Advances in Technical Nonwovens

 
 
Woodhead Publishing
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 17. Mai 2016
  • |
  • 528 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-08-100584-2 (ISBN)
 

Advances in Technical Nonwovens presents the latest information on the nonwovens industry, a dynamic and fast-growing industry with recent technological innovations that are leading to the development of novel end-use applications.

The book reviews key developments in technical nonwoven manufacturing, specialist materials, and applications, with Part One covering important developments in materials and manufacturing technologies, including chapters devoted to fibers for technical nonwovens, the use of green recycled and biopolymer materials, and the application of nanofibres.

The testing of nonwoven properties and the specialist area of composite nonwovens are also reviewed, with Part Two offering a detailed and wide-ranging overview of the many applications of technical nonwovens that includes chapters on automotive textiles, filtration, energy applications, geo- and agrotextiles, construction, furnishing, packaging and medical and hygiene products.


  • Provides systematic coverage of trends, developments, and new technology in the field of technical nonwovens
  • Focuses on the needs of the nonwovens industry with a clear emphasis on applied technology
  • Contains contributions from an international team of authors edited by an expert in the field
  • Offers a detailed and wide-ranging overview of the many applications of technical nonwovens that includes chapters on automotive textiles, filtration, energy applications, geo- and agrotextiles, and more
  • Englisch
  • Atlanta
Elsevier Science
  • 10,36 MB
978-0-08-100584-2 (9780081005842)
0081005849 (0081005849)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Advances in Technical Nonwovens
  • The Textile Institute and Woodhead Publishing
  • Advances in Technical Nonwovens
  • Contents
  • List of contributors
  • Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles
  • 1 - Introduction to technical nonwovens
  • 1.1 The nonwovens industry
  • 1.2 What are technical nonwovens?
  • 1.2.1 Sustainability issues
  • 1.2.2 Lightweighting
  • 1.2.3 Recycled fibres
  • 1.2.4 Major players
  • 1.3 Applications
  • 1.3.1 Automotive
  • 1.3.1.1 Applications
  • 1.3.1.2 Trends
  • 1.4 Filtration
  • 1.4.1 Market trends
  • 1.5 Building and construction
  • 1.6 Aerospace
  • 1.7 Medical
  • 1.8 Geomembranes/geosynthetics
  • 1.9 The future
  • References
  • Other data sources
  • 2 - Developments in fibers for technical nonwovens
  • 2.1 Introduction of fibers for technical nonwovens
  • 2.1.1 From natural to synthetic fibers
  • 2.1.2 From organic fibers to inorganic fibers
  • 2.1.3 From functional fibers to high performance fibers
  • 2.2 Natural fibers
  • 2.2.1 Vegetable fibers
  • 2.2.1.1 Cotton
  • 2.2.1.2 Jute/ramie/sisal/apocynum/hemp/linen/flax
  • 2.2.1.3 Coconut fiber (coir fiber)
  • 2.2.1.4 Banana fiber
  • 2.2.1.5 Pineapple leaf fiber
  • 2.2.1.6 Lotus fiber/Nelumbo nucifera fiber
  • 2.2.1.7 Kapok fiber
  • 2.2.2 Animal fibers
  • 2.2.2.1 Wool
  • 2.2.2.2 Silkworm silk (Bombyx mori)
  • 2.2.2.3 Down and feather
  • 2.3 Synthetic fibers
  • 2.3.1 Cellulose fiber
  • 2.3.2 Protein-based fibers
  • 2.3.3 Chitosan
  • 2.3.4 Sodium alginate/calcium alginate
  • 2.3.5 Synthetic chemical fiber
  • 2.3.5.1 Polyolefin
  • 2.3.5.2 Polyamide
  • 2.3.5.3 Polyester fiber
  • 2.3.5.4 Polyacrylonitrile
  • 2.3.5.5 Spandex
  • 2.3.5.6 Polyvinyl alcohol
