Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods

Bioactivity, Chemistry and Processing
 
 
John Wiley & Sons Inc (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 15. Juni 2017
  • |
  • 688 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-13532-6 (ISBN)
 
The only single-source reference on the science of olives and olive oil nutrition and health benefits
Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods is the first comprehensive reference on the science of olives and olive oil. While the main focus of the book is on the fruit's renowned health-sustaining properties, it also provides an in-depth coverage of a wide range of topics of vital concern to producers and researchers, including post-harvest handling, packaging, analysis, sensory evaluation, authentication, waste product utilization, global markets, and much more.
People have been cultivating olives for more than six millennia, and olives and olive oil have been celebrated in songs and legends for their life-sustaining properties since antiquity. However, it is only within the last several decades that the unique health benefits of their consumption have become the focus of concerted scientific studies. It is now known that olives and olive oil contain an abundance of phenolic antioxidants, as well as the anti-cancer compounds such as squalene and terpenoids. This centerpiece of the Mediterranean diet has been linked to a greatly reduced risk of heart disease and lowered cancer risk. Bringing together contributions from some of the world's foremost experts on the subject, this book:
* Addresses the importance of olives and olive oil for the agricultural economy and the relevance of its bioactive components to human health
* Explores the role that olive oil plays in reducing oxidative stress in cells-a well-known risk factor in human health
* Provides important information about new findings on olive oil and lipids which reviews the latest research
* Explores topics of interest to producers, processors, and researchers, including the fruit's chemical composition, processing considerations, quality control, safety, traceability, and more
Edited by two scientists world-renowned for their pioneering work on olive oil and human health, this book is an indispensable source of timely information and practical insights for agricultural and food scientists, nutritionists, dieticians, physicians, and all those with a professional interest in food, nutrition, and health.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Apostolos Kiritsakis, PhD was a Professor in the School of Food Technology and Nutrition, at the Alexander Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dr Kiritsakis is one of the first scientists internationally, to conduct extensive research on olive oil and has lectured in many countries all over the world, on the benefits of quality olive oil on human health.
Fereidoon Shahidi, PhD is a University Research Professor in the Department of Biochemistry, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Canada. Dr Shahidi has been recognized as one of the world's most highly cited individuals and most productive scientists in the area of food, nutrition and agricultural science.
1 - Olives and Olive Oil as Functional Foods [Seite 3]
2 - Contents [Seite 7]
3 - List of Contributors [Seite 15]
4 - Preface [Seite 21]
5 - 1 Olive tree history and evolution [Seite 23]
5.1 - 1.1 Introduction [Seite 23]
5.2 - 1.2 The olive culture in the Mediterranean region [Seite 23]
5.3 - 1.3 Evolution of the olive tree from a botanical point of view [Seite 25]
5.3.1 - 1.3.1 Botanical classification [Seite 25]
5.3.2 - 1.3.2 Origin and revolution of the olive tree [Seite 26]
5.3.3 - 1.3.3 Domestication of the olive tree [Seite 28]
5.4 - 1.4 A different approach [Seite 28]
5.5 - 1.5 Conclusion [Seite 32]
5.6 - References [Seite 33]
6 - 2 Botanical characteristics of olive trees: cultivation and growth conditions - defense mechanisms to various stressors and effects on olive growth and functional compounds [Seite 35]
6.1 - 2.1 Introduction [Seite 35]
6.1.1 - 2.1.1 Classification - taxonomic hierarchy [Seite 36]
6.2 - 2.2 Botanical characteristics [Seite 37]
6.2.1 - 2.2.1 Anatomy - morphology [Seite 37]
6.2.2 - 2.2.2 Flowering, pollination, and fruit set [Seite 39]
6.3 - 2.3 Cultivation and growth conditions [Seite 40]
6.3.1 - 2.3.1 Climatic conditions [Seite 40]
6.3.2 - 2.3.2 Soil conditions [Seite 40]
