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Flowering Plants

Structure and Industrial Products
Aisha S. Khan(Autor*in)
Wiley (Verlag)
Erschienen am 3. Februar 2017
344 Seiten
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978-1-119-26278-7 (ISBN)
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Angiosperms, or flowering plants, are one of the most diverse plant groups on the planet, and they offer tremendous resources for a broad range of industries. Flowering Plants examines the anatomy and morphology of angiosperms with a focus on relating their metabolic activities to products for the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic, and textile industries.
This up-to-date reference provides a thorough understanding of plant structure and chemical and molecular processes found in angiosperms. It covers many important topics on applied botany, and therefore, can also be used as a textbook for students of related fields. It details the latest research in the field, along with areas in need of further study, for students, researchers, and professionals working in industry. The book takes advantage of technological innovations to showcase a range of advanced techniques for studying plant structure and metabolites, such as cryo-electron microscopy, ultramicroscopy, x-ray crystallography, spectroscopy, and chromatography. Filled with helpful illustrations, diagrams, and flowcharts to aid comprehension, Flowering Plants offers readers the morphological, anatomic, and molecular knowledge about angiosperms they need for a range of industrial applications.
Aisha Saleem Khan is Associate Professor in the Department of Biological Sciences at Forman Christian College, Pakistan. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Punjab and held a post-doctoral research post at Miami University, Ohio. Her research, which focuses on plant anatomy, electron microscopy, and heavy metal toxicity, has been published in national and international publications. Aisha has over 12 years' of teaching experience in plant systematics and applied botany.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgements
  • Chapter 1 An Introduction to Flowering Plants: Monocots and Eudicots
  • 1.1 An Introduction to Major Group of Angiosperms: Monocots, Eudicots and Basal Angiosperms
  • 1.2 Plant Cell: Revisions and Few Updates
  • 1.2.1 A Cellulosic Cell Wall is Crucial for all Plant Cells
  • 1.2.2 Plant Plasma Membrane Allows Molecules to Enter Only Through Their Respective Channels
  • 1.2.3 Mitochondria Convert Energy of Glucose in ATP and in Reducing Powers
  • 1.2.4 Plant Vacuoles Store Water, Pigments and Compounds of Defensive Nature
  • 1.2.5 Golgi Apparatus
  • 1.2.6 Nucleus Encodes Genes Required for Enzymes Forming Products of Commercial Applications
  • 1.2.7 Plastids are Sites of Sugar and Fragrance Formation
  • 1.2.8 Tannosomes are Chloroplast-Derived Organelles Which Contain Polymers of Tannins
  • 1.2.9 Ribosomes
  • 1.2.10 Endoplasmic Reticulum
  • 1.2.11 Peroxisomes
  • 1.2.12 Oleosomes
  • 1.3 Intracellular and Extracellular Communications are Crucial for Cells' Metabolic Demands
  • 1.4 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 2 An Introduction to Angiosperm Natural Products
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Glucose Serves as a Precursor for Formation of Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Plants
  • 2.3 Classification of Natural Products of Angiosperms
  • 2.3.1 Alkaloids Provide Defense Against Herbivory Due to Their Bitter Taste in Plant Organs
  • 2.3.2 Flavonoids are Important Pollination Pigments and Increase Plants' Demands in Floriculture
