynamic Properties of Fuel-Air Mixtures 93

3.1 INTRODUCTION 93

3.2 PROPERTIES OF IDEAL GAS MIXTURES 93

3.3 LIQUID-VAPOR-GAS MIXTURES 101

3.4 STOICHIOMETRY 106

3.5 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 108

3.6 LOW TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION MODELING 112

3.7 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM USING LAGRANGE MULTIPLIERS 118

3.8 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM USING EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANTS 123

3.9 ISENTROPIC COMPRESSION AND EXPANSION 130

3.10 CHEMICAL KINETICS 134

3.11 REFERENCES 141

References 141

3.12 HOMEWORK 141

4 Thermodynamics of Combustion 145

4.1 INTRODUCTION 145

4.2 FIRST LAW ANALYSIS OF COMBUSTION 145

4.3 SECOND LAW ANALYSIS OF COMBUSTION 151

4.4 FUEL-AIR OTTO CYCLE 156

4.5 FOUR-STROKE FUEL-AIR OTTO CYCLE 161

4.6 LIMITED-PRESSURE FUEL AIR CYCLE 166

4.7 TWO ZONE FINITE ENERGY RELEASE MODEL 173

4.8 COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE FUEL-AIR MODEL 181

4.9 COMPARISON OF FUEL-AIR CYCLES WITH ACTUAL SPARK AND

COMPRESSION IGNITION CYCLES 185

4.10 FURTHER READING 188

4.11 REFERENCES 188

References 188

4.12 HOMEWORK 188

5 Intake and Exhaust Flow 191

5.1 INTRODUCTION 191

5.2 FLOW THROUGH INTAKE AND EXHAUST VALVES 191

5.3 INTAKE AND EXHAUST MANIFOLD FLOW 217

5.4 AIRFLOW IN TWO-STROKE ENGINES 221

5.5 SUPERCHARGERS AND TURBOCHARGERS 234

5.6 FURTHER READING 259

5.7 REFERENCES 259

References 259

5.8 HOMEWORK 260

6 Fuel and Air Flow in the Cylinder 263

6.1 INTRODUCTION 263

6.2 FUEL INJECTION - SPARK IGNITION 264

6.3 FUEL INJECTION - COMPRESSION IGNITION 267

6.4 FUEL SPRAYS 273

6.5 GASEOUS FUEL INJECTION 282

6.6 PRECHAMBERS 288

6.7 CARBURETION 291

6.8 LARGE SCALE IN-CYLINDER FLOW 294

6.9 IN-CYLINDER TURBULENCE 301

6.10 FURTHER READING 312

6.11 REFERENCES 312

References 312

6.12 HOMEWORK 315

7 Combustion Processes in Engines 317

7.1 INTRODUCTION 317

7.2 COMBUSTION IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES 318

7.3 ABNORMAL COMBUSTION (KNOCK) IN SPARK IGNITION ENGINES 333

7.4 COMBUSTION IN COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINES 338

7.5 LOW TEMPERATURE COMBUSTION 352

7.6 FURTHER READING 363

7.7 REFERENCES 363

References 363

7.8 HOMEWORK 365

8 Emissions 369

8.1 INTRODUCTION 369

8.2 NITROGEN OXIDES 370

8.3 CARBON MONOXIDE 384

8.4 HYDROCARBONS 386

8.5 PARTICULATES 392

8.6 EMISSIONS REGULATION AND CONTROL 400

8.7 FURTHER READING 409

References 409

8.8 HOMEWORK 410

9 Fuels 413

9.1 INTRODUCTION 413

9.2 REFINING 414

9.3 HYDROCARBON CHEMISTRY 416

9.4 THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF FUEL MIXTURES 420

9.5 GASOLINE FUELS 431

9.6 ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR SPARK IGNITION ENGINES 435

