Hearing Loss in Children, An Issue of Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America

 
 
Elsevier HealthScience EN (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
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  • erschienen am 7. Januar 2016
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  • 100 Seiten
 
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978-0-323-41707-5 (ISBN)
 
This essential subject to Otolaryngologists on Hearing Loss in Children is edited by leading physicians and academicians Dr. Bradley Kesser and Dr. Margaret Kenna. Topics in this issue on the state of art of diagnosing and managing pediatric hearing loss include: Audiometric evaluation of children with hearing loss; Taking the history and physical exam of the child with hearing loss; Radiographic evaluation of children with hearing loss; Acquired Hearing Loss in Children and Laboratory evaluation of children with hearing loss; Management of children with non-atretic conductive hearing loss; Management of children with congenital aural atresia; Diagnostic evaluation of children with sensorineural hearing loss; Management of children with mild, moderate, and moderate-severe SNHL; Management of children with severe, severe-profound, and profound SNHL; Management of children with unilateral hearing loss; Auditory Neuropathy/Dyssynchrony Disorder; Genetics of Hearing Loss - Syndromic; Genetics of Hearing Loss - Nonsyndromic; Psychosocial aspects of hearing loss in children; Speech and Auditory-Verbal Therapy; On the horizon - cochlear implant technology; Auditory brainstem implants; On the distant horizon - medical therapy for SNHL; Early Practice Considerations for Pediatric Hearing Loss. Each article presents clinically focused diagnosis and management.
  • Englisch
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  • 9,52 MB
978-0-323-41707-5 (9780323417075)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Hearing Loss in Children
  • Copyright
  • PROGRAM OBJECTIVE
  • LEARNING OBJECTIVES
  • ACCREDITATION
  • DISCLOSURE OF CONFLICTS OF INTEREST
  • UNAPPROVED/OFF-LABEL USE DISCLOSURE
  • TO ENROLL
  • METHOD OF PARTICIPATION
  • CME INQUIRIES/SPECIAL NEEDS
  • Contributors
  • EDITORS
  • AUTHORS
  • Contents
  • Preface: The Child with Hearing Loss
  • Audiometric Evaluation of Children with Hearing Loss
  • Taking the History and Performing the Physical Examination in a Child with Hearing Loss
  • Radiographic Evaluation of Children with Hearing Loss
  • Acquired Hearing Loss in Children
  • Management of Conductive Hearing Loss in Children
  • Diagnostic Evaluation of Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Management of Children with Mild, Moderate, and Moderately Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Management of Children with Severe, Severe-profound, and Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Management of Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss
  • Auditory Neuropathy/Dys-Synchrony Disorder: Diagnosis and Management
  • Genetics of Hearing Loss: Syndromic
  • Genetics of Hearing Loss: Nonsyndromic
  • Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children
  • Communication Assessment and Intervention: Implications for Pediatric Hearing Loss
  • On the Horizon: Cochlear Implant Technology
  • Pediatric Auditory Brainstem Implant Surgery
  • On the Distant Horizon: Medical Therapy for Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • OTOLARYNGOLOGIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA
  • FORTHCOMING ISSUES
  • February 2016
  • April 2016
  • June 2016
  • RECENT ISSUES
  • October 2015
  • August 2015
  • June 2015
  • Preface: The Child with Hearing Loss
  • Audiometric Evaluation of Children with Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • SCREENING FOR HEARING LOSS
  • Otoacoustic Emissions
  • Auditory Brainstem Response
  • BEHAVIORAL AUDIOMETRY
  • Conditioned Play Audiometry
  • SPEECH AUDIOMETRY
  • Speech Perception Testing
  • OBJECTIVE MEASURES
  • Acoustic Immittance Measures
  • Tympanometry
  • Acoustic Reflex Threshold
  • Otoacoustic Emissions
