Flowering Plants

Structure and Industrial Products
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 3. Februar 2017
  • |
  • 344 Seiten
 
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-26280-0 (ISBN)
 
Angiosperms, or flowering plants, are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet, and they offer tremendous resources for a broad range of industries. Flowering Plants examines the anatomy and morphology of angiosperms with a focus on relating their metabolic activities to products for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and textile industries.
This up-to-date reference provides a thorough understanding of plant structure and chemical and molecular processes found in angiosperms. It covers many important topics on applied botany, and therefore, can also be used as a textbook for students of related fields. It details the latest research in the field, along with areas in need of further study, for students, researchers, and professionals working in industry. The book takes advantage of technological innovations to showcase a range of advanced techniques for studying plant structure and metabolites, such as cryo-electron microscopy, ultramicroscopy, x-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, and chromatography. Filled with helpful illustrations, diagrams, and flowcharts to aid comprehension, Flowering Plants offers readers the morphological, anatomic, and molecular knowledge about angiosperms they need for a range of industrial applications.
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
Aisha Saleem Khan is Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Forman Christian College, Pakistan. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Punjab and held a post-doctoral research post at Miami University, Ohio. Her research, which focuses on plant anatomy, electron microscopy, and heavy metal toxicity, has been published in national and international publications. Aisha has over 12 years' of teaching experience in plant systematics and applied botany.
1 - Title Page [Seite 5]
2 - Copyright Page [Seite 6]
3 - Contents [Seite 9]
4 - Preface [Seite 17]
5 - Acknowledgements [Seite 19]
6 - Chapter 1 An Introduction to Flowering Plants: Monocots and Eudicots [Seite 21]
6.1 - 1.1 An Introduction to Major Group of Angiosperms: Monocots, Eudicots and Basal Angiosperms [Seite 21]
6.2 - 1.2 Plant Cell: Revisions and Few Updates [Seite 25]
6.2.1 - 1.2.1 A Cellulosic Cell Wall is Crucial for all Plant Cells [Seite 27]
6.2.2 - 1.2.2 Plant Plasma Membrane Allows Molecules to Enter Only Through Their Respective Channels [Seite 31]
6.2.3 - 1.2.3 Mitochondria Convert Energy of Glucose in ATP and in Reducing Powers [Seite 33]
6.2.4 - 1.2.4 Plant Vacuoles Store Water, Pigments and Compounds of Defensive Nature [Seite 34]
6.2.5 - 1.2.5 Golgi Apparatus [Seite 35]
6.2.6 - 1.2.6 Nucleus Encodes Genes Required for Enzymes Forming Products of Commercial Applications [Seite 35]
6.2.7 - 1.2.7 Plastids are Sites of Sugar and Fragrance Formation [Seite 36]
6.2.8 - 1.2.8 Tannosomes are Chloroplast-Derived Organelles Which Contain Polymers of Tannins [Seite 37]
6.2.9 - 1.2.9 Ribosomes [Seite 37]
6.2.10 - 1.2.10 Endoplasmic Reticulum [Seite 37]
6.2.11 - 1.2.11 Peroxisomes [Seite 38]
6.2.12 - 1.2.12 Oleosomes [Seite 39]
6.3 - 1.3 Intracellular and Extracellular Communications are Crucial for Cells' Metabolic Demands [Seite 39]
6.4 - 1.4 Future Perspectives [Seite 42]
6.5 - References [Seite 43]
6.6 - Further Reading [Seite 43]
7 - Chapter 2 An Introduction to Angiosperm Natural Products [Seite 51]
7.1 - 2.1 Introduction [Seite 51]