9.7 DIESEL FUELS 446

9.8 FURTHER READING 453

References 453

9.9 HOMEWORK 454

10 Friction and Lubrication 455

10.1 INTRODUCTION 455

10.2 FRICTION COEFFICIENT 455

10.3 ENGINE OILS 458

10.4 FRICTION POWER AND MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE 462

10.5 FRICTION MEASUREMENTS 463

10.6 FRICTION SCALING PARAMETERS 466

10.7 PISTON AND RING FRICTION 468

10.8 JOURNAL BEARINGS 484

10.9 VALVE TRAIN FRICTION 490

10.10ACCESSORY FRICTION 494

10.11PUMPING MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE 496

10.12OVERALL ENGINE FRICTION MEAN EFFECTIVE PRESSURE 497

10.13FURTHER READING 501

10.14REFERENCES 501

References 501

10.15HOMEWORK 502

11 Heat and Mass Transfer 505

11.1 INTRODUCTION 505

11.2 ENGINE COOLING SYSTEMS 506

11.3 ENGINE ENERGY BALANCE 507

11.4 HEAT TRANSFER MEASUREMENTS 512

11.5 HEAT TRANSFER MODELING 515

11.6 HEAT TRANSFER CORRELATIONS 521

11.7 RADIATION HEAT TRANSFER 529

11.8 HEAT TRANSFER IN THE EXHAUST SYSTEM 533

11.9 MASS LOSS OR BLOWBY 534

11.10FURTHER READING 537

11.11REFERENCES 537

References 537

11.12HOMEWORK 538

12 Engine Instrumentation and Testing 541

12.1 INTRODUCTION 541

12.2 INSTRUMENTATION 542

12.3 COMBUSTION ANALYSIS 550

12.4 EXHAUST GAS ANALYSIS 555

12.5 CONTROL SYSTEMS IN ENGINES 568

12.6 VEHICLE EMISSIONS TESTING 571

12.7 FURTHER READING 572

References 572

12.8 HOMEWORK 573

13 Overall Engine Performance 575

13.1 INTRODUCTION 575

13.2 EFFECT OF ENGINE SIZE, BORE, AND STROKE 575

13.3 EFFECT OF ENGINE SPEED 578

13.4 EFFECT OF AIR-FUEL RATIO AND LOAD 580

13.5 ENGINE PERFORMANCE MAPS 584

13.6 EFFECT OF IGNITION AND INJECTION TIMING 588

13.7 EFFECT OF COMPRESSION RATIO 591

13.8 VEHICLE PERFORMANCE SIMULATION 591

13.9 FURTHER READING 593

References 593

13.10HOMEWORK 593

A Appendix

Conversion Factors and Physical Constants 597

B Appendix

Physical Properties of Air 601

C Appendix

Thermodynamic Property Tables for Various Ideal Gases 605

D Appendix

Curve Fit Coefficients for Thermodynamic Properties of Various Fuels and Ideal

Gases 613

E Appendix

Detailed Thermodynamic and Fluid Flow Analyses 617

E.1 Thermodynamic Derivatives 617

E.2 Numerical Solution of Equilibrium Combustion Equations 619

E.3 Isentropic Compression/Expansion with known _P 623

E.4 Isentropic Compression/Expansion with known _v 623

E.5 Constant Volume Combustion 624

E.6 Quality of Exhaust Products 626

E.7 Finite Difference Form of the Reynolds Slider Equation 627

References 627

F Appendix

Computer Programs 629

F.1 Volume.m 630

F.2 Velocity.m 631

F.3 BurnFraction.m 631

F.4 FiniteHeatRelease.m 631

F.5 FiniteHeatMassLoss.m 633

F.6 CIHeatRelease.m 635

F.7 FourStrokeOtto.m 637

F.8 RunFarg.m 638

F.9 farg.m 638

F.10 fuel.m 641

F.11 RunEcp.m 642

F.12 ecp.m 643

F.13 AdiabaticFlameTemp.m 651

F.14 OttoFuelAir.m 651

F.15 FourStrokeFuelAir.m 653

F.16 TwoZoneFuelAir.m 656

F.17 Fuel Injected.m 661

F.18 LimitPressFuelAir.m 665

F.19 ValveFlow.m 668

F.20 Droplet.m 676

F.21 Kinetic.m 681

F.22 Soot.m 683

F.23 TwoZoneNO.m 684

F.24 RingPressure.m 689

F.25 Friction.m 691

F.26 HeatTransfer.m 693

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