6.3.3 - 2.3.3 Factors affecting olive growth and composition [Seite 40]
6.4 - 2.4 Defense mechanisms against various stresses [Seite 44]
6.4.1 - 2.4.1 Development of defense mechanisms against drought [Seite 44]
6.4.2 - 2.4.2 Defense mechanisms against combined stresses (drought, salinity, radiation, and heat) [Seite 46]
6.5 - 2.5 Factors affecting olive growth and functional compounds [Seite 46]
6.5.1 - 2.5.1 Effects of heat, salinity, and irrigation systems on olive growth [Seite 46]
6.5.2 - 2.5.2 Effects of various stresses on fruit weight, anatomy, and composition [Seite 47]
6.5.3 - 2.5.3 Fruit growth, maturation, and ripening physiology [Seite 47]
6.5.4 - 2.5.4 Changes in fruit composition and functional compounds during fruit development [Seite 48]
6.6 - 2.6 Conclusion [Seite 49]
6.7 - References [Seite 49]
7 - 3 Conventional and organic cultivation and their effect on the functional composition of olive oil [Seite 57]
7.1 - 3.1 Introduction [Seite 57]
7.2 - 3.2 Productivity [Seite 58]
7.3 - 3.3 Environmental impact [Seite 58]
7.4 - 3.4 Pesticide residues [Seite 59]
7.5 - 3.5 Oil composition and quality [Seite 59]
7.6 - 3.6 Conclusion [Seite 62]
7.7 - References [Seite 62]
8 - 4 The influence of growing region and cultivar on olives and olive oil characteristics and on their functional constituents [Seite 67]
8.1 - 4.1 Introduction [Seite 67]
8.2 - 4.2 Overview of olive orchards in some world crop areas [Seite 67]
8.2.1 - 4.2.1 European Union (EU) [Seite 69]
8.2.2 - 4.2.2 Maghreb countries [Seite 73]
8.2.3 - 4.2.3 South America [Seite 73]
8.2.4 - 4.2.4 Other countries [Seite 74]
8.3 - 4.3 Global olive oil cultivars [Seite 75]
8.3.1 - 4.3.1 Spanish cultivars [Seite 85]
8.3.2 - 4.3.2 Italian cultivars [Seite 87]
8.3.3 - 4.3.3 Greek cultivars [Seite 89]
8.3.4 - 4.3.4 Israeli cultivar: 'Barnea' [Seite 91]
8.3.5 - 4.3.5 Californian cultivar: 'Mission' [Seite 91]
8.4 - 4.4 Olive oil composition affected by genetic and environmental factors [Seite 91]
8.4.1 - 4.4.1 Overview of EVOO variability [Seite 91]
8.4.2 - 4.4.2 Effects of growing region and cultivar on EVOO characteristics [Seite 93]
8.5 - 4.5 Conclusion [Seite 98]
8.6 - Acknowledgments [Seite 98]
8.7 - References [Seite 98]
9 - 5 Olive fruit and olive oil composition and their functional compounds [Seite 103]
9.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 103]
9.2 - 5.2 The olive fruit [Seite 103]
9.3 - 5.3 Description of olive fruit and olive oil constituents [Seite 104]
9.3.1 - 5.3.1 Water [Seite 104]
9.3.2 - 5.3.2 Sugars [Seite 104]
9.3.3 - 5.3.3 Proteins [Seite 104]
9.4 - 5.4 Olive oil [Seite 105]
9.4.1 - 5.4.1 Olive oil acylglycerols and fatty acids [Seite 105]
9.5 - 5.5 Pigments [Seite 110]
9.6 - 5.6 Phenols [Seite 111]
9.6.1 - 5.6.1 Phenol classes present in olives and olive oil [Seite 111]
9.6.2 - 5.6.2 Contribution of polar phenols to oil quality [Seite 117]
9.7 - 5.7 Hydrocarbons [Seite 119]
9.8 - 5.8 Triterpenoids [Seite 120]
9.8.1 - 5.8.1 Anticancer activity of triterpenoids [Seite 121]
9.9 - 5.9 Tocopherols [Seite 121]
9.10 - 5.10 Aliphatic alcohols and waxes [Seite 122]
9.11 - 5.11 Sterols [Seite 122]
9.11.1 - 5.11.1 Bioactivity of sterols [Seite 123]
9.12 - 5.12 Flavor compounds [Seite 125]
9.13 - 5.13 Conclusion [Seite 126]
9.14 - Acknowledgments [Seite 127]
9.15 - References [Seite 127]
10 - 6 Mechanical harvesting of olives [Seite 139]
10.1 - 6.1 Introduction [Seite 139]
10.2 - 6.2 Fruit removal from the tree [Seite 139]
10.2.1 - 6.2.1 Fruit-loosening products [Seite 139]
10.2.2 - 6.2.2 Mechanical harvest aids [Seite 141]
10.2.3 - 6.2.3 Inertia trunk shaker [Seite 141]
10.2.4 - 6.2.4 Agronomical factors [Seite 142]
10.3 - 6.3 Collection, cleaning, and transport of fallen fruits [Seite 142]
10.4 - 6.4 Continuous harvesters [Seite 145]
10.5 - 6.5 Effects on oil and fruit quality [Seite 146]
10.6 - 6.6 Conclusion [Seite 146]
10.7 - References [Seite 146]
11 - 7 Olive fruit harvest and processing and their effects on oil functional compounds [Seite 149]
11.1 - 7.1 Introduction [Seite 149]
11.2 - 7.2 Harvest time [Seite 149]
11.3 - 7.3 Harvest techniques [Seite 151]
11.3.1 - 7.3.1 Harvest after natural fall [Seite 151]
11.3.2 - 7.3.2 Harvest from the tree by hand [Seite 151]
11.3.3 - 7.3.3 Harvest from the tree by beating the branches [Seite 152]
11.3.4 - 7.3.4 Harvest with shakers [Seite 152]
11.4 - 7.4 Olive storage and transportation to the olive oil mill [Seite 152]
11.5 - 7.5 Processing steps [Seite 153]
11.5.1 - 7.5.1 Feeding [Seite 154]
