Critique of Pure Reason (translated by J. M. D. Meiklejohn)

 
 
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  • erschienen am 1. Juni 2018
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  • 436 Seiten
 
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978-1-4209-5808-9 (ISBN)
 
The 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant is widely considered as one the most important figures in modern philosophy. His fundamental arguments with regard to the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics, have been highly influential and form the basis for much of contemporary thought upon the subjects with which he was concerned. Kant believed that there were fundamental concepts that structured human experience, and that reason principally should guide one's examination of these concepts. Considered one of Kant's most important works, "The Critique of Pure Reason" is an exposition on humanity's faculty for reason in general. First published in 1781, this work builds upon the works of Kant's philosophical predecessors, notably the work of empiricists like John Locke and David Hume and of rationalists like Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Among the principal contributions to philosophy forwarded in this work is the idea that knowledge is both a product of experience, or "a posteriori" and independent of it, or "a priori". Additionally Kant argues that judgments may be "analytical", that they are contained within their own premise, or "synthetic", that they contribute something external to themselves. An enduringly influential work, "The Critique of Pure Reason" remains to this day as one of the most important works of Western philosophy. This edition is follows the translation of J. M. D. Meiklejohn and includes a biographical afterword.
  • Englisch
  • La Vergne
  • |
  • USA
Neeland Media LLC
978-1-4209-5808-9 (9781420958089)
1420958089 (1420958089)
  • Intro
  • Preface to the First Edition, 1781.
  • Preface to the Second Edition, 1787.
  • Introduction.
  • I. Of the difference between Pure and Empirical Knowledge
  • II. The Human Intellect, even in an Unphilosophical State, is in Possession of Certain Cognitions "a priori"
  • III. Philosophy stands in need of a Science which shall Determine the Possibility, Principles, and Extent of Human Knowledge "a priori"
  • IV. Of the Difference Between Analytical and Synthetical Judgements.
  • V. In all Theoretical Sciences of Reason, Synthetical Judgements "a priori" are contained as Principles.
  • VI. The Universal Problem of Pure Reason.
  • VII. Idea and Division of a Particular Science, under the Name of a Critique of Pure Reason.
  • Transcendental Doctrine of Elements.
  • FIRST PART. TRANSCENDENTAL AESTHETIC.
  • § 1. Introductory.
  • SECTION I. Of Space.
  • § 2. Metaphysical Exposition of this Conception.
  • § 3. Transcendental Exposition of the Conception of Space.
  • § 4. Conclusions from the foregoing Conceptions.
  • SECTION II. Of Time.
  • § 5. Metaphysical Exposition of this Conception.
  • § 6 Transcendental Exposition of the Conception of Time.
  • § 7. Conclusions from the above Conceptions.
  • § 8. Elucidation.
  • § 9. General Remarks on Transcendental Aesthetic.
  • § 10. Conclusion of the Transcendental Aesthetic.
  • SECOND PART. TRANSCENDENTAL LOGIC.
  • INTRODUCTION. Idea of a Transcendental Logic.
  • I. Of Logic in General.
  • II. Of Transcendental Logic.
  • III. Of the Division of General Logic into Analytic and Dialectic.
  • IV. Of the Division of Transcendental Logic into Transcendental Analytic and Dialectic.
  • Transcendental Logic. First Division.
  • TRANSCENDENTAL ANALYTIC.
  • § 1.
  • BOOK I.
  • § 2. Analytic of Conceptions.
  • CHAPTER I. Of the Transcendental Clue to the Discovery of all Pure Conceptions of the Understanding.
  • § 3. Introductory.
  • § 4. SECTION I. Of defined above Use of understanding in General.
  • § 5. SECTION II. Of the Logical Function of the Understanding in Judgements.
  • § 6. SECTION III. Of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding, or Categories.
  • § 7.
  • § 8.
  • CHAPTER II. Of the Deduction of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding.
  • § 9. SECTION I. Of the Principles of a Transcendental Deduction in general.
  • § 10. Transition to the Transcendental Deduction of the Categories.
  • § 11. SECTION II. Transcendental Deduction of the pure Conceptions of the Understanding.
  • § 12. Of the Originally Synthetical Unity of Apperception.
  • §13. The Principle of the Synthetical Unity of Apperception is the highest Principle of all exercise of the Understanding.
  • § 14. What Objective Unity of Self-consciousness is.
  • § 15. The Logical Form of all Judgements consists in the Objective Unity of Apperception of the Conceptions contained therein.
  • § 16. All Sensuous Intuitions are subject to the Categories, as Conditions under which alone the manifold Content of them can be united in one Consciousness.
  • § 17. Observation.
  • § 18. In Cognition, its Application to Objects of Experience is the only legitimate use of the Category.
  • § 19.
  • § 20. Of the Application of the Categories to Objects of the Senses in general.
