Neuroradiology

A Neuropathological Approach
 
 
Springer (Verlag)
  • erschienen am 6. Dezember 2012
  • |
  • XII, 324 Seiten
 
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978-3-642-81678-9 (ISBN)
 
Contents: Intracranial Pressure and Mass Displacements of the Intracranial Contents. - Special Neuropathology - Morphology and Biology of the Space-Occupying and Atrophic Processes with Their Related Neuroradiological Changes of Diagnostic Significance. - Cerebral Angiography. - Pneumoencephalography. - Myelography. - Spinal Angiography. - Discography. - Ossovenography and Epidural Venography. - References. - Subject Index.
1976
  • Englisch
  • Heidelberg
  • |
  • Deutschland
Springer Berlin
176 s/w Abbildungen
978-3-642-81678-9 (9783642816789)
10.1007/978-3-642-81678-9
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
A. Intracranial Pressure and Mass Displacements of the Intracranial Contents.- I. Intracranial Anatomy and Mass Displacements.- II. Mass Displacements and Space-Occupying Lesions.- 1. Etiology of Localized and Generalized Intracranial Pressure.- 2. Herniation into the Cisterns.- 3. Development of Occlusive Hydrocephalus.- 4. Significance of Site and Type of Space-Occupying Lesions on the Type of Intracranial Mass Displacement.- a) The Hemispheric Processes.- b) The Paramedian, Especially Thalamic and Basal Ganglia Tumors.- c) Obstructions to the Ventricular Fluid Pathways in or Near the Midline.- III. Mass Displacements by Atrophic Processes.- B. Special Neuropathology - Morphology and Biology of the Space-Occupying and Atrophic Processes with Their Related Neuroradiological Changes.- I. Space-Occupying Intracranial and Spinal Processes.- a) Predilections.- b) The Classification of Brain Tumors According to the World Health Organization.- 1. Tumors of Neuroepithelial Tissue.- 2. Tumors of Nerve Sheath Cells.- 3. Tumors of Meningeal and Related Tissues.- 4. Primary Malignant Lymphomas.- 5. Tumors of Blood Vessel Origin.- 6. Germ Cell Tumors.- 7. Other Malformative Tumors and Tumor-Like Lesions.- 8. Vascular Malformations.- 9. The Tumors of the Anterior Pituitary.- 10. Local Extensions from Regional Tumors.- 11. Metastatic Tumors and Unclassified Tumors.- 12. Less Common Tumors of the Base of the Skull.- 13. Space-Occupying Processes of the Spinal Canal.- 14. Space-Occupying Lesions Other than Neoplasms.- 15. Grading of Malignancy.- II. Atrophic Cerebral Processes.- III. Changes Following Trauma to the Skull and Brain.- 1. Injuries Occurring as a Result of Falls or Secondary to Blunt Instruments (Flat Force, Circumscribed Force).- 2. Traumatic Hemorrhages.- 3. Traumatic Cysts.- 4. Traumatic Brain Edema.- 5. Special, Rare Posttraumatic Events (Pneumocephaly, Carotid-Cavernous Fistula).- IV. Consequences of Craniocerebral Trauma as Revealed by Radiologic Contrast Procedures.- V. The Pathogenesis of Infarcts.- VI. Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Malformations.- VII. Hypertensive Intracerebral Hemorrhage.- C. Cerebral Angiography.- I. History.- II. Technique.- 1. Injection of the Contrast Medium.- a) Puncture Methods.- b) Catheter Techniques.- c) Retrograde Injection Techniques.- d) Catheter Techniques and Retrograde Angiography in Children.- 2. The Contrast Media.- 3. X-Ray Technique.- a) Magnification Angiography.- b) Subtraction.- 4. Dangers and Complications of Cerebral Angiography.- III. The Normal Cerebral Angiogram.- a) The Arterial Phase of the Internal Carotid Artery Angiogram.- b) The Capillary and Venous Phases of the Internal Carotid Artery Angiogram.- c) The External Carotid Angiogram.- d) The Arterial Phase of the Vertebral Angiogram.- e) The Venous Phase of the Vertebral Angiogram.- IV. The Pathological Intracranial Angiogram.- 1. Intracranial Space-Occupying Lesions.