11.5.2 - 7.5.2 Washing [Seite 154]
11.5.3 - 7.5.3 Crushing (milling) [Seite 154]
11.5.4 - 7.5.4 Mixing (malaxation) [Seite 154]
11.5.5 - 7.5.5 Separation of olive oil from the olive paste [Seite 158]
11.6 - 7.6 Pressure process [Seite 158]
11.7 - 7.7 Centrifugation process [Seite 159]
11.8 - 7.8 Selective filtration (Sinolea) process [Seite 160]
11.8.1 - 7.8.1 Final centrifugation of olive oil [Seite 160]
11.9 - 7.9 Processing systems [Seite 161]
11.9.1 - 7.9.1 Centrifugal-type olive oil mills: three-phase and two-phase decanters [Seite 161]
11.10 - 7.10 Olive fruit processing by-products and their significance [Seite 162]
11.11 - 7.11 The effect of enzymes in olive fruit processing and oil composition [Seite 163]
11.12 - 7.12 Effect of processing systems on olive oil quality and functional properties [Seite 163]
11.13 - 7.13 Conclusion [Seite 164]
11.14 - References [Seite 164]
12 - 8 Application of HACCP and traceability in olive oil mills and packaging units and their effect on quality and functionality [Seite 169]
12.1 - 8.1 Introduction [Seite 169]
12.2 - 8.2 The basic HACCP benefits and rules [Seite 169]
12.3 - 8.3 Description and analysis of the HACCP program in the olive oil mill [Seite 171]
12.4 - 8.4 Application of the HACCP program in the packaging unit [Seite 181]
12.5 - 8.5 The context of traceability [Seite 184]
12.6 - 8.6 Traceability of olive oil [Seite 185]
12.7 - 8.7 Legislation for olive oil traceability [Seite 186]
12.8 - 8.8 Compositional markers of traceability [Seite 188]
12.8.1 - 8.8.1 Fatty acids [Seite 188]
12.8.2 - 8.8.2 Phenolic compounds [Seite 188]
12.8.3 - 8.8.3 Volatile compounds [Seite 189]
12.8.4 - 8.8.4 Pigments [Seite 190]
12.8.5 - 8.8.5 Heavy metals [Seite 191]
12.9 - 8.9 DNA-based markers of traceability [Seite 191]
12.10 - 8.10 Sensory profile markers of traceability [Seite 192]
12.11 - 8.11 Conclusion [Seite 193]
12.12 - References [Seite 194]
13 - 9 Integrated olive mill waste (OMW) processing toward complete by-product recovery of functional components [Seite 199]
13.1 - 9.1 Introduction [Seite 199]
13.2 - 9.2 Characterization of olive mill waste [Seite 201]
13.2.1 - 9.2.1 Chemical composition [Seite 201]
13.2.2 - 9.2.2 Physical properties [Seite 203]
13.2.3 - 9.2.3 Microbial content [Seite 205]
13.3 - 9.3 Current technologies for olive mill waste treatment [Seite 206]
13.3.1 - 9.3.1 Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) treatment [Seite 206]
13.3.2 - 9.3.2 Solid olive mill waste treatment [Seite 208]
13.4 - 9.4 Recovery of functional components from olive mill waste [Seite 209]
13.4.1 - 9.4.1 Phenolic compounds [Seite 209]
13.4.2 - 9.4.2 Pectins, oligosaccharides, and mannitol [Seite 214]
13.4.3 - 9.4.3 Squalene [Seite 215]
13.5 - 9.5 Integral recovery and revalorization of olive mill waste [Seite 216]
13.6 - 9.6 Conclusion [Seite 219]
13.7 - References [Seite 219]
14 - 10 Olive oil quality and its relation to the functional bioactives and their properties [Seite 227]
14.1 - 10.1 Introduction [Seite 227]
14.2 - 10.2 Hydrolysis (lipolysis) [Seite 227]
14.2.1 - 10.2.1 Microbial lipolysis [Seite 227]
14.2.2 - 10.2.2 Enzymatic lipolysis [Seite 227]
14.3 - 10.3 Oxidation [Seite 228]
14.3.1 - 10.3.1 Autoxidation mechanism [Seite 228]
14.3.2 - 10.3.2 Formation and decomposition of hydroperoxides [Seite 229]
14.3.3 - 10.3.3 Off-flavor compounds formed during olive oil oxidation [Seite 230]
14.4 - 10.4 Prevention of olive oil autoxidation [Seite 230]
14.5 - 10.5 Photooxidation [Seite 231]
14.5.1 - 10.5.1 Mechanism of photooxidation [Seite 231]
14.5.2 - 10.5.2 Singlet oxygen quenchers [Seite 232]
14.5.3 - 10.5.3 Photooxidation of olive oil [Seite 232]
14.6 - 10.6 Olive oil quality evaluation with methods other than the official [Seite 233]
14.7 - 10.7 Behavior of olive oil during frying process [Seite 234]
14.8 - 10.8 Off flavors of olive oil [Seite 235]
14.9 - 10.9 Factors affecting the quality of olive oil and its functional activity [Seite 236]
14.9.1 - 10.9.1 Oxygen [Seite 236]
14.9.2 - 10.9.2 Temperature [Seite 236]
14.9.3 - 10.9.3 Metals [Seite 236]
14.9.4 - 10.9.4 Free fatty acids [Seite 236]
14.9.5 - 10.9.5 Light and pigments [Seite 236]
14.10 - 10.10 Effect of storage on quality and functional constituents of olive oil [Seite 238]
14.11 - 10.11 Conclusion [Seite 238]
14.12 - References [Seite 238]
15 - 11 Optical nondestructive UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopic tools and chemometrics in the monitoring of olive oil functional compounds [Seite 243]