  • § 21.
  • § 22. Transcendental Deduction of the universally possible employment in experience of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding.
  • § 23. Result of this Deduction of the Conceptions of the Understanding.
  • Short view of the above Deduction.
  • BOOK II. Analytic of Principles.
  • INTRODUCTION. Of the Transcendental Faculty of judgement in General.
  • CHAPTER I. Of the Schematism at of the Pure Conceptions of the Understanding.
  • CHAPTER II. System of all Principles of the Pure Understanding.
  • SECTION I. Of the Supreme Principle of all Analytical Judgements.
  • SECTION II. Of the Supreme Principle of all Synthetical Judgements.
  • SECTION III. Systematic Representation of all Synthetical Principles of the Pure Understanding.
  • 1. AXIOMS OF INTUITION.
  • 2. ANTICIPATIONS OF PERCEPTION.
  • 3. ANALOGIES OF EXPERIENCE.
  • 4. THE POSTULATES OF EMPIRICAL THOUGHT.
  • REFUTATION OF IDEALISM.
  • GENERAL REMARK ON THE SYSTEM OF PRINCIPLES.
  • CHAPTER III. Of the Ground of the Division of all Objects into Phenomena and Noumena.
  • APPENDIX. Of the Equivocal Nature or Amphiboly of the Conceptions of Reflection from the Confusion of the Transcendental with the Empirical use of the Understanding.
  • Transcendental Logic. Second Division.
  • TRANSCENDENTAL DIALECTIC. INTRODUCTION.
  • I. Of Transcendental Illusory Appearance.
  • II. Of Pure Reason as the Seat of Transcendental Illusory Appearance.
  • A. OF REASON IN GENERAL.
  • B. OF THE LOGICAL USE OF REASON.
  • C. OF THE PURE USE OF REASON.
  • BOOK I. OF THE CONCEPTIONS OF PURE REASON.
  • SECTION I. Of Ideas in General.
  • SECTION II. Of Transcendental Ideas.
  • SECTION III. System of Transcendental Ideas.
  • BOOK II. OF THE DIALECTICAL PROCEDURE OF PURE REASON.
  • CHAPTER I. Of the Paralogisms of Pure Reason.
  • GENERAL REMARK-On the Transition from Rational Psychology to Cosmology.
  • CHAPTER II. The Antinomy of Pure Reason.
  • SECTION I. System of Cosmological Ideas.
  • SECTION II. Antithetic of Pure Reason.
  • FIRST CONFLICT OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL IDEAS.
  • OBSERVATIONS ON THE FIRST ANTINOMY.
  • SECOND CONFLICT OF TRANSCENDENTAL IDEAS.
  • OBSERVATIONS ON THE SECOND ANTINOMY.
  • THIRD CONFLICT OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL IDEAS.
  • OBSERVATIONS ON THE THIRD ANTINOMY.
  • FOURTH CONFLICT OF THE TRANSCENDENTAL IDEAS.
  • OBSERVATIONS ON THE FOURTH ANTINOMY.
  • SECTION III. Of the Interest of Reason in these Self-contradictions.
  • SECTION IV. Of the necessity imposed upon Pure Reason of presenting a Solution of its Transcendental Problems.
  • SECTION V. Sceptical Exposition of the Cosmological Problems presented in the four Transcendental Ideas.
  • SECTION VI. Transcendental Idealism as the Key to the Solution of Pure Cosmological Dialectic.
  • SECTION VII. Critical Solution of the Cosmological Problem.
  • SECTION VIII. Regulative Principle of Pure Reason in relation to the Cosmological Ideas.
  • SECTION IX. Of the Empirical Use of the Regulative Principle of Reason with regard to the Cosmological Ideas.
  • I. Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Composition of Phenomena in the Universe.
  • II. Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Division of a Whole given in Intuition.
  • Concluding Remark on the Solution of the Transcendental Mathematical Ideas-and Introductory to the Solution of the Dynamical Ideas.
  • III. Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Deduction of Cosmical Events from their Causes.
  • IV. Solution of the Cosmological Idea of the Totality of the Dependence of Phenomenal Existences.
  • Concluding Remarks on the Antinomy of Pure Reason.
  • CHAPTER III. The Ideal of Pure Reason.
  • SECTION I. Of the Ideal in General.
  • SECTION II. Of the Transcendental Ideal (Prototypon Trancendentale).
  • SECTION III. Of the Arguments employed by Speculative Reason in Proof of the Existence of a Supreme Being.
  • SECTION IV. Of the Impossibility of an Ontological Proof of the Existence of God.
  • SECTION V. Of the Impossibility of a Cosmological Proof of the Existence of God.
  • SECTION VI. Of the Impossibility of a Physico-Theological Proof.
  • SECTION VII. Critique of all Theology based upon Speculative Principles of Reason.
  • APPENDIX. Of the Regulative Employment of the Ideas of Pure Reason.
  • Transcendental Doctrine of Method.
  • INTRODUCTION
  • CHAPTER I. The Discipline of Pure Reason.
  • SECTION I. The Discipline of Pure Reason in the Sphere of Dogmatism.
  • SECTION II. The Discipline of Pure Reason in Polemics.
  • SECTION III. The Discipline of Pure Reason in Hypothesis.
  • SECTION IV. The Discipline of Pure Reason in Relation to Proofs.
  • CHAPTER II. The Canon of Pure Reason.
  • SECTION I. Of the Ultimate End of the Pure Use of Reason.
  • SECTION II. Of the Ideal of the Summum Bonum as a Determining Ground of the Ultimate End of Pure Reason.
  • SECTION III. Of Opinion, Knowledge, and Belief.
  • CHAPTER III. The Architectonic of Pure Reason.
  • CHAPTER IV. The History of Pure Reason.
  • Biographical Afterword
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