  • 2.3.3 Glycosides are Sugar-Containing Natural Products
  • 2.3.4 Terpenoids Make Fragrances and are Used in Perfume and Cosmetic Products
  • 2.4 Techniques for Isolation of Secondary Metabolites With Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 3 Plant Tissues Organization of Angiosperms
  • 3.1 Introduction to Plant Tissues
  • 3.2 Diversity of Plant Cell
  • 3.3 Parenchyma is the Main Ground Tissue of Plants
  • 3.4 Collenchyma: Introduction and Distribution
  • 3.5 Sclerenchyma is the Mechanical Tissue of Plants
  • 3.5.1 Fibers Types in Plants
  • 3.5.2 Commercially Important Fibers
  • 3.5.3 Making of Fabrics From Corn Fibers
  • 3.5.4 Diversity in Sclereids
  • 3.6 Vascular Tissues: Xylem and Phloem
  • 3.6.1 Xylem
  • 3.6.2 Why Is There a Need of Water Transport?
  • 3.6.3 Leaf Morphology and Venation
  • 3.6.4 Tracheary Elements
  • 3.6.5 Why Tracheids and Vessels are Water-Transporting Cells?
  • 3.6.6 Significance of Lignification in Xylem
  • 3.6.7 Genetic Modification of Lignin for Bioenergy Crops
  • 3.6.8 Pits and Pit Membranes
  • 3.6.9 Proteomic Analysis of Xylem Sap Provides Evidences of Proteins Translocation Through Xylem Sap
  • 3.6.10 Water Channels in Plant Membranes
  • 3.7 Phloem
  • 3.7.1 Significance of Callose Deposition
  • 3.7.2 Companion Cells
  • 3.7.3 Evaluation of Phloem Sap Through Modern Techniques
  • 3.8 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 4 Floral Cell Biology and Diversity in Floral Cells
  • 4.1 Introduction to Angiosperms Flowers: Monocots and Eudicots
  • 4.2 Morphological && Anatomical Characteristics of Eudicot Flowers
  • 4.2.1 Sepals Morphology and Anatomy
  • 4.2.2 Petals Morphology in Response to Their Pollinators
  • 4.2.3 Epidermal Cell of Petals and Elaiophores
  • 4.2.4 Anatomical Characteristics of Eudicot Petals
  • 4.2.5 Morphological and Anatomic Features of Carpels
  • 4.2.6 Ovule Anatomy
  • 4.2.7 Stamens: Morphology and Anatomy
  • 4.2.8 Vascular Supply to Stamens
  • 4.2.9 Stamen Anatomy and Pollen Development
  • 4.3 Morphology of Monocots Flowers
  • 4.3.1 An Account of Economic Importance of Z. mays (Corn)
  • 4.4 Channels and Transporters Within Floral Cells
  • 4.5 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 5 Signaling During Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Angiosperms Show Diversity in Their Sporophytic and Gametophytic Generations
  • 5.3 Angiosperms Spend Most Part of Their Lives as Sporophytes and Produce Gametophytes for a Shorter Period of Time
  • 5.4 Septs From Pollination to Fertilization
  • 5.4.1 Stigma of Angiosperms May be Dry or Wet
  • 5.4.2 Pollen Landing on Stigma (Rehydration)
  • 5.4.3 Style Anatomy and Types in Angiosperms
  • 5.4.4 Growth of Pollen Tube
  • 5.4.5 Physiological Activities Within Pollen Tube
  • 5.4.6 Cysteine Rich Proteins (CRP) Facilitate Pollen and Pistil Interaction
  • 5.4.7 Steps Involved in Fertilization
  • 5.4.8 Sperm Cell in Angiosperms
  • 5.4.9 Molecular Basis of Reproduction
  • 5.4.10 Temperature Affects Pollination
  • 5.5 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 6 Physiologically Active Metabolic Pathways in Floral Cells
  • 6.1 Introduction to Floral Physiology
  • 6.2 Glucose Fates in Floral Cells Differ According to Their Metabolic Demands
  • 6.3 PPP Provides Floral Cells With Their Nucleotides and Important Pigments
  • 6.4 ATP and NADPH Produced Through Photochemical Reactions Provide Energy for Sugar Formation in Stroma of Chloroplasts
  • 6.5 Floral Photosynthesis Contributes to Sugar Requirements of Floral Whorls
  • 6.5.1 Presence of Stomata and Chloroplasts in Flowers Facilitate Sugar Formation