15.1 - 11.1 Introduction: functional compounds in olive oil [Seite 243]
15.2 - 11.2 An introduction to UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy in olive oil analysis [Seite 244]
15.3 - 11.3 Spectroscopic regions with interest for olive oil analysis [Seite 244]
15.4 - 11.4 The basics of chemometrics [Seite 249]
15.5 - 11.5 Spectral preprocessing methods [Seite 250]
15.6 - 11.6 UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in monitoring olive oil functional compounds [Seite 251]
15.7 - 11.7 UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in monitoring olive oil oxidation [Seite 259]
15.8 - 11.8 FTIR spectroscopy and chemometrics in monitoring olive oil functional compounds and antioxidant activity [Seite 262]
15.9 - 11.9 The use of UV-Vis-NIR-MIR spectroscopy in olive oil industry and trade [Seite 263]
15.10 - 11.10 Conclusion [Seite 266]
15.11 - Acknowledgments [Seite 266]
15.12 - References [Seite 266]
16 - 12 Oxidative stability and the role of minor and functional components of olive oil [Seite 271]
16.1 - 12.1 Introduction [Seite 271]
16.2 - 12.2 Olive oil oxidative stability [Seite 271]
16.2.1 - 12.2.1 Effect of oxygen availability on oil stability [Seite 273]
16.2.2 - 12.2.2 Effect of oil composition: fatty acids and natural antioxidants [Seite 273]
16.2.3 - 12.2.3 Effect of storage temperature [Seite 275]
16.2.4 - 12.2.4 Effects of filtration and moisture content [Seite 276]
16.3 - 12.3 Accelerated oxidative assays and shelf-life prediction [Seite 276]
16.3.1 - 12.3.1 Shelf-life prediction from accelerated stability testing [Seite 278]
16.4 - 12.4 Stability of olive oil components: fatty acids and minor components [Seite 278]
16.4.1 - 12.4.1 Changes in fatty acid profile [Seite 278]
16.4.2 - 12.4.2 Changes in minor compounds [Seite 278]
16.4.3 - 12.4.3 Stability of sensory characteristics [Seite 281]
16.5 - 12.5 Antioxidant capacity of olive oil functional components [Seite 282]
16.6 - 12.6 Conclusion [Seite 283]
16.7 - References [Seite 284]
17 - 13 Chemical and sensory changes in olive oil during deep frying [Seite 289]
17.1 - 13.1 Introduction [Seite 289]
17.2 - 13.2 Alterations of chemical characteristics in frying olive oil [Seite 290]
17.2.1 - 13.2.1 Iodine value [Seite 290]
17.2.2 - 13.2.2 Peroxide value [Seite 290]
17.2.3 - 13.2.3 Viscosity [Seite 290]
17.2.4 - 13.2.4 Polar compounds [Seite 291]
17.2.5 - 13.2.5 Free fatty acids [Seite 291]
17.2.6 - 13.2.6 Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) [Seite 291]
17.2.7 - 13.2.7 Tocopherols [Seite 291]
17.2.8 - 13.2.8 Conjugated dienes (CDs) [Seite 291]
17.2.9 - 13.2.9 Color [Seite 291]
17.3 - 13.3 Oxidation of olive oil during frying [Seite 292]
17.4 - 13.4 Methods for determination of polar compounds and evaluation of the quality of frying olive oil [Seite 292]
17.4.1 - 13.4.1 Determination of polar compounds [Seite 292]
17.4.2 - 13.4.2 Rapid test kit Oleo TestT [Seite 292]
17.5 - 13.5 Evaluation of the quality of frying olive oil [Seite 294]
17.5.1 - 13.5.1 Viscofrit [Seite 294]
17.5.2 - 13.5.2 Food Oil Sensor (FOS) [Seite 294]
17.6 - 13.6 Prediction of oxidative stability under heating conditions [Seite 294]
17.6.1 - 13.6.1 Rancimat method [Seite 294]
17.7 - 13.7 Impact of deep frying on olive oil compared to otheroils [Seite 295]
17.8 - 13.8 Conclusion [Seite 296]
17.9 - References [Seite 296]
18 - 14 Olive oil packaging: recent developments [Seite 301]
18.1 - 14.1 Introduction [Seite 301]
18.2 - 14.2 Migration aspects during packaging [Seite 301]
18.3 - 14.3 Flavor scalping [Seite 302]
18.4 - 14.4 Effect of packaging materials on olive oil quality [Seite 302]
18.4.1 - 14.4.1 Glass [Seite 303]
18.4.2 - 14.4.2 Metals [Seite 304]
18.4.3 - 14.4.3 Plastics [Seite 306]
18.4.4 - 14.4.4 Composites [Seite 309]
18.5 - 14.5 Conclusions [Seite 313]
18.6 - References [Seite 314]
19 - 15 Table olives: processing, nutritional, and health implications [Seite 317]
19.1 - 15.1 Introduction [Seite 317]
19.2 - 15.2 Olive maturation stages for table olive processing [Seite 317]
19.2.1 - 15.2.1 Green ripe olive stage [Seite 318]
19.2.2 - 15.2.2 Turning-color olive stage [Seite 318]
19.2.3 - 15.2.3 Naturally black ripe olive stage [Seite 318]
19.2.4 - 15.2.4 Acylglycerols in raw olive fruit during growth, maturation, and ripening [Seite 318]
19.2.5 - 15.2.5 Secondary metabolites in raw olive fruit [Seite 319]
19.3 - 15.3 Olive cultivars suitable for table olive processing [Seite 320]
