Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 2. August 2016
  • |
  • 276 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
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978-0-12-805147-4 (ISBN)
 

Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease provides a comprehensive overview of all modalities of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, including neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid, genomic, and peripheral systems. Each chapter integrates molecular/cellular abnormality due to Alzheimer's disease and technological advancement of biomarkers techniques.

The book is ideal for clinical neuroscience and molecular/cellular neuroscience researchers, psychiatrists, and allied healthcare practitioners involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease, and for differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease with other non-Alzheimer's dementia.


  • Presents a comprehensive overview detailing all modalities of Alzheimer's disease biomarkers
  • Written for neuroscience researchers and clinicians studying or treating patients with Alzheimer's Disease
  • Integrates, in each chapter, the molecular/cellular abnormality due to Alzheimer's disease and the technological advancement of biomarkers techniques


Dr. Khan is an Associate Professor at the Blanchette Rockefeller Neurosciences Institute (BRNI). BRNI is operated in alliance with West Virginia University in Morgantown, USA. Dr. Khan has more than a decade of research experience in the Alzheimer's disease research area. He is an Associate Editor for Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and is a regular reviewer for many journals including: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, CNS & Neurological Disorders-Drug Targets, Neuropeptides, Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics, Stem Cell Research &Therapy.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 16,45 MB
978-0-12-805147-4 (9780128051474)
0128051477 (0128051477)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Cover
  • Title page
  • Copyright page
  • Contents
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction to Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 1.1 - Historical Background
  • 1.2 - Important Events in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) Research
  • 1.3 - Some Facts About Alzheimer's Disease
  • 1.4 - Common Features of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 1.5 - Classification of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 1.6 - Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 1.7 - Definition of a Biomarker
  • 1.7.1 - A. Categorization of Biomarkers According to Their Role
  • 1.7.2 - B. Definition of Common Statistical Parameters to Quantify the Performance of Biomarkers
  • 1.8 - Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 1.9 - Future Focus: Detecting Preclinical Stages of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 1.10 - Economic Impact of Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 1.11 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 2 - Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2.1 - Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease: Historical Perspective
  • 2.2 - Neuropsychological Assessment Tests to Diagnose Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2.2.1 - Mini-Mental State Examination
  • 2.2.2 - Clock Drawing Test
  • 2.2.3 - Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale
  • 2.2.4 - Neuropsychological Test Battery
  • 2.2.4.1 - Other neuropsychological tests
  • 2.2.5 - Clinical Dementia Rating
  • 2.2.6 - Global Deterioration Scale
  • 2.2.7 - Dementia Severity Rating Scale
  • 2.3 - Neuropathology at Brain Autopsy to Diagnose Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2.4 - Accuracy of Clinical Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2.5 - Alzheimer's Disease-Related Neurological Conditions
  • 2.5.1 - Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2.5.2 - Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • 2.5.3 - Non-Alzheimer's Dementias
  • 2.5.3.1 - Vascular dementia
  • 2.5.3.2 - Lewy body dementia
  • 2.5.3.3 - Frontotemporal dementia
  • 2.5.3.4 - Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease
  • 2.5.3.5 - Other non-AD dementias