- a) Displacement of Normal Blood Vessels.- b) Pathological Vascularization in Space-Occupying Processes.- 2. The Angiogram in Head Injuries.- 3. The Diagnosis of Primary Intracranial Vascular Disease.- a) Arterial Aneurysms.- b) Arteriovenous Malformations.- c) The Carotid-Cavernous Fistula.- d) Vascular Stenoses and Vascular Occlusions.- e) Intracerebral Hemorrhage.- f) Disturbances in Venous Outflow.- 4. Cerebral Circulatory Standstill and Brain Death.- V. Special Angiographic Procedures.- 1. Angiography of the Ophthalmic Artery.- 2. Orbital Venography.- 3. Direct Sinography.- 4. Angiography of the Jugular Vein.- D. Pneumoencephalography.- I. History.- II. Injection Technique.- 1. The Lumbar Pneumoencephalogram.- 2. Suboccipital (Cisternal) Pneumoencephalography.- 3. Ventriculography.- III. Radiologie Technique.- a) Recommended Standard Technique.- b) Positioning the Patient and Setting of the Apparatus for the Films.- c) The Causes of Nonfilling of the Ventricular System.- d) Unilateral Filling.- e) The 24-h Pneumoencephalogram.- IV. Gas Resorption.- V. Autonomic Reactions.- VI. Complications.- VII. The Normal Pneumoencephalogram.- 1. The Ventricular System.- 2. The Subarachnoid Pathways.- VIII. General Rules for the Interpretation of Pneumoencephalograms.- IX. The Pathological Pneumoencephalogram.- 1. Space-Occupying Processes.- a) The Hemispheric Processes.- b) Tumors of the Lateral Ventricles, Basal Ganglia, and Thalamus.- c) Occlusion of the Midline Ventricular Pathways (Third Ventricle, Aqueduct, Fourth Ventricle).- d) Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors.- e) The Normal Air Study in Space-Occupying Processes.- f) Multiple Tumors, Pseudotumor Cerebri.- g) Specific Diagnosis of Space-Occupying Processes from the Air Study.- 2. Atrophic Processes.- a) Generalized Cerebral Atrophies.- b) Unilateral Atrophic Processes.- c) Atrophy of Lobes.- d) Local Circumscribed Atrophies.- 3. Changes After Trauma to the Skull and Brain - Expert Legal Testimony.- 4. Malformations.- a) The Septum Pellucidum Cyst.- b) Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum.- c) The Unpaired, Cyclops Ventricle.- d) Arachnoidal Cysts.- X. Indications and Contraindications for Angiography and Pneumoencephalography (or Ventriculography) in the Absence of CT.- XI. Comparison of the Indications for Conventional Neuroradiological Procedures and for CT.- E. Myelography.- I. History.- II. Technique.- 1. Myelography Using Water-Insoluble Positive Contrast Media.- 2. Myelography Using Water-Soluble Positive Contrast Media.- 3. Myelography With Negative Contrast Media.- III. Complications and Errors.- IV. Indications.- V. The Normal Myelogram.- VI. The Pathological Myelogram.- 1. Intramedullary Space-Occupying Lesions.- 2. Intradural, Extramedullary Space-Occupying Lesions.- 3. Extradural Space-Occupying Lesions.- 4. The Spinal Arteriovenous Malformations.- 5. Meningeal Adhesions and Arachnoiditis.- 6. Posttraumatic Changes.- 7. Spinal Cord Atrophy.- 8. Congenital Malformations of the Spine and Its Contents.- F. Spinal Angiography.- I. History.- II. Normal and Pathological Anatomy of the Spinal Cord Vessels.- III. Examination Technique.- 1. Demonstration of the Anterior Spinal Artery in the Cervical Region.- 2. Demonstration of the Anterior Spinal Artery at the Thoracolumbar Junction.- 3. Comparison of Various Methods Available for Spinal Angiography.- IV. Complications.- G. Discography.- I. History.- II. Technique of Cervical Discography.- III. The Normal Discogram.- IV. The Pathological Discogram.- V. Complications.- H. Ossovenography and Epidural Venography.- I. History.- II. Anatomy.- III. Technique.- IV. Results.- V. Complications and Contraindications.- References.

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