  • 2.4 Modified and functional chemical fibers
  • 2.4.1 Profiled fiber
  • 2.4.2 Conjugate spinning fiber
  • 2.4.3 Ultrafine fiber
  • 2.4.4 Functional modified fibers
  • 2.4.4.1 Far infrared fiber
  • 2.4.4.2 Flame-retardant fiber
  • 2.4.4.3 Conductive fiber
  • 2.4.4.4 Scented fiber
  • 2.4.4.5 Antibacterial fibers
  • 2.4.4.6 Heat storage and thermoregulated textiles fibers
  • 2.4.4.7 Anti-ultraviolet fiber
  • 2.4.5 Newly developed fiber materials
  • 2.4.5.1 Water-soluble fibers
  • 2.4.5.2 Low melt point fiber
  • 2.4.5.3 Elastic fiber
  • 2.4.5.4 Ion exchange
  • 2.4.5.5 Superabsorbent fiber
  • 2.5 High performance fibers
  • 2.5.1 Carbon fiber
  • 2.5.2 Aromatic polyamide fiber
  • 2.5.3 Polysulfonamide fiber
  • 2.5.4 Aromatic polyester fiber [66]
  • 2.5.5 Heterocyclic aromatic fiber [67]
  • 2.5.6 Polyphenylene sulfide fiber
  • 2.5.7 Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene
  • 2.5.8 High polyketone fiber
  • 2.5.9 Polyimide fiber
  • 2.5.10 Inorganic fiber or mineral fiber
  • 2.5.10.1 Glass fiber
  • 2.5.10.2 Boron fibers
  • 2.5.10.3 Basalt fiber
  • 2.5.10.4 Metal fibers
  • References
  • 3 - Developments in the use of green (biodegradable), recycled and biopolymer materials in technical nonwovens
  • 3.1 Introduction: the use of sustainable fibres in nonwovens
  • 3.1.1 Sustainable nonwovens
  • 3.1.2 Material sourcing
  • 3.1.3 End-of-life impact
  • 3.1.4 Biodegradability
  • 3.1.5 Recycling
  • 3.2 Types and use of green (biodegradable) synthetic polymers in nonwovens
  • 3.2.1 Biodegradability
  • 3.2.2 Natural fibres
  • 3.2.3 Synthetics
  • 3.3 Types and use of recycled materials in nonwovens
  • 3.3.1 Recycling
  • 3.3.2 Fibre recycling
  • 3.3.3 Melt processing
  • 3.4 Types and use of biopolymers in nonwovens
  • 3.4.1 Cellulose II
  • 3.4.2 Polylactic acid
  • 3.4.3 Chitosan
  • 3.4.4 Other biopolymers
  • 3.5 Reuse and recycling of nonwoven materials
  • 3.5.1 Municipal recycling, recovery and separation
  • 3.5.2 Melt processing of bulk materials
  • 3.6 Conclusions and future trends
  • 3.6.1 Conclusions
  • 3.6.2 Future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References
  • 4 - Developments in the use of nanofibres in nonwovens
  • 4.1 Introduction: the use of nanofibres in nonwovens
  • 4.2 Manufacturing processes for nanofibre nonwovens
  • 4.2.1 The electrospinning process
  • 4.2.2 Meltblowing
  • 4.2.3 Nanofibres for the wetlaid process
  • 4.2.4 Sea-island bicomponent nanofibres
  • 4.2.5 Flash-spinning
  • 4.3 Post-millenium developments in nanofibre processes (centrifugal spinning, blow spinning, magnetospinning)
  • 4.3.1 Centrifugal ForcespinningT
  • 4.3.2 Blow spinning
  • 4.3.3 Magnetospinning
  • 4.4 Advantages and disadvantages of nanofibre technologies
  • 4.5 Properties of nanofibres
  • 4.5.1 Properties of nanofibres: specific surface area, air permeability, mechanical strength
  • 4.6 Applications of nanofibre-based nonwovens
  • 4.6.1 Filtration for environmental applications
  • 4.6.2 Bioengineering applications
  • 4.6.3 Defence and security
  • 4.6.4 Water purification
  • 4.6.5 Energy and electronics
  • 4.6.6 Building and transportation sectors: sound absorption
  • 4.6.7 Automotive: engine intake filtration
  • 4.6.8 Technical textiles: sportswear (breathable, waterproof)
  • 4.7 Concerns over nanofibres
  • 4.8 Conclusions and future trends
  • References
  • 5 - Developments in manufacturing techniques for technical nonwovens
  • 5.1 Spunbond/spunlaid
  • 5.2 Process description: spunbond process
  • 5.2.1 Melt preparation
  • 5.2.1.1 Choice of resin