  • 2.6 - Challenges in Diagnosing Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2.6.1 - Long Prodromal Stages
  • 2.6.2 - Comorbidity With Non-Alzheimer's Disease Dementias
  • 2.6.3 - Multiple Nongenetic and Genetic Factors
  • 2.6.4 - Anomalous Alzheimer's Disease Neuropathology
  • 2.7 - Comprehensive Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostic Framework
  • 2.8 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 3 - Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 3.1 - Neuroimaging in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 3.1.1 - Structural Neuroimaging
  • 3.1.2 - Functional Neuroimaging
  • 3.1.3 - Molecular Neuroimaging
  • 3.2 - Common Neuroimaging Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers and Modalities
  • 3.3 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • 3.3.1 - Structural MRI
  • 3.3.2 - Functional MRI
  • 3.3.3 - Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
  • 3.3.4 - Advanced Magnetic Resonance Based Neuroimaging Modalities
  • 3.3.4.1 - Diffusion tensor imaging
  • 3.3.4.2 - Arterial spin labeling MRI
  • 3.3.4.3 - Task free fMRI
  • 3.4 - Positron Emission Tomography
  • 3.4.1 - Amyloid Imaging by PET
  • 3.4.2 - Glucose Metabolism Measurement by PET
  • 3.4.3 - Brain Inflammation Imaging by PET
  • 3.4.4 - Tau Imaging by PET
  • 3.5 - Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
  • 3.6 - Electroencephalography and Magnetoencephalography in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 3.7 - Discrimination Between Alzheimer's Disease and Non-Alzheimer's Disease Dementias by Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • 3.8 - Longitudinal Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • 3.9 - Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • 3.10 - Cross-Correlation Between Neuroimaging With Other AD Biomarkers
  • 3.11 - Performance of Neuroimaging Biomarkers in Assessing Drug Efficacy in Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials
  • 3.12 - Cost of Neuroimaging Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 3.13 - Limitations of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • 3.13.1 - Sophisticated and Expensive Technology
  • 3.13.2 - Radioactivity Exposure
  • 3.13.3 - Nonspecific PET Tracer Binding
  • 3.13.4 - Variability Between Imaging Centers and Standardization of Neuroimaging Biomarkers
  • 3.14 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 4 - Genetic Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.1 - Background
  • 4.2 - Approaches to Identifying Genetic Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.2.1 - Positional Cloning Approach
  • 4.2.2 - Candidate Gene Approach
  • 4.2.3 - Genome-Wide Association Study
  • 4.2.4 - Pharmacogenomics in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.3 - Early-Onset (Familial) Alzheimer's Disease Genes
  • 4.4 - Recent Advances in Alzheimer's Disease Genetic Biomarker Research
  • 4.4.1 - Susceptibility Genes in LOAD Identified by GWAS
  • 4.4.1.1 - Apolipoprotein E (APOE)
  • 4.4.1.2 - Bridging Integrator 1 (BIN1) (SNP: rs6733839
  • Chromosomal Location: 2q14.3)
  • 4.4.1.3 - Clusterin (CLU) (SNP: rs11136000
  • Chromosomal Location: 8p21-12)
  • 4.4.1.4 - ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily A Member 7 (ABCA7) (SNP: rs 3764650
  • Chromosomal Location: 19p13.3)
  • 4.4.1.5 - Complement Cell-Surface Receptor (CR1) (SNP: rs3818361
  • Chromosomal Location: 1q32)
  • 4.4.1.6 - Phosphatidylinositol Binding Clathrin Assembly Protein (PICALM) (SNP: rs561655
  • Chromosomal Location: 11q14.2)
  • 4.4.1.7 - CD33 Antigen (CD33) (SNP: rs3865444
  • Chromosomal Location: 19q13.3)
  • 4.4.1.8 - Membrane-Spanning 4-Domains Subfamily A (MS4A) Gene Cluster (Chromosomal Location: 11q12.2)
  • 4.4.1.9 - Ephrin Type-A Receptor 1 (EPHA1) (rs11767557
  • Chromosomal Location: 7q34)
  • 4.4.1.10 - CD2-Associated Protein (CD2AP) (SNP: rs10948363
  • Chromosomal Location: 6p12.3)
  • 4.4.1.11 - Sortilin-Related Receptor (SORL1) (SNP: rs11218343
  • Chromosomal Location: 11q23-24)
  • 4.4.1.12 - Translocase of Outer Mitochondrial Membrane 40 Homolog (TOMM40) (SNP: rs10524523
  • Chromosomal Location: 19q13)
  • 4.5 - Genetic Variability of LOAD Risk Based on Ethnicity
  • 4.6 - Genetics Background and Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.7 - Transcriptome Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.8 - Micro RNA (miRNA) in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.9 - Crosscorrelation of Alzheimer's Disease Genetic Biomarkers With Other Biomarkers