  • Auditory Brainstem Response
  • FUNCTIONAL AUDITORY ASSESSMENT TOOLS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Taking the History and Performing the Physical Examination in a Child with Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • PREVALENCE AND IMPACT HEARING LOSS
  • SYMPTOM CRITERIA
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS
  • Review of Risk Factors for Hearing Loss
  • Perinatal history
  • Family history
  • Delays of motor milestones
  • Infection and immunization
  • Noise exposure
  • PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
  • Balance and Vestibular Dysfunction
  • DIAGNOSTIC MODALITIES
  • COLLABORATIVE APPROACH
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Radiographic Evaluation of Children with Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Choice of Imaging
  • SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
  • Imaging Protocols
  • Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss
  • Unilateral sensorineural hearing loss
  • MRI versus computed tomography
  • Proposed algorithm
  • Common Findings
  • Enlarged vestibular aqueduct
  • Congenital cochlear abnormalities
  • Cochleovestibular nerve deficiency
  • Special Patient Populations
  • Syndromic children
  • Waardenburg syndrome
  • Pendred syndrome
  • Branchiootorenal syndrome
  • CHARGE syndrome
  • Infectious etiologies
  • Sudden sensorineural hearing loss
  • MIXED HEARING LOSS
  • CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS
  • Ossicular Malformations
  • Temporal Bone Fractures
  • Imaging in Cholesteatoma
  • Syndromic Conductive Hearing Loss
  • SUMMARY/CLINICAL PEARLS
  • REFERENCES
  • Acquired Hearing Loss in Children
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • NEWBORN HEARING SCREENING
  • OVERVIEW OF CAUSES OF HEARING LOSS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN
  • Genetic Causes of Hearing Loss
  • Infectious Causes
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Rubella
  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Herpes simplex
  • Syphilis
  • Other Infectious Diseases Associated with Hearing Loss
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Measles (rubeola)
  • Lyme disease
  • Mumps
  • Other viruses
  • Bacterial meningitis
  • Otitis media
  • HEARING LOSS SECONDARY TO TRAUMA
  • Noise-Related Hearing Loss
  • Ototoxicity
  • Head Trauma
  • Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Hearing loss in babies who require newborn intensive care unit management
  • Middle and inner ear structural anomalies
  • The overall evaluation of acquired neonatal and childhood-onset hearing loss
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Management of Conductive Hearing Loss in Children
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • ACQUIRED CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS
  • Otitis Media with Effusion
  • Prevalence
  • Effect of otitis media with effusion on speech and language development
  • Management of otitis media with effusion-American Academy of Otolaryngology guidelines
  • Conductive Hearing Loss Associated with Chronic Otitis Media
  • Tympanic membrane perforation
  • Tympanosclerosis
  • Cholesteatoma
  • Effect of chronic otitis media on hearing and speech/language development
  • CONGENITAL CONDUCTIVE HEARING LOSS
  • Overview
  • Development and Embryology of the Middle Ear
  • Patient Evaluation
  • Minor Malformations
  • Congenital stapes ankylosis
  • Malleoincudal fixation and malleus bar
  • Congenital incudostapedial discontinuity
  • Congenital absence of the oval window
  • Persistent stapedial artery
  • Congenital Aural Atresia
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Diagnostic Evaluation of Children with Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • IDENTIFYING PATIENTS WITH SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
  • CLINICAL HISTORY AND PHYSICAL EXAMINATION
  • DIAGNOSTIC TESTING
  • Laboratory Tests
  • Genetic Tests
  • Imaging
  • Cytomegalovirus Testing
  • CONSULTATION WITH SPECIALISTS
  • TESTING GUIDELINES
  • REFERENCES