  • 6.5.2 Sepals of Angiosperms have Developed Many Adaptations for Foliar Photosynthesis
  • 6.5.3 Photosynthesis in Anthers is Required for Metabolic Demands of Developing Pollen Grains
  • 6.5.4 Chloroplasts in Exocarp of Fruits are Modified and are Photosynthetic
  • 6.6 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 7 Anthocyanins: Accumulation in Plants and Role in Industries
  • 7.1 Anthocyanins Accumulation in Different Organs Is Indicative of Their Multiple Roles
  • 7.2 Anthocyanidin Biosynthesis Takes Place in Cytosol of Cells, However, They Are Accumulated in Vacuoles
  • 7.3 Anthocyanins Exist in Modified Forms in Cells
  • 7.4 Anthocyanins Transport to Vacuoles
  • 7.5 Anthocyanins Role is Dependent Upon Their Location and Accumulation
  • 7.5.1 Accumulation are Defensive Pigments in Vegetative Organs
  • 7.5.2 Accumulation and Role in Leaves
  • 7.5.3 Anthocyanins are Involved in Senescence of Leaves
  • 7.5.4 Anthocyanins as Defensive Pigments Against Insects
  • 7.5.5 Anthocyanins Protect Plants Against UV Light
  • 7.5.6 Role in Scavenging Reactive Molecular O2
  • 7.5.7 Anthocyanins are Crucial for Pollination and Seed Dispersal in many Eudicots
  • 7.5.8 Accumulation in Fruits
  • 7.6 Industrial Applications of Anthocyanins
  • 7.7 Future Perspectives
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 8 Carotenoids: Introduction, Classification and Industrial Uses
  • 8.1 Carotenoids are Vital for Leaves as Light Absorbing Pigments and for Flowers to Attract Their Pollinators
  • 8.2 Oxygenated and De-oxygenated Carotenoids are Major Carotenoids in Angiosperms
  • 8.3 Carotenoid Biosynthesis is Under the Control of Transcriptional Regulation
  • 8.4 Carotenoids are Localized in Plastids in Form of Crystals and Plastoglobuli
  • 8.5 Carotenoids Accumulation Takes Place in Chromoplasts of Autumn Leaves of Eudicots
  • 8.6 Carotenoids Pigments in Flowers and Pollens
  • 8.7 Lutein are Important Antenna and Photoprotective Pigments in Thylakoids of Chloroplasts
  • 8.8 Capsaicin is a Carotenoid Derivative Which Causes Hotness of Capsicum spp.
  • 8.9 Carotenoid Accumulation in Epidermal Cells of Many Fruits is Due to Conversion of Chloroplast Into Chromoplasts
  • 8.10 Transcriptional Regulation of Carotenoids in Fruits
  • 8.11 Application in Food, Pharmaceutical, Cosmetic, Textile and Nutracuetical Industries
  • 8.12 Future Challenges
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 9 Alkaloids Biosynthesis, Translocation and Industrial Products
  • 9.1 Alkaloids are Nitrogen-Containing Natural Products Which Provide Defense Against Herbivores
  • 9.1.1 An Account of Historical Uses of Alkaloids
  • 9.1.2 Many Alkaloids are Psychoactive Compounds and Act as Neurotransmitters
  • 9.2 Alkaloids are Synthesized in Cytosol and Accumulated in Vacuoles as They are Toxic for Plant Cells
  • 9.2.1 Monoterpenoids Indole Alkaloids (MIA) Derivatives are Synthesized From Tryptophan
  • 9.2.2 Tropane Alkaloids are Tyrosine Derivatives
  • 9.3 Purine Nucleotides Serve as Precursors of Caffeine Synthesis
  • 9.4 History of Discovery of Caffeine
  • 9.4.1 Caffeine Is a Popular Stimulant Alkaloid in Coffee and Teas
  • 9.4.2 Industrial Steps in Coffee Making Determines Their Aroma and Taste
  • 9.4.3 Supercritical CO2 Method is Efficient for Producing Decaffeinated Coffee
  • 9.4.4 Teas are Representative of Culture, Tradition and Civilization
  • 9.4.5 Black, Green and Oolong Teas
  • 9.5 Theobromine is an Alkaloid Widely Used in Chocolates and Teas
  • 9.5.1 Chocolate Formation: From Cacao Beans to Markets
  • 9.6 Clinical Applications of Alkaloids are Due to Their Mode of Action