19.4 - 15.4 Factors affecting raw olive fruit for table olive processing [Seite 321]
19.5 - 15.5 Table olive processing [Seite 323]
19.5.1 - 15.5.1 Commercial table olive processing methods [Seite 324]
19.5.2 - 15.5.2 Olives processed by spontaneous fermentation [Seite 324]
19.5.3 - 15.5.3 Greek-style black olives [Seite 326]
19.5.4 - 15.5.4 Kalamata-style olives [Seite 327]
19.5.5 - 15.5.5 Spanish-style green olives [Seite 327]
19.5.6 - 15.5.6 Olives darkened by oxidation (California-style black ripe olives) [Seite 328]
19.5.7 - 15.5.7 Table olive processing methods that have limited commercial application [Seite 329]
19.5.8 - 15.5.8 Dehydrated table olives [Seite 331]
19.5.9 - 15.5.9 Salt-dried olives [Seite 331]
19.5.10 - 15.5.10 Naturally dehydrated olives [Seite 332]
19.5.11 - 15.5.11 Olives treated with lye [Seite 332]
19.5.12 - 15.5.12 Stuffed, seasoned, and marinated table olives [Seite 332]
19.5.13 - 15.5.13 Picholine-style olives [Seite 332]
19.5.14 - 15.5.14 Castelvetrano-style olives [Seite 333]
19.6 - 15.6 Nutritional, health, and safety aspects of table olives [Seite 333]
19.6.1 - 15.6.1 Mediterranean diet (as per Crete) [Seite 333]
19.6.2 - 15.6.2 Health benefits of table olives in the Mediterranean diet [Seite 334]
19.6.3 - 15.6.3 Composition of processed table olives [Seite 334]
19.6.4 - 15.6.4 Polyphenols in processed table olives [Seite 335]
19.6.5 - 15.6.5 Selected non-polyphenol minor components in olive fruit [Seite 335]
19.7 - 15.7 Quality and safety aspects relating to table olives [Seite 337]
19.7.1 - 15.7.1 Salt content of table olives [Seite 337]
19.7.2 - 15.7.2 Microbiological safety and quality of table olives [Seite 337]
19.7.3 - 15.7.3 Olive softening and shriveling [Seite 339]
19.7.4 - 15.7.4 Gaseous spoilage [Seite 339]
19.7.5 - 15.7.5 Malodorous fermentations [Seite 340]
19.7.6 - 15.7.6 Mold spoilage [Seite 340]
19.7.7 - 15.7.7 Preservation of table olive products [Seite 341]
19.8 - 15.8 Antibiotic aspects of olive polyphenols [Seite 342]
19.9 - 15.9 Probiotic capability of table olive products [Seite 342]
19.10 - 15.10 Conclusion [Seite 343]
19.11 - References [Seite 343]
20 - 16 Greek-style table olives and their functional value [Seite 347]
20.1 - 16.1 Introduction [Seite 347]
20.2 - 16.2 Table olives processing in Greece [Seite 348]
20.2.1 - 16.2.1 Natural black olives in brine [Seite 348]
20.2.2 - 16.2.2 Dry-salted black olives [Seite 350]
20.3 - 16.3 Functional value of Greek table olives [Seite 352]
20.4 - 16.4 Conclusion [Seite 360]
20.5 - References [Seite 360]
21 - 17 Food hazards and quality control in table olive processing with a special reference to functional compounds [Seite 365]
21.1 - 17.1 Introduction [Seite 365]
21.1.1 - 17.1.1 Legal requirements of the table olive sector [Seite 366]
21.2 - 17.2 Table olive processing techniques [Seite 367]
21.2.1 - 17.2.1 Raw materials (fresh olives) [Seite 367]
21.2.2 - 17.2.2 Processing techniques [Seite 367]
21.3 - 17.3 New trends in table olive processing and quality control, with a special reference to functional products [Seite 369]
21.3.1 - 17.3.1 Debittering methods [Seite 369]
21.3.2 - 17.3.2 Enrichment of table olives with polyphenols [Seite 370]
21.3.3 - 17.3.3 Selection of starter cultures with a probiotic activity [Seite 370]
21.4 - 17.4 Food safety requirements for table olives [Seite 370]
21.4.1 - 17.4.1 Food hazards in table olives [Seite 371]
21.4.2 - 17.4.2 Preventing food hazards in table olives [Seite 371]
21.5 - 17.5 Conclusion [Seite 372]
21.6 - References [Seite 373]
22 - 18 Improving the quality of processed olives: acrylamide in Californian table olives [Seite 375]
22.1 - 18.1 Introduction [Seite 375]
22.2 - 18.2 Acrylamide formation in food and potential adverse health effects [Seite 376]
22.2.1 - 18.2.1 Acrylamide in heat-treated foods [Seite 376]
22.2.2 - 18.2.2 Adverse health effects of acrylamide [Seite 378]
22.3 - 18.3 Regulation of acrylamide in food [Seite 381]
22.4 - 18.4 Acrylamide levels in olive products [Seite 381]
22.5 - 18.5 Effects of table olive processing methods on acrylamide formation [Seite 382]
22.6 - 18.6 Methods to mitigate acrylamide levels in processed table olives [Seite 384]
22.6.1 - 18.6.1 Reduction of acrylamide in California-style black ripe olives using additives [Seite 384]
22.7 - 18.7 Conclusion [Seite 385]
22.8 - References [Seite 386]
23 - 19 Antioxidants of olive oil, olive leaves, and their bioactivity [Seite 389]
23.1 - 19.1 Introduction [Seite 389]