  • Management of Children with Mild, Moderate, and Moderately Severe Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • OVERVIEW: NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
  • IDENTIFICATION OF CHILDHOOD HEARING LOSS
  • MANAGEMENT GOALS
  • Communication Mode
  • Hearing Assistive Technology
  • Hearing aids
  • Remote microphone technology
  • Cochlear implants
  • Interprofessional Collaborative Approach
  • Monitoring
  • Transient conductive hearing loss
  • Progressive and late-onset hearing loss
  • Ongoing surveillance
  • Information for the General Otolaryngologist or Pediatrician
  • Hearing screening beyond the newborn period
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Management of Children with Severe, Severe-profound, and Profound Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • OVERVIEW: NATURE OF THE PROBLEM
  • PATIENT EVALUATION OVERVIEW
  • Medical Assessment
  • Audiologic Assessment
  • Imaging
  • Other Common Testing
  • MANAGEMENT GOALS
  • Communication Options and Intervention
  • COORDINATION OF CARE
  • COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION
  • Treatment Goals
  • Preoperative Planning and Preparation
  • Patient Positioning
  • Procedural Approach
  • Potential Complications and Management
  • Postprocedural Care
  • Rehabilitation and Recovery
  • Outcomes
  • Evaluation of Outcome, Adjustment of Treatment, and Long-Term Recommendations
  • AUDITORY BRAINSTEM IMPLANTS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Management of Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND
  • Epidemiology
  • Etiology and Evaluation
  • Advantages of Binaural Hearing
  • CONSEQUENCES OF UNILATERAL HEARING LOSS
  • Educational Impact
  • Speech and Language Consequences
  • Cognition and Executive Functions
  • Impact on Quality of Life
  • MANAGEMENT GOALS
  • TREATMENT OPTIONS
  • TREATMENT RESISTANCE OR COMPLICATIONS
  • Hearing Rehabilitation
  • Reluctance to Acknowledge Unilateral Hearing Loss as a Problem for Children
  • EVALUATION OF OUTCOME
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Auditory Neuropathy/Dys-Synchrony Disorder
  • Key points
  • OVERVIEW OF CHARACTERISTICS
  • INCIDENCE
  • CLINICAL FINDINGS
  • Hair Cell Responses: Otoacoustic Emissions and Cochlear Microphonics
  • Neural Responses: Auditory Brainstem Response
  • Neural Responses: Efferent Acoustic Reflexes
  • Behavioral Findings: Pure-Tone Thresholds and Speech Recognition
  • UNDERLYING MECHANISMS
  • DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
  • Association with Other Neurologic Abnormalities
  • Cochlear Nerve Deficiency
  • Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct
  • DIAGNOSTIC AND MANAGEMENT DILEMMAS
  • Variation Among Patients with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
  • Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder in Infants
  • Unilateral Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder
  • Central Auditory Processing Disorder
  • MANAGEMENT APPROACHES AND OUTCOMES
  • Amplification
  • Frequency Modulation Systems
  • Cochlear Implants
  • Sound Detection Versus Discrimination
  • Two Patients Highlighting Detection Versus Discrimination
  • A Team Approach
  • SUMMARY
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • REFERENCES
  • Genetics of Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HEARING LOSS
  • SYNDROMIC HEARING LOSS
  • FORMS OF SYNDROMIC HEARING LOSS
  • Usher Syndrome
  • Waardenburg Syndrome
  • Pendred Syndrome
  • Additional Syndromes
  • GENETICS OF HEARING LOSS
  • DIAGNOSIS OF HEARING LOSS
  • Identifying Disease Genes Through Linkage Mapping with Genetic Markers
  • Identifying Disease Genes Through High-Throughput Sequencing
  • The Importance of Genetic Research in Understanding the Processes Involved in Hearing and Deafness
  • PROSPECTS OF FUTURE TREATMENT MODALITIES FOR HEARING LOSS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Genetics of Hearing Loss-Nonsyndromic
  • Key points
  • AUTOSOMAL-RECESSIVE GENES
  • GJB2 (DFNB1A)
  • SLC26A4 (DFNB4)
  • MYO15A (DFNB3)
  • OTOF (DFNB9)