  • 9.7 Development of Physiologically Functional Food Containing Alkaloids as Food Vaccines
  • 9.7.1 Development of Transgenic Caffeine Resistant Plants
  • 9.7.2 Use of Caffeine in Cosmetic Products
  • 9.7.3 Alkaloids in Medicinal Products
  • 9.7.4 Future Challenges for Agriculture and Cosmetic Industries
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 10 Nectaries, Carnations and Ornamental Hybrid Flowers in Floriculture
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Nectaries are Nectar Synthesizing Structures of Plants
  • 10.2.1 Nectar Guides
  • 10.2.2 Nectar Secretion and Important Metabolites
  • 10.2.3 Molecular Basis of Nectar Secretion
  • 10.3 Ornamental Transgenic Plants in Floriculture
  • 10.3.1 Development of Transgenic Roses
  • 10.3.2 Ornamental Hybrids in Floriculture
  • 10.4 Dianthus spp. are Major Carnations in Floriculture
  • 10.4.1 Economic Importance of Carnations
  • 10.4.2 Genetically Modified Carnations and Ornamental Plants
  • 10.5 Future Perspectives in Floriculture Industries
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 11 Floral Essential Oils: Biosynthesis, Classification and Commercial Applications
  • 11.1 Fragrance Formation is a Unique and Genetically Controlled Characteristic of Many Angiosperms
  • 11.2 Number of Carbon and Hydrogens Atoms in Isoprene Units Determine Their Roles in Plants
  • 11.2.1 Two Isoprene Units (Monoterpenes) are Responsible for Giving Fragrances
  • 11.2.2 Secretory Structures and Mechanisms Involved in Release of Essential Oils
  • 11.2.3 Formation of Monoterpenoids Like Menthol is a Part of Chemical Defense of Mint and Other Plants
  • 11.2.4 Linalool is a Defensive Terpenoid and a Volatile Attractant
  • 11.2.5 Geraniol: A Volatile Attractant and Defensive Essential Oil in Cosmetic and Medicinal Products
  • 11.3 Many Terpenoids are Insecticidal and Act as Allelochemicals
  • 11.4 Sesquiterpenes are Defensive Terpenoids of Many Plants
  • 11.5 Diterpenoids are Important Phytohormones Which Comprise of Four Isoprenoid Inits
  • 11.6 Terpenoid Biosynthesis in Plants Proceeds in Two Different Cellular Compartments
  • 11.6.1 Vanillin Biosynthesis
  • 11.7 Economically Important Terpenoids
  • 11.7.1 Bio-engineered Terpenoids
  • 11.8 Future Challenges
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Chapter 12 Aromatic Molecules From Flowers in Perfume and Cosmetic Industries
  • 12.1 Introduction and Overview of Perfume and Cosmetic Industries
  • 12.2 History of Perfume Making
  • 12.3 Aromatic Flowers, Leaves and Woods Used in Perfumery
  • 12.4 Traditional and Modern Techniques of Distillation and Isolation of Fragrant Molecules
  • 12.4.1 Collection & Extraction of Essential Oils are Prerequisite Steps in Traditional Perfume Making
  • 12.4.2 Enfleurage & Maceration Through Grease and Fats
  • 12.4.3 Solvent Extraction Convert Aromatic Molecules in Concrete and Absolute
  • 12.4.4 Eau De Parfum, Eau De Toilette and Eau De Cologne
  • 12.4.5 Perfume Notes
  • 12.5 CO2 as a Solvent to Extract Fragrant Molecules in Super-critical CO2 Fluid Extraction Method
  • 12.6 Modern Perfume Making Machines
  • 12.7 Aromatherapy: Relaxation Through Aromatic Molecules
  • 12.8 Cosmetic Industry: An Overview and History
  • 12.9 Popular Plants and Their Products in Cosmetic Products
  • 12.10 Anti-Aging Properties of Some Plants and Their Applications in Cosmetic Products
  • 12.11 Bioengineered Aromatic Bacteria With Lemon and Rose Fragrances
  • 12.12 Future Considerations
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Glossary
  • Index
  • Supplemental Images
  • EULA