23.2 - 19.2 Synthetic antioxidants [Seite 390]
23.3 - 19.3 Natural antioxidants [Seite 390]
23.3.1 - 19.3.1 Tocopherols [Seite 391]
23.3.2 - 19.3.2 Phenols [Seite 391]
23.3.3 - 19.3.3 Flavonoids [Seite 391]
23.3.4 - 19.3.4 Carotenoids [Seite 392]
23.4 - 19.4 Phenols in table olives [Seite 392]
23.5 - 19.5 Phenols and other constituents of olive leaves and other olive tree products [Seite 392]
23.5.1 - 19.5.1 Oleuropein [Seite 394]
23.6 - 19.6 Extraction and activities of phenolics [Seite 394]
23.6.1 - 19.6.1 Factors affecting the presence of phenolic compounds in olive products [Seite 396]
23.7 - 19.7 Antioxidant and other properties of olive phenolics [Seite 398]
23.7.1 - 19.7.1 Functional activity of olive leaves and olive oil [Seite 399]
23.8 - 19.8 Conclusion [Seite 400]
23.9 - References [Seite 400]
24 - 20 Composition and analysis of functional components of olive leaves [Seite 405]
24.1 - 20.1 Introduction [Seite 405]
24.2 - 20.2 Qualitative and quantitative analysis of olive leaves [Seite 405]
24.2.1 - 20.2.1 Liquid chromatography (LC) [Seite 405]
24.2.2 - 20.2.2 Gas chromatography (GC) [Seite 413]
24.2.3 - 20.2.3 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) [Seite 417]
24.2.4 - 20.2.4 Other techniques [Seite 417]
24.3 - 20.3 Future prospects [Seite 417]
24.4 - Acknowledgments [Seite 419]
24.5 - References [Seite 419]
25 - 21 Production of phenol-enriched olive oil [Seite 423]
25.1 - 21.1 Introduction [Seite 423]
25.2 - 21.2 Olive oil phenolic compounds and their functional properties [Seite 423]
25.3 - 21.3 Effect of the extraction process on olive oil functional compounds [Seite 424]
25.3.1 - 21.3.1 Crushing [Seite 426]
25.3.2 - 21.3.2 Malaxation [Seite 426]
25.3.3 - 21.3.3 Decantation [Seite 427]
25.4 - 21.4 Enhancement of olive oils antioxidant content [Seite 427]
25.4.1 - 21.4.1 Sources and methods of olive oil enrichment in natural antioxidants [Seite 428]
25.5 - 21.5 Conclusion [Seite 432]
25.6 - References [Seite 432]
26 - 22 Olives and olive oil: a Mediterranean source of polyphenols [Seite 439]
26.1 - 22.1 Introduction [Seite 439]
26.2 - 22.2 Phenolic profile of olives and olive oils [Seite 439]
26.3 - 22.3 Analytical approaches to characterize the phenolic profile of olives and olive oils [Seite 442]
26.3.1 - 22.3.1 Sensory properties of VOO linked to polyphenols [Seite 442]
26.4 - 22.4 Stability of polyphenols: cooking effects [Seite 443]
26.4.1 - 22.4.1 Nutritional effects of cooking [Seite 444]
26.5 - 22.5 Health effects of olive and olive oil polyphenols [Seite 445]
26.5.1 - 22.5.1 Bioavailability of olive oil polyphenols [Seite 446]
26.5.2 - 22.5.2 Protection against oxidative damage and inflammation [Seite 446]
26.5.3 - 22.5.3 Cardiovascular diseases, LDL, HDL, and endothelial function [Seite 447]
26.5.4 - 22.5.4 Protection against cancer [Seite 448]
26.5.5 - 22.5.5 Neuroprotective effect [Seite 449]
26.5.6 - 22.5.6 Other effects [Seite 449]
26.6 - 22.6 Conclusion [Seite 449]
26.7 - Acknowledgments [Seite 450]
26.8 - References [Seite 450]
27 - 23 Bioactive components from olive oil as putative epigenetic modulators [Seite 457]
27.1 - 23.1 Introduction [Seite 457]
27.2 - 23.2 Epigenetics as a new scientific challenge [Seite 457]
27.3 - 23.3 Types of epigenetic modifications [Seite 459]
27.3.1 - 23.3.1 DNA methylation [Seite 459]
27.3.2 - 23.3.2 Histone modifications [Seite 460]
27.3.3 - 23.3.3 MicroRNAs [Seite 461]
27.4 - 23.4 Environmental factors and epigenetics (the role of the diet) [Seite 461]
27.4.1 - 23.4.1 Nutritional factors [Seite 463]
27.5 - 23.5 Epigenetics and human health [Seite 465]
27.6 - 23.6 Epigenetics and aging [Seite 466]
27.7 - 23.7 Olive oil components as dietary epigenetic modulators [Seite 468]
27.8 - 23.8 Conclusion [Seite 471]
27.9 - References [Seite 471]
28 - 24 Phenolic compounds of olives and olive oil and their bioavailability [Seite 479]
28.1 - 24.1 Introduction [Seite 479]
28.2 - 24.2 Phenolic compounds of olives and olive oil [Seite 480]
28.2.1 - 24.2.1 Phenolic compounds in olives [Seite 480]
28.2.2 - 24.2.2 Phenolic compounds in olive oil [Seite 481]
28.3 - 24.3 Bioavailability of olive and olive oil phenolics [Seite 482]
28.3.1 - 24.3.1 In vivo studies [Seite 482]
28.3.2 - 24.3.2 In vitro studies [Seite 483]
28.4 - 24.4 Conclusion [Seite 489]
28.5 - References [Seite 489]
29 - 25 Antiatherogenic properties of olive oil glycolipids [Seite 493]
29.1 - 25.1 Introduction [Seite 493]
29.2 - 25.2 The role of inflammation in the development of chronic diseases [Seite 493]