  • CDH23 (DFNB12)
  • TMC1 (DFNB7/11)
  • AUTOSOMAL-DOMINANT GENES
  • WFS1 (DFNA6/14/38)
  • TECTA (DFNA8/12)
  • COCH (DFNA9)
  • KNCQ4 (DFNA2A)
  • X-LINKED GENES
  • POU3F4 (DFNX2)
  • MITOCHONDRIAL INHERITANCE
  • A1555G
  • C1494T
  • NEXT-GENERATION OR MASSIVELY PARALLEL SEQUENCING
  • REFERENCES
  • Psychosocial Aspects of Hearing Loss in Children
  • Key points
  • EARLY IDENTIFICATION AND INTERVENTION: A NEW PARADIGM
  • THE WHOLE CHILD
  • SOCIAL COMPETENCY
  • RECENT ADVANCES IN DEVELOPING SOCIAL COMPETENCY
  • Integrating Social-Emotional Learning Curricula
  • THE RIVER SCHOOL: CHILD OUTCOMES IN THE SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL REALM
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Communication Assessment and Intervention
  • Key points
  • DEMOGRAPHICS OF PEDIATRIC HEARING LOSS
  • EARLY INTERVENTION
  • COMMUNICATION OPTIONS
  • INTERVENTION AND ASSESSMENT
  • AUDIOLOGIC MANAGEMENT
  • LISTENING AND SPOKEN LANGUAGE AS AN OPTION
  • SUMMARY
  • RESOURCES
  • Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (www.agbell.org)
  • American Academy of Audiology (AAA) (www.audiology.org)
  • American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) (www.asha.org/public/hearing/testing/)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
  • Early Hearing ...
  • National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM) (www.infanthearing.org/screening/index.html)
  • National Institutes of Health
  • National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (www.nidcd.nih.gov/[Federal ...
  • Office of Special Education and Rehabilitation Services (OSERS), US Department of Education (www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ ...
  • ZERO TO THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families (www.zerotothree.org)
  • REFERENCES
  • On the Horizon
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • HISTORY OF COCHLEAR IMPLANT DEVELOPMENT
  • CONTEMPORARY COCHLEAR IMPLANTS AND TARGETS FOR INNOVATION
  • TOTALLY IMPLANTABLE COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
  • TELEMEDICINE AND REMOTE PROGRAMMING OF COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
  • OPTICAL NEURAL STIMULATION AND OPTICAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
  • INTRANEURAL COCHLEAR IMPLANTATION
  • HEARING PRESERVATION AND ELECTROACOUSTICAL STIMULATION
  • NEUROPROTECTION
  • IMPROVING THE ELECTRODE AND COCHLEAR NERVE INTERACTIONS
  • SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Pediatric Auditory Brainstem Implant Surgery
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • TREATMENT GOALS AND OUTCOMES
  • PREOPERATIVE PLANNING AND PREPARATION
  • Implant Systems
  • Evaluation
  • Radiographic Assessment
  • Selection Criteria and Candidacy
  • SURGICAL APPROACH
  • Translabyrinthine Craniotomy
  • Retrosigmoid Craniotomy
  • Intraoperative EABRs
  • Cranial Nerve Monitoring: Cranial Nerve VII and Cranial Nerve X
  • POSTOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT
  • COMPLICATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH PEDIATRIC ABI SURGERY
  • RECOVERY AND AUDITORY HABILITATION
  • OUTCOMES AND CLINICAL RESULTS IN THE LITERATURE
  • FUTURE OF AUDITORY BRAINSTEM IMPLANT TECHNOLOGY
  • SUMMARY
  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
  • SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
  • REFERENCES
  • On the Distant Horizon-Medical Therapy for Sensorineural Hearing Loss
  • Key points
  • INTRODUCTION
  • GENE THERAPY FOR SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
  • Spiral Ganglion Neuron Survival
  • Hair Cell Survival
  • Genetic Hearing Loss
  • Hair Cell Regeneration and Supporting Cell Transformation
  • RNA-BASED THERAPY FOR SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
  • STEM CELL THERAPY FOR SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS
  • Stem Cell Therapy for Generation of Hair Cells
  • Stem Cell Therapy for Generation of Auditory Neurons
  • FUTURE DIRECTIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Index

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