  • 5.2.1.2 Resin storage and resin preparation/metering unit for main polymer, pigments and additives
  • 5.2.1.3 Extruder for plasticization of the polymeric components
  • 5.2.1.4 Melt filtration/melt pipe to the spin pump(s)/spin pump(s) to maintain a constant throughput to the spinneret(s)
  • 5.2.1.5 Die head and spinnerets
  • 5.2.2 Cooling and downsizing of filaments
  • 5.2.2.1 Quench chambers
  • 5.2.2.2 System to supply conditioned air to the quench chambers
  • 5.2.2.3 Drawdown section (attenuation of fibres)
  • 5.2.3 Lay down of filaments
  • 5.2.3.1 Lay down area
  • 5.2.3.2 Conveyor belt machine to receive, form and transport the laid-down fibres
  • 5.2.4 Bonding of filaments
  • 5.2.5 Physical properties
  • 5.2.6 Energy
  • 5.2.7 Future development
  • 5.2.8 Fields of use
  • 5.3 Melt blown
  • 5.4 Process description of the melt blown process
  • 5.4.1 Melt making
  • 5.4.2 Spinning/downsizing
  • 5.4.3 Conveyor belt machine
  • 5.4.4 Post-spinning treatment
  • 5.5 Future of melt blown applications in technical nonwovens
  • 6 - Methods for characterisation of nonwoven structure, property, and performance
  • 6.1 Nonwoven fabrics and general testing standards
  • 6.2 Methods for characterising nonwoven fabric structural parameters
  • 6.2.1 Fabric thickness
  • 6.2.2 Nonwoven fabric mass per unit area, bulk density, and fabric uniformity
  • 6.2.3 Porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution
  • 6.2.3.1 Porosity
  • 6.2.3.2 Pore size and pore size distribution
  • Apparent opening pore size
  • Constriction pore size
  • Pore volumetric size distribution
  • 6.2.3.3 Specific surface area by using gas adsorption45-47
  • 6.2.4 Fibre orientation distribution
  • 6.2.4.1 Review of the fibre orientation distribution measurement
  • 6.2.4.2 Measurement of the fibre orientation distribution using image analysis
  • 6.2.5 Bonding and bonding points
  • 6.3 Examination of nonwoven fabric properties
  • 6.3.1 Mechanical properties
  • 6.3.1.1 Stiffness and fabric handle
  • 6.3.1.2 Tensile strength
  • 6.3.2 Fabric durability (tear strength, burst strength, abrasion resistance, and linting)
  • 6.3.3 Air permeability and water permeability
  • 6.3.4 Liquid handling properties
  • 6.3.4.1 Wettability and contact angle
  • 6.3.4.2 Wettability and liquid strike time (areal wicking spot test)
  • 6.3.4.3 Liquid wicking1
  • One-dimensional liquid wicking rate (wicking strip test)
  • Two-dimensional liquid wicking rate
  • 6.3.4.4 Liquid absorbency1
  • 6.3.4.5 Liquid repellency
  • 6.3.5 Water vapour transmission rate (WVTR)
  • 6.3.6 Thermal properties (thermal conductivity and insulation)
  • 6.3.7 Other properties (electrical and optical properties)
  • 6.4 Standards for testing the performance of specific nonwoven products
  • 6.4.1 Nonwoven clothing and protective devices160
  • 6.4.2 Nonwoven geotextiles
  • 6.4.3 Standards for testing air filtration
  • 6.4.3.1 Heating, ventilation, air-conditioning
  • 6.4.3.2 Health and safety, healthcare and medical
  • 6.4.3.3 Automotive industry
  • 6.4.3.4 Appliances: vacuum cleaners, room air cleaners, and room air purifiers
  • 6.4.3.5 Liquid filtration
  • 6.4.4 Standards for nonwoven wound dressing (ISO, BP, ASTM, and BS)
  • 6.4.5 Other performances
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References
  • 7 - Developments in composite nonwovens and related materials
  • 7.1 Composite plastics and nonwovens
  • 7.2 Market segments
  • 7.3 Composite plastics
  • 7.4 Background
  • 7.5 Technical textiles
  • 7.6 How are composites created?