7.2 - 2.2 Glucose Serves as a Precursor for Formation of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Plants [Seite 52]
7.3 - 2.3 Classification of Natural Products of Angiosperms [Seite 53]
7.3.1 - 2.3.1 Alkaloids Provide Defense Against Herbivory Due to Their Bitter Taste in Plant Organs [Seite 53]
7.3.2 - 2.3.2 Flavonoids are Important Pollination Pigments and Increase Plants' Demands in Floriculture [Seite 55]
7.3.3 - 2.3.3 Glycosides are Sugar-Containing Natural Products [Seite 57]
7.3.4 - 2.3.4 Terpenoids Make Fragrances and are Used in Perfume and Cosmetic Products [Seite 59]
7.4 - 2.4 Techniques for Isolation of Secondary Metabolites With Future Perspectives [Seite 64]
7.5 - References [Seite 66]
7.6 - Further Reading [Seite 67]
8 - Chapter 3 Plant Tissues Organization of Angiosperms [Seite 73]
8.1 - 3.1 Introduction to Plant Tissues [Seite 73]
8.2 - 3.2 Diversity of Plant Cell [Seite 73]
8.3 - 3.3 Parenchyma is the Main Ground Tissue of Plants [Seite 75]
8.4 - 3.4 Collenchyma: Introduction and Distribution [Seite 75]
8.5 - 3.5 Sclerenchyma is the Mechanical Tissue of Plants [Seite 77]
8.5.1 - 3.5.1 Fibers Types in Plants [Seite 77]
8.5.2 - 3.5.2 Commercially Important Fibers [Seite 77]
8.5.3 - 3.5.3 Making of Fabrics From Corn Fibers [Seite 79]
8.5.4 - 3.5.4 Diversity in Sclereids [Seite 79]
8.6 - 3.6 Vascular Tissues: Xylem and Phloem [Seite 81]
8.6.1 - 3.6.1 Xylem [Seite 81]
8.6.2 - 3.6.2 Why Is There a Need of Water Transport? [Seite 81]
8.6.3 - 3.6.3 Leaf Morphology and Venation [Seite 82]
8.6.4 - 3.6.4 Tracheary Elements [Seite 83]
8.6.5 - 3.6.5 Why Tracheids and Vessels are Water-Transporting Cells? [Seite 85]
8.6.6 - 3.6.6 Significance of Lignification in Xylem [Seite 85]
8.6.7 - 3.6.7 Genetic Modification of Lignin for Bioenergy Crops [Seite 85]
8.6.8 - 3.6.8 Pits and Pit Membranes [Seite 86]
8.6.9 - 3.6.9 Proteomic Analysis of Xylem Sap Provides Evidences of Proteins Translocation Through Xylem Sap [Seite 86]
8.6.10 - 3.6.10 Water Channels in Plant Membranes [Seite 89]
8.7 - 3.7 Phloem [Seite 89]
8.7.1 - 3.7.1 Significance of Callose Deposition [Seite 89]
8.7.2 - 3.7.2 Companion Cells [Seite 89]
8.7.3 - 3.7.3 Evaluation of Phloem Sap Through Modern Techniques [Seite 91]
8.8 - 3.8 Future Perspectives [Seite 92]
8.9 - References [Seite 92]
8.10 - Further Reading [Seite 93]
9 - Chapter 4 Floral Cell Biology and Diversity in Floral Cells [Seite 97]
9.1 - 4.1 Introduction to Angiosperms Flowers: Monocots and Eudicots [Seite 97]
9.2 - 4.2 Morphological && Anatomical Characteristics of Eudicot Flowers [Seite 97]
9.2.1 - 4.2.1 Sepals Morphology and Anatomy [Seite 99]
9.2.2 - 4.2.2 Petals Morphology in Response to Their Pollinators [Seite 101]
9.2.3 - 4.2.3 Epidermal Cell of Petals and Elaiophores [Seite 105]
9.2.4 - 4.2.4 Anatomical Characteristics of Eudicot Petals [Seite 107]
9.2.5 - 4.2.5 Morphological and Anatomic Features of Carpels [Seite 107]
9.2.6 - 4.2.6 Ovule Anatomy [Seite 110]
9.2.7 - 4.2.7 Stamens: Morphology and Anatomy [Seite 113]
9.2.8 - 4.2.8 Vascular Supply to Stamens [Seite 114]
9.2.9 - 4.2.9 Stamen Anatomy and Pollen Development [Seite 114]
9.3 - 4.3 Morphology of Monocots Flowers [Seite 115]
9.3.1 - 4.3.1 An Account of Economic Importance of Z. mays (Corn) [Seite 116]
9.4 - 4.4 Channels and Transporters Within Floral Cells [Seite 118]
9.5 - 4.5 Future Perspectives [Seite 122]
9.6 - References [Seite 122]
9.7 - Further Reading [Seite 123]
10 - Chapter 5 Signaling During Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms [Seite 127]
10.1 - 5.1 Introduction [Seite 127]
