Epizootic Ulcerative Fish Disease Syndrome

 
 
Academic Press
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 6. August 2015
  • |
  • 314 Seiten
 
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978-0-12-802642-7 (ISBN)
 

Epizootic Ulcerative Fish Disease Syndrome covers both the background and current information on the EUS disease relevant to fisheries and aquaculture delivered in a systematic and succinct way.

The book is an essential resource for the aquaculture and fisheries researcher interested in finding solutions to the spread of the disease across the globe and students in relevant programs, including an in-depth description and analysis of the disease, as well as the structure and composition of the virus, while offering prevention and control methodologies.

Clinical veterinarians, aquaculture disease practitioners, farmers, and those who are interested in aquatic virology will find this book to be a useful guide on the topic.


  • Examines different manifestations of the disease, and includes different methodologies of studies, such as histopathological, histochemical, bacteriological, mycological, virological, and enzymological
  • Provides background information describing fish as a significant food source and avocation, the diversity of fishes in the globe, and the panorama of diseases fish can be exposed to
  • Describes all major species affected by EUS and its pattern of spread, along with suggested strategies for control and prevention


Dr Devashish Kar is a pioneer and preeminent researcher in India in the fields of wetlands, rivers, fisheries, and aquaculture. He completed his master's program at the University of Gauhati with specializations in Fishery Science and Aquaculture. He was awarded a PhD by the University of Gauhati for his outstanding work in the 'beel" (wetlands) fisheries of Assam. On a prestigious British Council Study Fellowship Award, Dr Kar was in King's College London for its nine-month Advanced Training in Science Education program. Dr Kar was awarded the prestigious Biotechnology National Associateship by the Indian government's Department of Biotechnology (DBT) for his pioneering research in the field of fish disease, particularly in tackling the dreadful epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS) fish disease in India and for conducting further research in defining EUS in collaboration with the National Institute of Virology, Pune. As convener, Dr Kar has organized a number of national and international symposia and workshops in the fields of wetlands, fisheries, and aquaculture, including ornamental fishes, in collaboration with DBT, DST, CSIR, ICAR, MOEF, UGC, and MPEDA. These events have been attended by preeminent scientific personalities, notably Prof. Asis Datta, Prof. Samir Bhattachryya, Dr K.C. Jayaram, and others. Dr Kar has presented papers and chaired scientific sessions at a large number of national and international symposia both in India and abroad, notably the Gordon Research Conference in the United States; 2nd International Symposium on GIS/Spatial Analysis in Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences in England during 2002; Lake Symposium at IISc, Bangalore (2000, 2002, 2010, 2012, and 2014, including chairing sessions); and Indian Science Congress (2012 and 2013, including chairing sessions), to name a few. He also has published in more than 190 national and international journals. Of particular note, 16 research scholars have been awarded MPhil and PhD degrees under his supervision. Professor Kar has authored 34 books (14 books singleauthored by him), including one published by Springer (London) and one in press with Elsevier (USA). Also, the book Community Based Fisheries Management is in press with Apple Academic Press (USA).
As President of Conservation Forum, Dr Kar has made a profound contribution to the Society in Environmentrelated works in collaboration with Prof. Madhav Gadgil of the Indian Institute of Science (Retd.), Bangalore. In addition to being Editor of the Conservation Forum Journal, Dr Kar is a Scientific Fellow of the Zoological Society of London and a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London; Fellow of the Zoological Society, Calcutta; Fellow of the Applied Zoologists Research Association; Fellow of the Society of Environmental Biologists; Fellow of the Inland Fisheries Society of India; and others. At the moment, Dr Devashish Kar is seniormost Professor and the Dean of the School of Life Sciences in Assam (Central) University at Silchar, India.