An Introduction to Flowering Plants: Monocots and Eudicots

There is no doubt about it that plants are main producers of ecosystem and important in every aspect of our daily lives. Many products which are used in food, nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, textile, cosmetics, perfumery, coffee, tea and beverage industries are in fact derived from plants. They are biosynthesized in different parts of plants and are known as natural products or secondary metabolites. Many of these compounds are defensive in nature which are produced during primary metabolic activities in plants. Many pigments in flowering plants are also secondary metabolites which are crucial for their pollination. Secondary metabolites include alkaloids, flavonoids, betalains, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. They will be introduced in the next chapter.

This book deals with flowering plants, that is, angiosperms as they make one of the abundant group of plants of economic importance. However, before discussing major products of angiosperms, their biosynthesis and applications, it is important to discuss what are angiosperms? How did they evolve? What is their body organization and what kind of cells they have? So in the next section, a brief introduction of angiosperms and their classification is discussed.

1.1 An Introduction to Major Group of Angiosperms: Monocots, Eudicots and Basal Angiosperms

All plants are considered to be a group of related organisms which are capable to synthesize their own sugars during photosynthesis, possess the cell wall, and generally with the differentiation of their bodies in roots, stems, leaves, flowers or flower- like structures. But recent trends in molecular phylogenetics have shown that they are not as much closely related as thought before. In fact, plants can be best described as 'a group of different organisms which evolved independently during course of evolution and share similar characteristics like ability to synthesize their own food within their chloroplasts, have chlorophyll a as a necessary photosynthetic pigment and possess the cell wall which largely comprises of cellulose'. Their body is differentiated in vegetative and reproductive organs (spore or seed-producing structures) and are therefore classified in one kingdom plantae. Division within kingdom plantae is based either on the presence or absence of vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) or spore-producing structures. Bryophytes like liverworts, hornworts and mosses are non-vascular spore producing plants while pteridophytes are vascular plants which produce spore, for example, ferns, horsetails and clubmossses. Other two major groups are seed-producing plants, that is, gymnosperms which produce seeds which are not enclosed within their ovaries, and angiosperms or flowering plants, in which seeds develop within carpels and are covered by ovary wall.

Angiosperms also known as flowering plants are the largest monophyletic group of seed producing plants which have evolved many efficient ways of survival over the period of time. They are unique from other group of plants due to the development of endosperm (nutritive tissue around embryo within seeds), flowers with carpels and stamens having two pairs of pollen sacs and phloem for transportation of sugars. Their fossils are over 135 million years old. Angiosperms are considered to be close relatives of living gymnosperms but some recent evidence suggested that seed ferns represent sister group to angiosperms. They are relatively evolved group of plants as compared with gymnosperms as they possess several mechanisms which ensure successful asexual and sexual reproduction, one of the main reason which makes them one of the abundant group of seed plants.

Although monocots (angiosperms with one cotyledons) and dicots (angiosperms with two cotyledons) are referred as two main groups of angiosperms but modern classification which is based on molecular evidences have characterized angiosperms as core and basal angiosperms according to their monophyletic origin (descendants of common ancestors) and facts provided by molecular data including studies from DNA sequences from chloroplasts gene rbcL. Therefore, modern system of plant taxonomy, that is, Angiosperms Phylogeny Group (APG) system is a molecular-based systematics which retains order and families of Linnean systems and includes groups which are monophyletic. APG I was published in 1998 which was followed by APG II in 2003 (Chase et al., 2003) and APG III in 2009 (Bremer et al., 2009) and then APG IV in 2016. However, further development in molecular techniques, advancement in techniques related to metabolomics and proteomics is exploring the molecular phylogenetics which will form foundation of evidence-based classification of flowering plants.