10.2 - 5.2 Angiosperms Show Diversity in Their Sporophytic and Gametophytic Generations [Seite 128]
10.3 - 5.3 Angiosperms Spend Most Part of Their Lives as Sporophytes and Produce Gametophytes for a Shorter Period of Time [Seite 128]
10.4 - 5.4 Septs From Pollination to Fertilization [Seite 131]
10.4.1 - 5.4.1 Stigma of Angiosperms May be Dry or Wet [Seite 131]
10.4.2 - 5.4.2 Pollen Landing on Stigma (Rehydration) [Seite 139]
10.4.3 - 5.4.3 Style Anatomy and Types in Angiosperms [Seite 139]
10.4.4 - 5.4.4 Growth of Pollen Tube [Seite 140]
10.4.5 - 5.4.5 Physiological Activities Within Pollen Tube [Seite 143]
10.4.6 - 5.4.6 Cysteine Rich Proteins (CRP) Facilitate Pollen and Pistil Interaction [Seite 144]
10.4.7 - 5.4.7 Steps Involved in Fertilization [Seite 144]
10.4.8 - 5.4.8 Sperm Cell in Angiosperms [Seite 147]
10.4.9 - 5.4.9 Molecular Basis of Reproduction [Seite 147]
10.4.10 - 5.4.10 Temperature Affects Pollination [Seite 147]
10.5 - 5.5 Future Perspectives [Seite 148]
10.6 - References [Seite 148]
10.7 - Further Reading [Seite 149]
11 - Chapter 6 Physiologically Active Metabolic Pathways in Floral Cells [Seite 155]
11.1 - 6.1 Introduction to Floral Physiology [Seite 155]
11.2 - 6.2 Glucose Fates in Floral Cells Differ According to Their Metabolic Demands [Seite 157]
11.3 - 6.3 PPP Provides Floral Cells With Their Nucleotides and Important Pigments [Seite 161]
11.4 - 6.4 ATP and NADPH Produced Through Photochemical Reactions Provide Energy for Sugar Formation in Stroma of Chloroplasts [Seite 163]
11.5 - 6.5 Floral Photosynthesis Contributes to Sugar Requirements of Floral Whorls [Seite 165]
11.5.1 - 6.5.1 Presence of Stomata and Chloroplasts in Flowers Facilitate Sugar Formation [Seite 169]
11.5.2 - 6.5.2 Sepals of Angiosperms have Developed Many Adaptations for Foliar Photosynthesis [Seite 170]
11.5.3 - 6.5.3 Photosynthesis in Anthers is Required for Metabolic Demands of Developing Pollen Grains [Seite 170]
11.5.4 - 6.5.4 Chloroplasts in Exocarp of Fruits are Modified and are Photosynthetic [Seite 171]
11.6 - 6.6 Future Perspectives [Seite 175]
11.7 - References [Seite 175]
11.8 - Further Reading [Seite 176]
12 - Chapter 7 Anthocyanins: Accumulation in Plants and Role in Industries [Seite 181]
12.1 - 7.1 Anthocyanins Accumulation in Different Organs Is Indicative of Their Multiple Roles [Seite 181]
12.2 - 7.2 Anthocyanidin Biosynthesis Takes Place in Cytosol of Cells, However, They Are Accumulated in Vacuoles [Seite 182]
12.3 - 7.3 Anthocyanins Exist in Modified Forms in Cells [Seite 185]
12.4 - 7.4 Anthocyanins Transport to Vacuoles [Seite 188]
12.5 - 7.5 Anthocyanins Role is Dependent Upon Their Location and Accumulation [Seite 188]
12.5.1 - 7.5.1 Accumulation are Defensive Pigments in Vegetative Organs [Seite 188]
12.5.2 - 7.5.2 Accumulation and Role in Leaves [Seite 191]
12.5.3 - 7.5.3 Anthocyanins are Involved in Senescence of Leaves [Seite 194]
12.5.4 - 7.5.4 Anthocyanins as Defensive Pigments Against Insects [Seite 195]
12.5.5 - 7.5.5 Anthocyanins Protect Plants Against UV Light [Seite 196]
12.5.6 - 7.5.6 Role in Scavenging Reactive Molecular O2 [Seite 196]
12.5.7 - 7.5.7 Anthocyanins are Crucial for Pollination and Seed Dispersal in many Eudicots [Seite 196]
12.5.8 - 7.5.8 Accumulation in Fruits [Seite 198]
12.6 - 7.6 Industrial Applications of Anthocyanins [Seite 198]
12.7 - 7.7 Future Perspectives [Seite 201]
12.8 - References [Seite 202]
12.9 - Further Reading [Seite 204]
13 - Chapter 8 Carotenoids: Introduction, Classification and Industrial Uses [Seite 209]
13.1 - 8.1 Carotenoids are Vital for Leaves as Light Absorbing Pigments and for Flowers to Attract Their Pollinators [Seite 209]