  • 4.10 - Commercial Path for Genetic Biomarker Tests for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 4.11 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 5 - Alzheimer's Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Biomarkers
  • 5.1 - Pathophysiology of Aß Production in the Alzheimer's Disease Brain and Detection in the CSF
  • 5.2 - Pathophysiology of Elevated tau and Phosphorylated-tau in the Alzheimer's Disease Brain and CSF
  • 5.3 - Rationale for Using CSF Biomarkers of Neurodegenerative Diseases
  • 5.4 - CSF Biomarker Measurement Technologies and Standardization
  • 5.5 - Diagnostic Accuracy of CSF Biomarkers in Autopsy- Versus Clinically Validated Alzheimer's Disease Cohorts
  • 5.6 - Discrimination Between Alzheimer's Disease and Non-Alzheimer's Disease Dementias by CSF Biomarkers
  • 5.6.1 - AD Versus VaD
  • 5.6.2 - AD Versus LBD
  • 5.6.3 - AD Versus FTD
  • 5.6.4 - AD Versus CJD
  • 5.7 - Longitudinal Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease Using CSF Biomarkers
  • 5.8 - Limitations of Lumbar Puncture to the Widespread Application of CSF-Based Diagnostic Assays in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 5.9 - Instability of Baseline Aß in CSF
  • 5.10 - Interlaboratory Variation in CSF Biomarker Assays
  • 5.11 - Performance of CSF Biomarkers in Assessing Drug Efficacy in Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials
  • 5.12 - Crosscorrelation of CSF Biomarkers With Other Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers Modalities
  • 5.13 - Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease Using CSF Biomarkers
  • 5.14 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 6 - Peripheral Fluid-Based Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease
  • 6.1 - Background
  • 6.2 - Rationale for Peripheral Fluid-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.3 - Metabolomics to Identify Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.3.1 - Lipidomic Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.3.2 - Proteomic Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.3.2.1 - Plasma Aß Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.3.2.2 - Multicomponent Plasma Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.4 - Other Body Fluids as a Sample Sources of Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.5 - Longitudinal Assessment of Peripheral Blood-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.6 - Interrelationship of CSF, Neuroimaging, and Peripheral Blood-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.7 - Potential Challenges in Developing Blood-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 6.8 - Performance of Blood-Based Biomarkers in Assessing Drug Efficacy in Alzheimer's Disease Clinical Trials
  • 6.9 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Chapter 7 - Cell-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 7.1 - Background
  • 7.2 - Rationale for Cell-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 7.3 - Blood Cell-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 7.3.1 - Platelets
  • 7.3.2 - Red Blood Cells
  • 7.3.3 - Lymphocytes
  • 7.3.4 - Leukocytes
  • 7.4 - Systemic Pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease in Skin Fibroblasts
  • 7.5 - Skin Fibroblast-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 7.5.1 - Bradykinin-Induced Erk1/2 Phosphorylation in Skin Fibroblasts
  • 7.5.2 - Ca2+ Imaging in Skin Fibroblasts
  • 7.5.3 - Deficit of PKCe in AD Cultured Skin Fibroblasts
  • 7.5.4 - Fibroblasts Network Morphology Assay
  • 7.5.5 - Fibroblast-Based p53 Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 7.6 - Ocular Biomarkers in Alzheimer's Disease
  • 7.7 - Other Peripheral Cell-Based Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease
  • 7.7.1 - Buccal Cells
  • 7.7.2 - Nasal Cells
  • 7.8 - Future Approaches to Cell-Based Alzheimer's Disease Peripheral Biomarker Discovery
  • 7.8.1 - Multigenic Genetic Approaches
  • 7.8.2 - Stimulated Signaling Biomarkers in AD Cellular Models in Blood Cells
  • 7.9 - Advantages and Disadvantages of Cell-Based Alzheimer's Disease Biomarkers
  • 7.10 - Conclusions
  • Bibliography
  • Index
  • Back cover

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