Evolutionary evidences suggest that basal angiosperms which are characterized by absence of xylem vessels are primitive, however, some recent phylogenetic analysis reported that Amborella trichopoda is sister to all extant angiosperms and is at the base of angiosperms phylogenetic tree. They are composed of only few species which include many aquatic plants like water lilies (Figure 1.1), Amborella and star anise. Core angiosperms are represented by monocots and core eudicots. They include three major groups including monocots, eudicots and magnoliids, and the latter group was once considered to be dicots but now it is placed in a separate group. Important magnoliids include plants like avocado, black pepper, magnolia, nut-meg, bay leaf, tuliptree or yellow poplar.

Figure 1.1 (a-b) Basal angiosperms, (a) Nymphaea alba from family Nymphaeaceae, (b) Magnolia sp. is another basal angiosperm which belongs to family Magnoliaceae.

Eudicots also known as true dicots, composed of more than 75% of angiosperms and are characterized by their monophyletic origin and presence of tricolpate pollens (having three apertures). This group of angiosperms represents abundant clade of angiosperms. Figure 1.2 shows a cladogram of flowering plants based on information from APG I, II and III. A cladogram represents an evolutionary diagram which is used to explain evolutionary relationships within a group of related organisms which share common ancestors. Orders of basal angiosperms (Amborellales, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) represent primitive groups whereas core eudicots are represented as advanced or modern group of flowering plants. Magnoliids like Laureales, Magnoliales, Canellales and Piperales are evolved with monocots. Eudicots represent abundant group of flowering plants, among which core eudicots include two highly evolved and diverse clades which evolved separately are asterids (lamiids and campanulids) and rosids (fabids and malvids) (based on APG III) which are classified on the basis of their tendency to produce fused or free petals (Figures 1.3 and 1.4). Evolutionary traits, apomorphies, which are important in classification are represented where the origin of a clade takes place. Eudicots represent group of many economically important plants like members of family Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Rosaceae and Solanaceae.

Figure 1.2 A cladogram of angiosperms based on information from the Angiosperms Phylogeny Group (APG III, 2009) (Bremer et al., 2009).

Figure 1.3 (a-e) Rosids (fabids and malvids) are characterized by the presence of free petals (a) Quisqualis indica, (b) Chamelaucium uncinatum, (c) Millettia peguensis is an economically important plant with insecticidal properties and antiviral activities, (d) Tropaleum majus is an ornamental member of family Tropaeolaceae, and (e) Rosa sp. which belongs to Rosaceae is one of the popular ornamental and medicinal shrub.

Figure 1.4 (a-d) Asterids (lamiids and campanulids) are core eudicots which are differentiated from other eudicots due to the presence of fused petals (a) Petunia hybrid, (b) Daisy, (c) Lycopersicon esculentum, (d) Duranta erecta.

Other main group of flowering plants, that is, monocots represent one of the highly evolved clade with monophyletic origin (Figure 1.5). They are characterized by presence of only one cotyledon, non-woody stem, fibrous roots, long and slender leaves with parallel venation and scattered vascular bundles. They produce inconspicuous, mostly non-fragrant flowers with floral parts in multiple of three often which are arranged to form a spikelet in case of grasses. Table 1.1 shows comparison of monocots and eudicots. Commelinid clade represents most derived group of angiosperms which includes many plants from Arecales, Commelinales, Poales and Zingiberales. Monocots include palms, orchids and grasses which evolved about 60 millions years ago and are composed of almost 10,000 species. Fossils of palms and members from arum family are the oldest known monocots which are reported to found in rocks almost 100 millions years old. Monocots include many economically important plants which make our staple food like all cereals and grasses are monocots. They are important source of biofuel and...

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