  • 7.7 Thermoplastic composites: technology trends
  • 7.8 Composites trends
  • 7.9 Manufacturing technologies
  • 7.10 Automotive nonwoven composites
  • 7.11 Carbon fibre composites
  • 7.12 Composite joint ventures
  • 7.13 Manufacturers
  • 7.14 Thermoplastic nets and scrims
  • 7.15 Composite nonwovens in labels
  • 7.16 Lightweight thermoplastic nonwoven veils
  • 7.17 Geotextile-geomembrane composites
  • 7.18 Speciality wet-laid nonwovens
  • 7.19 Centers of excellence
  • 7.20 Composite nonwoven processes
  • 7.21 Filtration composites
  • 7.22 Extrusion coating and lamination
  • 7.23 Industrial markets
  • 7.24 Graphic imaging
  • 7.25 Wet-laid and spunlaced nonwovens
  • 7.26 Technical data sources
  • References
  • 8 - Developments in nonwoven materials for medical applications
  • 8.1 Introduction: overview of chapter
  • 8.2 Key issues of nonwovens
  • 8.2.1 Fibre
  • 8.2.2 Web assemblage
  • 8.2.3 Fibre bonding
  • 8.2.4 Web finishing
  • 8.2.5 Fibre finish
  • 8.3 Strengths and limitations of nonwoven materials for medical applications
  • 8.3.1 Strengths
  • 8.3.2 Limitations
  • 8.4 Design issues
  • 8.4.1 Barrier properties
  • 8.4.2 Protective performance
  • 8.4.3 Surgical gowns
  • 8.4.4 Surgical drapes
  • 8.4.5 Latex issues
  • 8.5 Product categories
  • 8.5.1 Patient specific
  • 8.5.1.1 Surgical tape - Nonwoven paper tape
  • 8.5.1.2 Medical gauze
  • 8.5.1.3 Wound dressing
  • 8.5.1.4 Wadding
  • 8.5.1.5 Sponges
  • 8.5.2 General patient management products
  • 8.5.2.1 Underpads
  • 8.5.2.2 Medical wipes
  • 8.5.3 Procedure specific
  • 8.5.3.1 Medical masks
  • 8.5.3.2 Surgical gowns
  • 8.5.3.3 Drapes and cover cloths
  • 8.5.3.4 Surgical caps
  • 8.5.3.5 Bed linen
  • 8.5.3.6 Clothing
  • 8.6 Developments
  • 8.6.1 Wound management
  • 8.6.1.1 Odour adsorption dressings
  • 8.6.1.2 Drug delivery textiles
  • 8.6.2 Tissue engineering
  • 8.6.2.1 Design of pore structure
  • 8.6.2.2 Choice of biocompatible and degradable materials
  • 8.7 Future trends
  • References
  • 9 - Developments in nonwovens for automotive textiles
  • 9.1 Introduction
  • 9.2 Nonwovens and the automotive supply chain
  • 9.2.1 Restructuring and consolidation
  • 9.2.2 China
  • 9.3 Current nonwoven materials, technologies for the automotive sector
  • 9.3.1 Tenowo: example of a leading automotive nonwovens company
  • 9.3.2 Filtration
  • 9.4 Recent developments in materials, technologies and applications
  • 9.4.1 Natural fibre-based nonwovens
  • 9.4.2 German lead
  • 9.4.3 EcoTechnilin
  • 9.5 Recycled carbon
  • 9.6 Hybrid filter media
  • 9.7 Other developments
  • 9.7.1 Electric vehicle battery separators
  • 9.7.2 Exterior components
  • 9.7.3 Polyurethane replacement
  • 9.7.4 Heating fabrics
  • 9.7.5 Fuel treatment
  • 9.7.6 Energy storage
  • 9.8 Conclusions
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • 10 - Nonwoven fabric filters
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Fibre types and processing for nonwoven fabric filters
  • 10.2.1 Fibres used in nonwoven filter
  • 10.2.2 Wet-laid nonwoven fabrics
  • 10.2.3 Needle-punched nonwoven fabrics
  • 10.2.4 Hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics
  • 10.2.5 Spunbond and melt blown nonwoven fabrics
  • 10.2.6 Nanofibre nonwoven membrane
  • 10.3 Filtration mechanism of nonwoven fabrics and their filter efficiency
  • 10.3.1 Filtration mechanism and single fibre filtration theory in nonwoven filters
  • 10.3.2 Filter efficiency of nonwoven filters having multiple fibre components
  • 10.3.3 Pressure drop
  • 10.3.4 Mechanism of nonwoven blood filtration
  • 10.4 Applications of nonwoven fabric filters
  • 10.4.1 Nonwoven air filters
  • 10.4.2 Nonwoven water filters
  • 10.4.3 Nonwoven oil filters
  • 10.4.4 Nonwoven coalescing filters