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
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  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 16,01 MB
978-0-12-802642-7 (9780128026427)
0128026421 (0128026421)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Epizootic Ulcerative Fish Disease Syndrome
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • Contents
  • About the Author
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Chapter 1 - Introduction
  • 1.1 ABOUT FISH
  • 1.2 ABOUT FISH DIVERSITY
  • 1.3 ABOUT FISH DISEASE
  • 1.4 EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME (EUS)
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 2 - Origin of the Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Problem
  • 2.1 DISTRIBUTION
  • 2.2 ORIGIN OF THE PROBLEM
  • 2.3 CHRONOLOGY, STATUS, AND MAJOR OUTBREAKS IN THE WORLD
  • 2.4 EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME DISEASE AND DISASTER RESPONSE
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 3 - Efforts in Unraveling the Enigmatic Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome and Review of Current Status on its Research ...
  • 3.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 3.2 REVIEW OF CURRENT STATUS ON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ON EUS
  • REFERENCES
  • FURTHER READING
  • Chapter 4 - Epidemiological Study
  • 4.1 DETAILS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY
  • 4.2 MAJOR SPECIES AFFECTED
  • 4.3 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PATTERN OF SPREAD OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 4.4 CAUSAL HYPOTHESIS AND MODEL FOR THE DISEASE
  • 4.5 EPISODES OF FISH KILLS
  • 4.6 MANAGEMENT OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EPISODES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 5 - Pathology of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome
  • 5.1 PATHOLOGY OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 5.2 DIAGNOSIS
  • 5.3 GENERAL SIGNS OF DISEASE
  • 5.4 EXTERNAL SIGNS OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 5.5 GROSS PATHOLOGICAL SIGNS OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 5.6 CLINICAL SIGNS OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 5.7 CLINICAL SIGNS AND PATHOLOGY
  • 5.8 GENERAL SYMPTOMS AND GROSS PATHOLOGY
  • 5.9 GROSS PATHOLOGY AND LIGHT MICROSCOPY
  • 5.10 CLINICAL PATHOLOGY
  • 5.11 SPECIES AFFECTED
  • 5.12 LESS SUSCEPTIBLE SPECIES
  • 5.13 SPECIES IN RELATION TO EUS
  • 5.14 HOST FACTORS
  • 5.15 PATHOGENS INVOLVED
  • 5.16 POSSIBLE CAUSES (ETIOLOGY)
  • 5.17 HOW EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME IS SAID TO SPREAD
  • 5.18 PERSISTENT INFECTION WITH LIFELONG CARRIERS
  • 5.19 SIMILAR DISEASES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 6 - Aspects of Investigation of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Outbreaks
  • 6.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 6.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
  • 6.3 STRESS-INDUCING PARAMETERS AND THE UNDERLYING CONCEPT OF STRESS
  • 6.4 GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
  • 6.5 CLIMATE VIS-A-VIS SEASONALITY
  • 6.6 ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS OF SIGNIFICANCE TO FISH HEALTH
  • 6.7 WORKS BY THE AUTHOR OF THE PRESENT TREATISE
  • 6.8 SIMILAR WORKS DONE ON EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME BY OTHER WORKERS
  • 6.9 RELATED WORKS ON EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME DONE BY OTHER WORKERS
  • 6.10 WORKS DONE BY DIFFERENT WORKERS IN DIFFERENT PLACES
  • 6.11 WORKS DONE ON DIFFERENT PARAMETERS RELATED TO EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 6.12 WORKS DONE ON EUS IN RELATION TO SOCIOECONOMICS
  • 6.13 TAXONOMIC ANALYSIS
  • 6.14 ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS OF EUS
  • 6.15 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE WORK
  • 6.16 CONCLUDING REMARKS
  • 6.17 SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 7 - Histopathological, Hematological, Histochemical, and Enzymological Studies of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome
  • 7.1 DETAILS OF CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND HISTOPATHOLOGY
  • 7.2 DETAILS OF HEMATOLOGICAL, HISTOCHEMICAL, AND ENZYMOLOGICAL STUDIES
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 8 - Methodologies of Different Types of Studies
  • 8.1 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
  • 8.2 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOIL
  • 8.3 MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDIES
  • 8.4 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDIES
  • 8.5 BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY
  • 8.6 MYCOLOGICAL STUDIES
  • 8.7 VIROLOGICAL STUDY
  • 8.8 ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDY
  • 8.9 FISH SAMPLING FOR PARASITOLOGICAL WORKS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 9 - Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome Works in Relation to Different Aspects
  • 9.1 HUMAN-INDUCED FACTORS
  • 9.2 SOME PERTINENT INFORMATION ABOUT EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 9.3 INFORMATION PERTAINING TO PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 9.4 ASPECTS OF HYGIENE
  • 9.5 ASPECTS OF FOOD AND MANAGEMENT
  • 9.6 CONCLUSIONS
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 10 - Control (Treatment) of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome
  • 10.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 10.2 THERAPEUTIC APPLICATION IN DISEASED FISH
  • 10.3 SYSTEMIC TREATMENTS VIA THE DIET
  • 10.4 PARENTERAL TREATMENT
  • 10.5 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • 10.6 PROPHYLAXIS (PREVENTION)
  • 10.7 CONTROL
  • 10.8 TREATMENT
  • 10.9 REMEDIAL MEASURES
  • 10.10 VACCINATION
  • 10.11 CHEMOTHERAPY
  • 10.12 RESTOCKING WITH RESISTANT SPECIES
  • 10.13 DISINFECTION OF EGGS AND LARVAE
  • 10.14 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 11 - Monitoring of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome
  • 11.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 11.2 DISEASES AMONG FW FISHES
  • 11.3 DISEASE INFORMATION AND ITS SOURCES
  • 11.4 CARP HATCHERIES AND NURSERIES: THEIR STATUS
  • 11.5 DISEASE OCCURRENCES IN HATCHERIES AND NURSERIES
  • 11.6 DEVELOPMENT IN AQUACULTURE AND PROBLEMS OF DISEASES
  • 11.7 SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES: LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND AQUACULTURE
  • 11.8 AQUATIC ANIMAL HEALTH: POSSIBLE LESSONS FROM LIVESTOCK
  • 11.9 LIVESTOCK AND AQUACULTURE HEALTH SYSTEMS: HOW ARE DISEASES AND OTHER ISSUES CHANGING?
  • 11.10 INTEREST AMONG CONSUMERS
  • 11.11 DISEASE MONITORING AND THE GOVERNMENT
  • 11.12 DISEASE PROBLEMS AND THEIR IMPACTS
  • 11.13 IMPACTS OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME ON SOCIETY
  • 11.14 CATEGORIZATION OF IMPACTS
  • 11.15 FISH FARMERS
  • 11.16 FISH HEALTH WORKERS
  • 11.17 MONITORING EXERCISE OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 11.18 CASE STUDY
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 12 - Quarantine and Health Certification
  • 12.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 12.2 SURVEY OF WORKS
  • 12.3 TRANSBOUNDARY ANIMAL DISEASES
  • 12.4 FISH AND LIVESTOCK HEALTH: MAJOR ISSUES
  • 12.5 ADDRESSING DISEASE PROBLEMS IN SMALL-SCALE AQC
  • 12.6 RULES AND REGULATIONS
  • 12.7 RESEARCH
  • 12.8 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 13 - Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome and the Economy of the Nation
  • 13.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 13.2 FRESHWATER FISHERIES SECTOR
  • 13.3 PROMISING AQC AND SOCIOECONOMICS
  • 13.4 PADDY-CUM-FISH CULTURE AND EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 13.5 LIVESTOCK VERSUS AQC
  • 13.6 INPUTS THROUGH AGRICULTURE
  • 13.7 EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME, THE HITHERTO UNKNOWN FISH DISEASE
  • 13.8 THE RISK FACTORS
  • 13.9 EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME AND THE LOSS TO ECONOMY
  • 13.10 CONCLUSION
  • REFERENCES
  • Chapter 14 - Conclusions and Recommendations
  • 14.1 INTRODUCTION
  • 14.2 DISEASE AND ITS ETIOLOGY
  • 14.3 DEFINITION OF EPIZOOTIC ULCERATIVE SYNDROME
  • 14.4 CONCLUSION
  • 14.5 RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 14.6 SUMMARY
  • REFERENCES
  • Index