29.3 - 25.3 The role of diet in inflammation [Seite 495]
29.4 - 25.4 PAF and its metabolism as a searching tool for functional components with antiatherogenic activity [Seite 495]
29.5 - 25.5 Functional components of olive oil with antiatherogenic properties [Seite 496]
29.5.1 - 25.5.1 Glycolipids of olive oil as functional components with antiatherogenic properties [Seite 496]
29.6 - 25.6 Conclusion [Seite 500]
29.7 - References [Seite 501]
30 - 26 Nutritional and health aspects of olive oil and diseases [Seite 505]
30.1 - 26.1 Introduction [Seite 505]
30.2 - 26.2 Dietary lipids and cardiovascular disease [Seite 507]
30.3 - 26.3 Fat intake and cancer [Seite 512]
30.3.1 - 26.3.1 Prostate cancer [Seite 512]
30.3.2 - 26.3.2 Colorectal cancer [Seite 513]
30.3.3 - 26.3.3 Breast cancer [Seite 514]
30.3.4 - 26.3.4 Overall cancer rates [Seite 516]
30.4 - 26.4 Obesity and dietary fat [Seite 516]
30.5 - 26.5 Conclusion [Seite 517]
30.6 - References [Seite 518]
31 - 27 Lipidomics and health: an added value to olive oil [Seite 527]
31.1 - 27.1 Introduction [Seite 527]
31.2 - 27.2 Lipidomics: an added value to olive oil [Seite 527]
31.3 - 27.3 Membrane lipidomics and nutrilipidomics: natural oils for a healthy balance [Seite 528]
31.3.1 - 27.3.1 Effects of fatty acids on membrane properties and biological roles of oleic acid [Seite 530]
31.3.2 - 27.3.2 Lipidomics of oleic acid in health and disease [Seite 531]
31.4 - 27.4 Membrane as relevant site for lipidomic analysis [Seite 534]
31.4.1 - 27.4.1 Oleic acid as biomarker in lipidomics [Seite 535]
31.4.2 - 27.4.2 The birth of nutrilipidomics and the role of olive oil [Seite 538]
31.5 - 27.5 Conclusion and perspectives [Seite 539]
31.6 - Acknowledgments [Seite 539]
31.7 - References [Seite 539]
32 - 28 Analysis of olive oil quality [Seite 543]
32.1 - 28.1 Introduction [Seite 543]
32.2 - 28.2 Fatty acid composition and analysis [Seite 544]
32.2.1 - 28.2.1 Acidity [Seite 545]
32.3 - 28.3 Measurement of oxidation [Seite 545]
32.3.1 - 28.3.1 Peroxide value [Seite 547]
32.3.2 - 28.3.2 Conjugated dienes and trienes [Seite 548]
32.3.3 - 28.3.3 Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assay [Seite 549]
32.3.4 - 28.3.4 p-Anisidine value (p-AnV) [Seite 550]
32.3.5 - 28.3.5 Total carbonyls [Seite 550]
32.3.6 - 28.3.6 Polar value [Seite 551]
32.3.7 - 28.3.7 Electrical conductivity method [Seite 551]
32.3.8 - 28.3.8 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy [Seite 551]
32.4 - 28.4 Determination of chlorophylls [Seite 551]
32.5 - 28.5 Determination of phenols [Seite 552]
32.6 - 28.6 Cold test [Seite 552]
32.7 - 28.7 Determination of sterol content [Seite 552]
32.8 - 28.8 Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of olive oil [Seite 553]
32.9 - 28.9 Authentication and authenticity of olive oil [Seite 553]
32.10 - References [Seite 553]
33 - 29 Detection of extra virgin olive oil adulteration [Seite 559]
33.1 - 29.1 Introduction [Seite 559]
33.2 - 29.2 Parameters suitable for authenticity assessment of EVOO [Seite 560]
33.2.1 - 29.2.1 Adulteration within fatty acids [Seite 560]
33.2.2 - 29.2.2 Triacylglycerols [Seite 562]
33.2.3 - 29.2.3 Sterols [Seite 564]
33.2.4 - 29.2.4 Stigmasta-3,5-diene [Seite 566]
33.2.5 - 29.2.5 Fatty acid alkyl esters [Seite 567]
33.2.6 - 29.2.6 Adulteration with copper-chlorophyll [Seite 568]
33.3 - 29.3 Direct authenticity assessment of EVOO [Seite 568]
33.4 - 29.4 Conclusion [Seite 571]
33.5 - Acknowledgments [Seite 572]
33.6 - References [Seite 572]
34 - 30 Authentication of olive oil based on minor components [Seite 577]
34.1 - 30.1 Introduction [Seite 577]
34.2 - 30.2 Sterols [Seite 577]
34.2.1 - 30.2.1 Adulteration tracing [Seite 578]
34.2.2 - 30.2.2 Cultivar determination [Seite 578]
34.2.3 - 30.2.3 Geographical discrimination [Seite 578]
34.3 - 30.3 Vitamin E - tocopherols [Seite 578]
34.3.1 - 30.3.1 Adulteration tracing [Seite 579]
34.3.2 - 30.3.2 Cultivar determination [Seite 580]
34.3.3 - 30.3.3 Geographical discrimination [Seite 580]
34.4 - 30.4 Phenols [Seite 580]
34.4.1 - 30.4.1 Adulteration tracing [Seite 580]
34.4.2 - 30.4.2 Cultivar determination [Seite 580]
34.4.3 - 30.4.3 Geographical discrimination [Seite 581]
34.5 - 30.5 Volatiles [Seite 581]
34.5.1 - 30.5.1 Adulteration tracing [Seite 582]
34.5.2 - 30.5.2 Cultivar determination [Seite 582]
34.5.3 - 30.5.3 Geographical discrimination [Seite 582]
34.6 - 30.6 Olive oil pigments [Seite 582]
34.6.1 - 30.6.1 Adulteration tracing [Seite 582]