  • 10.5 Future trends
  • Sources of further information
  • References
  • 11 - Developments in nonwovens as specialist membranes in batteries and supercapacitors
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.1.1 Separators
  • 11.1.2 Separator market
  • 11.1.3 Separator requirements
  • 11.1.4 Traditional separators for advanced cells
  • 11.1.5 Traditional nonwoven materials for battery separators
  • 11.1.6 Benefits of nonwovens in advanced cells
  • 11.2 Technologies and products developed at commercial entities
  • 11.2.1 Dreamweaver International
  • 11.2.1.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.1.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.1.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.1.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.2 DuPont
  • 11.2.2.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.2.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.2.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.2.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.3 Elegus
  • 11.2.3.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.3.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.3.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.3.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.4 Freudenberg
  • 11.2.4.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.4.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.4.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.4.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.5 Hirose Paper
  • 11.2.5.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.5.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.5.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.5.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.6 Japan Vilene
  • 11.2.6.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.6.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.6.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.6.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.7 Mitsubishi Paper
  • 11.2.7.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.7.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.7.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.7.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.2.8 Nippon Kodoshi Corporation
  • 11.2.8.1 The company and technology overview
  • 11.2.8.2 Products and features
  • 11.2.8.3 Benefits in cells
  • 11.2.8.4 Technology in depth
  • 11.3 Academic and laboratory technology
  • 11.3.1 Composite separators
  • 11.3.2 Electrospun nanofiber separators
  • 11.3.3 Other nanofiber separators
  • 11.4 Summary and future trends
  • Author information
  • References
  • 12 - Developments in nonwoven as geotextiles
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Nonwoven manufacturing processes
  • 12.2.1 Mechanical bonding
  • 12.2.2 Thermal bonding
  • 12.2.3 Chemical bonding
  • 12.3 Needle-punched nonwovens
  • 12.4 Performance characteristics of nonwoven geotextiles
  • 12.4.1 Potential performance issues associated with geotextiles
  • 12.5 Geotechnical functions of nonwovens
  • 12.5.1 Filtration function
  • 12.5.2 Drainage function
  • 12.5.3 Separation and stabilization function
  • 12.5.4 Reinforcement function
  • 12.6 Developments in nonwoven as geotextile
  • 12.6.1 Civil application of nonwovens
  • 12.6.1.1 Subsurface drainage
  • 12.6.1.2 Railroad stabilization
  • 12.6.1.3 Asphalt overlay
  • 12.6.1.4 Pavement separator
  • 12.6.1.5 Hard armour underlayment
  • 12.6.1.6 Embankment foundation
  • 12.6.2 Environmental application of nonwovens
  • 12.6.2.1 Geomembrane liner protection
  • 12.6.2.2 Landfill gas collection
  • 12.6.2.3 Landfill drainage systems
  • 12.6.2.4 Other applications
  • 12.7 Key design properties and testing standards