13.2 - 8.2 Oxygenated and De?oxygenated Carotenoids are Major Carotenoids in Angiosperms [Seite 210]
13.3 - 8.3 Carotenoid Biosynthesis is Under the Control of Transcriptional Regulation [Seite 213]
13.4 - 8.4 Carotenoids are Localized in Plastids in Form of Crystals and Plastoglobuli [Seite 213]
13.5 - 8.5 Carotenoids Accumulation Takes Place in Chromoplasts of Autumn Leaves of Eudicots [Seite 217]
13.6 - 8.6 Carotenoids Pigments in Flowers and Pollens [Seite 217]
13.7 - 8.7 Lutein are Important Antenna and Photoprotective Pigments in Thylakoids of Chloroplasts [Seite 219]
13.8 - 8.8 Capsaicin is a Carotenoid Derivative Which Causes Hotness of Capsicum spp. [Seite 220]
13.9 - 8.9 Carotenoid Accumulation in Epidermal Cells of Many Fruits is Due to Conversion of Chloroplast Into Chromoplasts [Seite 222]
13.10 - 8.10 Transcriptional Regulation of Carotenoids in Fruits [Seite 223]
13.11 - 8.11 Application in Food, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Textile and Nutracuetical Industries [Seite 223]
13.12 - 8.12 Future Challenges [Seite 225]
13.13 - References [Seite 227]
13.14 - Further Reading [Seite 228]
14 - Chapter 9 Alkaloids Biosynthesis, Translocation and Industrial Products [Seite 233]
14.1 - 9.1 Alkaloids are Nitrogen-Containing Natural Products Which Provide Defense Against Herbivores [Seite 233]
14.1.1 - 9.1.1 An Account of Historical Uses of Alkaloids [Seite 234]
14.1.2 - 9.1.2 Many Alkaloids are Psychoactive Compounds and Act as Neurotransmitters [Seite 235]
14.2 - 9.2 Alkaloids are Synthesized in Cytosol and Accumulated in Vacuoles as They are Toxic for Plant Cells [Seite 236]
14.2.1 - 9.2.1 Monoterpenoids Indole Alkaloids (MIA) Derivatives are Synthesized From Tryptophan [Seite 236]
14.2.2 - 9.2.2 Tropane Alkaloids are Tyrosine Derivatives [Seite 236]
14.3 - 9.3 Purine Nucleotides Serve as Precursors of Caffeine Synthesis [Seite 239]
14.4 - 9.4 History of Discovery of Caffeine [Seite 242]
14.4.1 - 9.4.1 Caffeine Is a Popular Stimulant Alkaloid in Coffee and Teas [Seite 243]
14.4.2 - 9.4.2 Industrial Steps in Coffee Making Determines Their Aroma and Taste [Seite 243]
14.4.3 - 9.4.3 Supercritical CO2 Method is Efficient for Producing Decaffeinated Coffee [Seite 244]
14.4.4 - 9.4.4 Teas are Representative of Culture, Tradition and Civilization [Seite 244]
14.4.5 - 9.4.5 Black, Green and Oolong Teas [Seite 246]
14.5 - 9.5 Theobromine is an Alkaloid Widely Used in Chocolates and Teas [Seite 247]
14.5.1 - 9.5.1 Chocolate Formation: From Cacao Beans to Markets [Seite 247]
14.6 - 9.6 Clinical Applications of Alkaloids are Due to Their Mode of Action [Seite 248]
14.7 - 9.7 Development of Physiologically Functional Food Containing Alkaloids as Food Vaccines [Seite 250]
14.7.1 - 9.7.1 Development of Transgenic Caffeine Resistant Plants [Seite 250]
14.7.2 - 9.7.2 Use of Caffeine in Cosmetic Products [Seite 251]
14.7.3 - 9.7.3 Alkaloids in Medicinal Products [Seite 251]
14.7.4 - 9.7.4 Future Challenges for Agriculture and Cosmetic Industries [Seite 255]
14.7.5 - References [Seite 256]
14.7.6 - Further Reading [Seite 257]
15 - Chapter 10 Nectaries, Carnations and Ornamental Hybrid Flowers in Floriculture [Seite 261]
15.1 - 10.1 Introduction [Seite 261]
15.2 - 10.2 Nectaries are Nectar Synthesizing Structures of Plants [Seite 262]
15.2.1 - 10.2.1 Nectar Guides [Seite 262]
15.2.2 - 10.2.2 Nectar Secretion and Important Metabolites [Seite 263]
15.2.3 - 10.2.3 Molecular Basis of Nectar Secretion [Seite 265]
15.3 - 10.3 Ornamental Transgenic Plants in Floriculture [Seite 267]
15.3.1 - 10.3.1 Development of Transgenic Roses [Seite 267]