Preface


'Water' is 'life' and must be protected and conserved. Having its origin in water, life has evolved itself into an enthralling world of coveted and bewilderingly diverse flora and fauna. The dependence of the living world, notably humankind, on the biological wealth of rivers, lakes, seas and oceans, cannot be overemphasized and, possibly, does not need any elucidation. Therefore, there is, perhaps, a requirement to broaden and deepen our comprehension about the aquatic ecosystem with regard to its physical, chemical and biological features and interactions. The water, as an ecosystem, performs a number of significant environmental functions, notably, re-cycling of nutrients, re-charging of ground water, augmentation and maintenance of stream flow and recreation of people, to exemplify a few. Notwithstanding the above, fresh water is one of the most important natural resources crucial for the survival of all living beings. It is even more important for humans as they depend on it also for food production, industrial growth, hydropower generation and waste disposal as well as for cultural requirements. Limnology is the science which deals with the freshwater environments, their physico-chemical characteristics, their biota and the ecosystem processes therein. Limnology is, therefore, universal in its significance. Fishes are significant living components of both lotic and lentic systems. They constitute almost half the total number of vertebrates in the world. Of the c 39,900 vertebrate species known to exist so far in the world, 21,723 are living species of fishes; of which, c 8411 are of freshwater and the rest, 11,650 are marine species. In the Indian region alone, of the c 2500 species, 930 are freshwater inhabitants and 1570 are marine. A living body is prone to suffer from a disease being attacked by pathogen(s) or parasite(s). This is true also with a fish body. Often, a disease may be so virulent, that it could sweep unabated in an epidemic dimension. In this connection, it may be said that, patterns and long-term trends are important when deciding whether or not an epidemic exists in the present period and in predicting future epidemics. Snieszko (1974) had stated that, an overt infectious disease could occur when a susceptible host is exposed to a virulent pathogen under stress. The influence of each sub-set of the environment could be variable; and, disease outbreak (e.g., EUS, in this case) may occur, only if there is sufficient relationship among them. Although a filterable biological infectious agent is thought to be the primary cause of EUS outbreak, it is generally accepted that, certain abiotic factors which result in sub-lethal stress of the fish, are also important in initiation of disease outbreaks. Snieszko cited temperature, eutrophication, sewage, metabolic products of fishes, industrial pollution and pesticides as potential sources of stressful environmental conditions. Life and disease processes of fishes are similar in many ways to those of other vertebrates, in that, most animals have muscles, skeletons, skins and internal organs which function in approximately similar ways. However, there is one major difference: 'fish live in water'. As such, all of their physiological structures and functions are influenced by this fact. Thus, to understand what water means to fish is to lay a foundation for a more complete understanding of what fish need for health and how disease processes are related to physiological and environmental requirements. In order to understand the influence of environmental factors on fish disease, one has to realize that, in aquatic environment, there is a much greater chemical and physical variability than exists in the terrestrial environment. In very large bodies of water, such as oceans, conditions may be relatively stable; but, in the coastal and estuarine areas, there is a greater magnitude of environmental change(s). In small bodies of water, this variability is even greater; while, in fish hatchery operations, many man-made stresses are added. Therefore, in the aquatic environment, life goes on under dynamic and unstable circumstances and fishes must continually adapt to changes in population density pressure, temperature, dissolved gases, light, pH, etc. However, it may be noted here that, the effects of these parameters could be far more severe than those ever faced by the terrestrial animals. Such environmental changes could impose stresses of considerable magnitude on the somewhat limited homeostatic mechanisms of fishes. Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome or EUS is a hitherto unknown, dreadful, virulent and enigmatic disease among the freshwater fishes which had been sweeping the water bodies in an epidemic dimension almost semi-globally causing large-scale mortality among the freshwater fishes; thus, rendering many of them endangered and throwing the life of the fishermen out of gear through loss of avocation and causing difficulties to the fish eaters through scarcity of fish flesh as a protein-rich source of nutrition. This dreaded fish disease, thus, has been a major concern in several countries of the world, particularly, the Asia-Pacific region. As a historical resume, in Queensland, Australia, an epizootic of marine and estuarine fishes, characterized by shallow hemorrhagic ulcers, had occurred in 1972 with recurrence(s) in subsequent years. The disease had been named as 'red spot disease'. A similar type of disease, characterized by dermal ulcers, had been reported from Papua New Guinea: (a) from the rivers of the south during 1975-76; and, (b) from the north during 1982-88. Concomitantly, Indonesia had also reported similar type of disease in Bogor during 1980, which, subsequently, had spread to West, Central and East Java. This disease was named as infectious dropsy or 'hemorrhagic septicemia'. Later, the disease was reported from Malaysia during 1981-83. The affected fishes had red or necrotic areas of ulceration all over their bodies and were called 'Webak Kudes'. The disease was, subsequently, reported from fishing areas of Kampuchea, during early 1984, along with a significant decrease in the natural fish stock. Also, a similar type of disease had been reported from the southern and central parts of Lao PDR during 1984. Myanmar had experienced the outbreak of EUS during 1984-85 affecting both wild and cultured fish stocks. In Thailand, the disease epizootic was first reported in 1980 in the natural water systems and the disease had recurred somewhat regularly almost every year from 1980 to 1985 in different water bodies. In Sri Lanka, the disease was first reported in 1988 in the Kelani river, Dandugan Oya, and in the nearby streams causing extensive fish mortality. In Bangladesh, the first outbreak of EUS had occurred during February-March 1988 in the rivers Meghna, Padma and Jamuna; as well as, in the adjoining water bodies with colossal loss of the commercial fish stock. After sweeping semi-globally in epidemic dimension, this hitherto unknown enigmatic and virulent fish disease entered India, during July 1988, through Barak valley region of Assam and started causing large-scale mortality among the FW fishes. It had caused panic among the fish consumers and had thrown the life of the poor fishermen out of gear and rendering them starving for days together in view of no sale of fish. And, the author of the present Treatise had decided to start researching on this challenging fish disease problem (sacrificing his remuneration leave, and with the help of many generous souls), as part of discharging his social responsibility, at this crucial juncture of the Society and the People. In India, the outbreak of the virulent EUS fish disease had been first encountered during July, 1988 among the fishes in the Freshwater bodies of North East (NE) India. In 1989, Nepal had also been affected by EUS (Das and Das, 1993; Kar, 2007, 2013). EUS had been a hitherto unknown enigmatic virulent, epidemic among the fishes since about 4 decades. It had been designated by various names, some of which are often colloquial. Egusa and Masuda (1971) had, perhaps, at first, described it in Japan as Aphnomyces infection. The infection had also, possibly, occurred among other fishes, being named as Mycotic Granulomatesis (MG). Such a nomenclature was mainly based on histopathological (HP) results (Miyazaki and Eugusa, 1972). Concomitantly, a hitherto unknown EUS condition had been encountered, since 1972, mainly on the skin of estuarine fishes in Australia. Such an element had been named as Red Spot Disease (RSD) (McKenzie and Hall, 1976). Subsequently, almost similar conditions had occurred among the freshwater fishes throughout South-East (SE) and South Asia since the late 70's. The main symptoms included dermal ulcerations and there had been large scale mortalities among the fishes. The condition was designated as 'Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome' (EUS) at the consultation of Experts on Ulcerative Fish Diseases held at Bangkok during 1986 (FAO, 1986). In addition to the above, almost similar ulcerative condition had also been reported among the estuarine fishes in the east coast of USA since around 1978. Such a condition was termed as Ulcerative Mycosis (UM) (Noga and Dykstra, 1986). Lack of a comprehensive treatise on 'Epizootic Ulcerative Fish Disease Syndrome' on a global scenario, has prompted this humble piece of work and the author will consider himself amply rewarded if this humble piece of work proves to be useful to those for whom it is meant. Devashish Kar,     Professor, Department of Life Science, School of Life...

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