  • 12.7.1 Physical properties
  • 12.7.2 Mechanical properties
  • 12.7.3 Hydraulic properties
  • 12.7.4 Endurance properties
  • 12.8 Global market outlook
  • References
  • 13 - Developments in nonwovens as agrotextiles
  • 13.1 Agrotextiles: a growing landscape with huge potential
  • 13.2 Factors influencing agricultural activities
  • 13.3 Key functional properties required for agrotextiles
  • 13.4 Application of nonwovens as agrotextiles
  • 13.4.1 Capillary mats for greenhouses
  • 13.4.2 Crop covers, row covers, or antifrost covers
  • 13.4.3 Weather protection cover
  • 13.4.4 Fruit cover
  • 13.4.4.1 Banana
  • 13.4.4.2 Mango
  • 13.4.4.3 Grapes
  • 13.4.4.4 Pomegranate
  • 13.4.4.5 Lychee
  • 13.4.5 Landscaping fabrics or weed barriers
  • 13.4.6 Liner fabrics
  • 13.4.7 Surface fabrics or tree mats
  • 13.4.8 Biorolls
  • 13.4.9 Roof greening mats
  • 13.4.10 Grow sticks
  • 13.4.11 Animal husbandry
  • 13.4.11.1 Milk filters
  • 13.4.11.2 Manure storage
  • 13.4.12 Aquaculture
  • 13.4.12.1 Fish farming
  • 13.5 Agrotextiles market
  • References
  • 14 - Developments in the use of nonwovens in building and construction
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Current nonwoven materials, technologies, and their limitations
  • 14.2.1 Different forms of nonwoven materials
  • 14.2.2 Technologies used for production of nonwovens
  • 14.2.2.1 Manufacturing steps
  • 14.2.2.2 Nonwoven manufacturing process
  • 14.2.2.3 Web formation
  • 14.2.2.4 Web bonding
  • 14.2.2.5 Finishing and converting
  • 14.2.3 Comparison among the different types of nonwoven fabrics on the basis of their limitations
  • 14.3 Recent developments in materials, technologies, and applications
  • 14.3.1 Recently developed nonwoven fabrics
  • 14.3.2 Production technologies
  • 14.3.3 Areas of applications, in particular, civil constructional applications
  • 14.3.3.1 Roofing
  • 14.3.3.2 Wall membranes
  • 14.3.3.3 Pipeline relining
  • 14.3.3.4 Lining of lateral connections
  • 14.3.3.5 Lining of storm drains at an industrial facility
  • 14.3.3.6 Lining of pipes with stretch-resistant liner
  • 14.3.3.7 Rigid drainage pipe
  • 14.4 Conclusions and future trends
  • Sources of further information and advice
  • References
  • 15 - Developments in the use of nonwovens in home furnishing
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 The home furnishing sector
  • 15.2.1 The use of nonwovens
  • 15.2.2 Design considerations and performance requirements
  • 15.2.3 Product development
  • 15.3 Current applications of nonwovens in home furnishings
  • 15.3.1 Flooring
  • 15.3.1.1 Construction methods and performance properties
  • 15.3.1.2 Design potential and product examples
  • 15.3.2 Upholstery and soft furnishings
  • 15.3.2.1 Construction methods and performance properties
  • 15.3.2.2 Design potential and product examples
  • 15.3.3 Bedding
  • 15.3.3.1 Construction methods and performance properties
  • 15.3.3.2 Design potential and product examples
  • 15.3.4 Wall coverings
  • 15.3.4.1 Construction methods and performance properties
  • 15.3.4.2 Design potential and product examples
  • 15.4 Lighting and windows
  • 15.4.1 Lighting and windows
  • 15.4.1.1 Construction methods and performance properties
  • 15.4.1.2 Design potential and product examples
  • 15.5 Summary and future directions
  • References
  • Websites
  • 16 - Developments in the use of nonwovens in packaging
  • 16.1 Introduction: main types and uses of nonwovens in packaging
  • 16.2 Executive summary
  • 16.3 Summary
  • 16.4 Leading companies
  • 16.5 The two market sectors
  • 16.6 Packaging formats and applications
  • 16.7 Key applications
  • 16.7.1 Leading packaging materials
  • 16.8 Why is packaging 'a natural market' for nonwovens
  • 16.9 The market
  • 16.10 Key applications