15.3.2 - 10.3.2 Ornamental Hybrids in Floriculture [Seite 268]
15.4 - 10.4 Dianthus spp. are Major Carnations in Floriculture [Seite 270]
15.4.1 - 10.4.1 Economic Importance of Carnations [Seite 274]
15.4.2 - 10.4.2 Genetically Modified Carnations and Ornamental Plants [Seite 274]
15.5 - 10.5 Future Perspectives in Floriculture Industries [Seite 275]
15.6 - References [Seite 275]
15.7 - Further Reading [Seite 276]
16 - Chapter 11 Floral Essential Oils: Biosynthesis, Classification and Commercial Applications [Seite 281]
16.1 - 11.1 Fragrance Formation is a Unique and Genetically Controlled Characteristic of Many Angiosperms [Seite 281]
16.2 - 11.2 Number of Carbon and Hydrogens Atoms in Isoprene Units Determine Their Roles in Plants [Seite 283]
16.2.1 - 11.2.1 Two Isoprene Units (Monoterpenes) are Responsible for Giving Fragrances [Seite 283]
16.2.2 - 11.2.2 Secretory Structures and Mechanisms Involved in Release of Essential Oils [Seite 284]
16.2.3 - 11.2.3 Formation of Monoterpenoids Like Menthol is a Part of Chemical Defense of Mint and Other Plants [Seite 286]
16.2.4 - 11.2.4 Linalool is a Defensive Terpenoid and a Volatile Attractant [Seite 286]
16.2.5 - 11.2.5 Geraniol: A Volatile Attractant and Defensive Essential Oil in Cosmetic and Medicinal Products [Seite 290]
16.3 - 11.3 Many Terpenoids are Insecticidal and Act as Allelochemicals [Seite 292]
16.4 - 11.4 Sesquiterpenes are Defensive Terpenoids of Many Plants [Seite 292]
16.5 - 11.5 Diterpenoids are Important Phytohormones Which Comprise of Four Isoprenoid Inits [Seite 294]
16.6 - 11.6 Terpenoid Biosynthesis in Plants Proceeds in Two Different Cellular Compartments [Seite 296]
16.6.1 - 11.6.1 Vanillin Biosynthesis [Seite 298]
16.7 - 11.7 Economically Important Terpenoids [Seite 298]
16.7.1 - 11.7.1 Bio-engineered Terpenoids [Seite 301]
16.8 - 11.8 Future Challenges [Seite 302]
16.9 - References [Seite 302]
16.10 - Further Reading [Seite 303]
17 - Chapter 12 Aromatic Molecules From Flowers in Perfume and Cosmetic Industries [Seite 307]
17.1 - 12.1 Introduction and Overview of Perfume and Cosmetic Industries [Seite 307]
17.2 - 12.2 History of Perfume Making [Seite 308]
17.3 - 12.3 Aromatic Flowers, Leaves and Woods Used in Perfumery [Seite 309]
17.4 - 12.4 Traditional and Modern Techniques of Distillation and Isolation of Fragrant Molecules [Seite 310]
17.4.1 - 12.4.1 Collection & Extraction of Essential Oils are Prerequisite Steps in Traditional Perfume Making [Seite 311]
17.4.2 - 12.4.2 Enfleurage & Maceration Through Grease and Fats [Seite 311]
17.4.3 - 12.4.3 Solvent Extraction Convert Aromatic Molecules in Concrete and Absolute [Seite 311]
17.4.4 - 12.4.4 Eau De Parfum, Eau De Toilette and Eau De Cologne [Seite 314]
17.4.5 - 12.4.5 Perfume Notes [Seite 314]
17.5 - 12.5 CO2 as a Solvent to Extract Fragrant Molecules in Super-critical CO2 Fluid Extraction Method [Seite 314]
17.6 - 12.6 Modern Perfume Making Machines [Seite 316]
17.7 - 12.7 Aromatherapy: Relaxation Through Aromatic Molecules [Seite 316]
17.8 - 12.8 Cosmetic Industry: An Overview and History [Seite 318]
17.9 - 12.9 Popular Plants and Their Products in Cosmetic Products [Seite 320]
17.10 - 12.10 Anti-Aging Properties of Some Plants and Their Applications in Cosmetic Products [Seite 321]
17.11 - 12.11 Bioengineered Aromatic Bacteria With Lemon and Rose Fragrances [Seite 322]
17.12 - 12.12 Future Considerations [Seite 327]
17.13 - References [Seite 327]
17.14 - Further Reading [Seite 328]
18 - Glossary [Seite 331]
19 - Index [Seite 341]
20 - Supplemental Images [Seite 347]
21 - EULA [Seite 369]

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