34.6.2 - 30.6.2 Cultivar determination [Seite 584]
34.6.3 - 30.6.3 Geographical discrimination [Seite 584]
34.7 - 30.7 Conclusion [Seite 584]
34.8 - References [Seite 584]
35 - 31 New analytical trends for the measurement of phenolic substances of olive oil and olives with significant biological and functional importance related to health claims [Seite 591]
35.1 - 31.1 Introduction [Seite 591]
35.2 - 31.2 Phenolic compounds of olive oil with special importance [Seite 591]
35.2.1 - 31.2.1 Extraction methods of phenolic compounds from olive oil [Seite 593]
35.2.2 - 31.2.2 Quantitative measurement of phenolic compounds in olive oil [Seite 594]
35.2.3 - 31.2.3 The problems related to chromatographic measurement [Seite 596]
35.2.4 - 31.2.4 Quantification using 1D qNMR [Seite 597]
35.2.5 - 31.2.5 Colorimetric quantitation of oleocanthal and oleacein [Seite 600]
35.3 - 31.3 Analysis of table olives [Seite 603]
35.4 - 31.4 Conclusion [Seite 604]
35.5 - References [Seite 604]
36 - 32 DNA fingerprinting as a novel tool for olive and olive oil authentication, traceability, and detection of functional compounds [Seite 609]
36.1 - 32.1 Introduction [Seite 609]
36.2 - 32.2 DNA-based fingerprinting [Seite 610]
36.2.1 - 32.2.1 Amplified fragment length polymorphisms [Seite 612]
36.2.2 - 32.2.2 Random amplified polymorphic DNA [Seite 612]
36.2.3 - 32.2.3 Microsatellites [Seite 613]
36.2.4 - 32.2.4 Inter-simple sequence repeat markers [Seite 614]
36.2.5 - 32.2.5 Single nucleotide polymorphisms [Seite 614]
36.2.6 - 32.2.6 Chloroplast genome sequencing [Seite 615]
36.2.7 - 32.2.7 Real-time PCR [Seite 615]
36.2.8 - 32.2.8 Taqman probe [Seite 616]
36.2.9 - 32.2.9 High resolution melting (HRM) analysis [Seite 616]
36.2.10 - 32.2.10 Microarrays [Seite 617]
36.3 - 32.3 Omics approaches in olive and detection of functional compounds [Seite 617]
36.4 - References [Seite 618]
37 - 33 Sensory properties and evaluation of virgin olive oils [Seite 625]
37.1 - 33.1 Introduction [Seite 625]
37.2 - 33.2 Description and review of methodology [Seite 625]
37.2.1 - 33.2.1 Positive attributes [Seite 628]
37.2.2 - 33.2.2 Negative attributes [Seite 630]
37.2.3 - 33.2.3 Sensorial terms for labeling purposes [Seite 633]
37.2.4 - 33.2.4 Organoleptic assessment of extra virgin olive oil applying to use a designation of origin (DO) [Seite 633]
37.3 - 33.3 Chemistry, functionality, and technology behind senses [Seite 634]
37.3.1 - 33.3.1 Saponifiable matter [Seite 634]
37.3.2 - 33.3.2 Unsaponifiable matter [Seite 634]
37.4 - 33.4 Positive sensory attributes of virgin olive oil and its consumption [Seite 645]
37.5 - References [Seite 646]
38 - 34 International standards and legislative issues concerning olive oil and table olives and the nutritional, functional, and health claims related [Seite 651]
38.1 - 34.1 Introduction [Seite 651]
38.2 - 34.2 The international perspective [Seite 651]
38.3 - 34.3 Legislative approach by various countries [Seite 654]
38.3.1 - 34.3.1 The USA and Canada [Seite 655]
38.3.2 - 34.3.2 Australia and New Zealand [Seite 658]
38.4 - 34.4 The European Union perspective [Seite 658]
38.4.1 - 34.4.1 Packaging [Seite 659]
38.4.2 - 34.4.2 Labeling [Seite 659]
38.4.3 - 34.4.3 Blends of olive oil [Seite 660]
38.4.4 - 34.4.4 Designation of origin [Seite 660]
38.5 - 34.5 Nutrition and health claims related to olive oils [Seite 660]
38.6 - 34.6 Conclusion [Seite 666]
38.7 - References [Seite 666]
39 - 35 The functional olive oil market: marketing prospects and opportunities [Seite 669]
39.1 - 35.1 Introduction [Seite 669]
39.2 - 35.2 The olive oil market [Seite 669]
39.2.1 - 35.2.1 World production [Seite 669]
39.2.2 - 35.2.2 World consumption [Seite 670]
39.2.3 - 35.2.3 Global trade [Seite 671]
39.2.4 - 35.2.4 New markets for olive oil [Seite 673]
39.3 - 35.3 The influence of certifications of origin and production methods in olive oil [Seite 674]
39.4 - 35.4 Case study: survey on consumption patterns, labeling, certification, and willingness to pay for olive oil [Seite 675]
39.4.1 - 35.4.1 Demographic characteristics and olive oil consumption [Seite 675]
39.4.2 - 35.4.2 Willingness to pay for certified olive oil [Seite 676]
39.5 - 35.5 Promotional strategies [Seite 676]
39.5.1 - 35.5.1 Extended summary [Seite 677]
39.6 - 35.6 Conclusion [Seite 678]
39.7 - References [Seite 679]
40 - Future Research Needs [Seite 681]
41 - Index [Seite 683]
42 - EULA [Seite 691]

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