  • 16.11 Largest applications
  • 16.12 Tea and coffee bags
  • 16.12.1 Spunmelt nonwovens in tea bags
  • 16.12.2 Coffee bags
  • 16.13 Medical packaging
  • 16.13.1 Sterilisation wrap
  • 16.14 Active and intelligent packaging
  • 16.15 Industrial packaging applications
  • 16.16 Industrial/automotive multitrip packaging
  • 16.16.1 Nonwoven labels
  • 16.16.2 Desiccant and functional chemical bags
  • 16.17 Produce packaging
  • 16.18 Retail markets: shopping bags
  • 16.19 Promotional bags
  • 16.19.1 Courier bags and strong envelopes
  • 16.20 Other packaging applications
  • 16.21 Disruptive/innovative technologies
  • 16.21.1 Printing
  • 16.22 Nonwoven packaging composites
  • 16.23 Innovations
  • 16.24 VPI/VCI packaging
  • 16.24.1 Future developments
  • 16.25 Market projections
  • References
  • 17 - Developments in nonwovens for wound dressings
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 A brief history of wound care
  • 17.3 Classification of medical textiles and application of textile structures
  • 17.4 Factors that interfere with wound healing
  • 17.4.1 Significance of a moist wound environment
  • 17.4.2 Wound maceration
  • 17.4.3 pH and wound healing
  • 17.4.4 Wound infection
  • 17.4.5 Nutrition and wound healing
  • 17.5 A comparison of smart and conventional hybrid wound dressings and wound dressing types
  • 17.6 Latest materials for hybrid wound dressing production
  • 17.6.1 Carboxymethylcellulose
  • 17.6.1.1 Production and properties of carboxymethylcellulose fibre
  • 17.6.2 Alginate fibre
  • 17.6.3 Polylactic acid
  • 17.7 Test methods for wound dressings
  • 17.7.1 Absorbency of wound dressing
  • 17.7.1.1 Free swell absorbency
  • 17.7.1.2 Payne cup method
  • 17.7.2 Conformability of wound dressing
  • 17.7.3 Dehydration rate of dressing
  • 17.7.4 Rate of absorption
  • 17.7.5 Vertical wicking
  • 17.7.6 Dispersion characteristic of dressing
  • 17.7.7 Evaluation of swelling characteristics
  • 17.7.8 Air permeability
  • 17.7.9 Waterproofness testing of occlusive dressings
  • 17.7.10 Measurement of the peel from stainless steel testing at 180°
  • 17.7.11 Modified test methods for wound dressings
  • 17.7.11.1 pH measurement test method
  • 17.7.11.2 Lateral area wicking
  • Acknowledgements
  • References
  • 18 - Developments in the use of nonwovens for disposable hygiene products
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Key issues of disposable hygiene materials
  • 18.2.1 Diapers
  • 18.2.2 Adult incontinence
  • 18.2.3 Feminine hygiene
  • 18.3 Types of nonwovens used for disposable hygiene products
  • 18.3.1 Spunbond nonwovens
  • 18.3.2 Thermal bonded nonwovens
  • 18.3.3 Composites
  • 18.3.3.1 Cotton surfaced nonwovens (CSNs)
  • 18.3.3.2 Cotton core nonwovens (CCNs)
  • 18.4 Properties of nonwovens for hygiene applications
  • 18.5 Applications of nonwoven hygiene materials
  • 18.5.1 Diaper
  • 18.5.1.1 The Anatomy of diaper (Pampers, 2015)
  • Diaper cover sheet
  • Secondary facing
  • Acquisition/distribution layer
  • The absorbent core
  • The back sheet
  • Tissue
  • Elastics
  • Hot melts
  • Hydrophobic nonwoven
  • Lateral tapes
  • Frontal tapes
  • Top sheet surface add-on lotions
  • Decorated films and wetness indicators
  • Diaper test methods
  • 18.5.2 Feminine hygiene products
  • 18.5.2.1 Sanitary napkins
  • 18.5.2.2 Panty shields
  • 18.5.2.3 Tampons
  • 18.5.3 Adult incontinence
  • 18.5.3.1 Heavy incontinence
  • 18.5.3.2 Medium/low incontinence
  • 18.5.3.3 Products for adult incontinence
  • 18.5.3.4 Protective underwear
  • 18.5.3.5 Adult brief with waistband
  • 18.5.3.6 Underpads
  • 18.6 Developments and future trends
  • References
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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