Crew Resource Management

 
 
Elsevier (Verlag)
  • 3. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 31. Januar 2019
  • |
  • 664 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-12-812996-8 (ISBN)
 

The new edition of Crew Resource Management reflects advancements made in the conceptual foundation as well as the methods and approaches of applying CRM in the aviation industry. Because CRM training has the practical goal of enhancing flight safety through more effective flight crew performance, this new edition adapts itself to fit the users, the task, and operational and regulatory environments--all of which continually evolve. Each contributor examines techniques and presents cases that best illustrate CRM concepts and training. This book discusses the history and research foundation of CRM and also stresses the importance of making adaptive changes and advancements. New chapters include: CRM and Individual Resilience; Flight and Cabin Crew Teamwork: Improving Safety in Aviation: CRM and Risk Management/Safety Management Systems; and MRM for Technical Operations. This book provides a deep understanding of CRM--what it is, how it works, and how to practically implement an effective program.

  • Addresses the expanded operating environment--pilots, flight attendants, maintenance, etc.
  • Assists developers and practitioners in building effective programs
  • Describes best practices and tools for supporting CRM training in individual organizations
  • Highlights new advances and approaches to CRM
  • Includes five completely new chapters
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
  • 6,34 MB
978-0-12-812996-8 (9780128129968)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Crew Resource Management
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • A Story of Robert L. Helmreich: A Convergence of Friends and Colleagues
  • 1 Life history
  • 2 Undersea Habitats-Sealab II and Tektite
  • 3 Reconceptualizing Psychological Masculinity and Femininity
  • 4 Developing Cockpit Resource Management
  • 5 Developing Line Operations Safety Audits
  • 6 Conceptualizing Flight as Threat and Error Management
  • 7 Carrying Group Performance Concepts and Methods Into Medicine and Beyond
  • 8 Retirement to Granite Shoals, Texas
  • 9 Impact
  • 10 The Private Man
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Part 1: Nature of CRM
  • Part 2: CRM Training Applications
  • Part 3: CRM Perspectives
  • I. The Nature of CRM
  • 1 Why CRM? Empirical and Theoretical Bases of Human Factors Training
  • 1.1 The Evolution and Growth of CRM
  • 1.1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 The Single-Pilot Tradition in Aviation
  • 1.3 Human Error in Flight Operations
  • 1.4 Group Processes and Performance in the Aviation Environment
  • 1.4.1 Outcome Factors
  • 1.4.2 Input Factors
  • Individual Factors
  • Group Factors
  • Organizational Factors
  • Environmental Factors
  • Regulatory Factors
  • 1.4.3 A Case Study: The Interplay of Multiple Input Factors in a Crash
  • 1.4.4 Group Process Factors
  • 1.4.5 Elaborating Group Process Factors
  • Team Formation and Management Tasks
  • Communications Processes and Decision Tasks
  • Situation Awareness, Workload Management Tasks
  • Machine Interface Tasks
  • 1.5 Theoretical Leveraging of CRM Training
  • 1.5.1 Optimizing Input Factors
  • Individual Factors
  • Organizational Factors
  • Regulatory Factors
  • 1.5.2 Enhancing Group Process Factors
  • 1.6 The Evolution of CRM Training
  • 1.7 CRM and Traditional Management Development Training
  • 1.8 Research Findings
  • 1.9 Open Issues for Research
  • 1.10 Conclusions
  • 1.11 CRM Redux (2010)
  • 1.11.1 Culture
  • 1.11.2 Acquiring and Using Safety Data
  • 1.11.3 Expansion of CRM Into New Domains
  • Medicine
  • Firefighting
  • 1.11.4 The Future
  • Acknowledgments (1993)
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 2 Teamwork and Organizational Factors
  • Introduction
  • 2.1 Updating the Definition of CRM
  • 2.2 The Team at the Sharp End
  • 2.3 Traits of a Good Cockpit Team
  • 2.4 Errors and the Support Teams and Processes That Resolve Them
  • 2.5 Structuring Teamwork Through Standard Operating Procedures
  • 2.6 The Airline and Its Cultures
  • 2.7 Developing SOPs
  • 2.8 The Organizational Culture Link to Safety
  • 2.9 Safety Culture
  • 2.10 Summary
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 3 Crews as Groups: Their Formation and Their Leadership
  • 3.1 Individual Versus Crew Orientation
  • 3.2 Crews, Groups, and Teams
  • 3.2.1 Boundaries
  • 3.2.2 Roles
  • Role Conflict
  • Role Ambiguity
  • 3.2.3 Norms
  • 3.2.4 Status
  • 3.2.5 Authority
  • 3.2.6 Group Dynamics
  • 3.3 Group Process and Leverage
  • 3.4 Leadership
  • 3.5 Leadership at Formation: A Critical Leverage Point
  • 3.5.1 Task Findings
  • 3.5.2 Boundary Findings
  • 3.5.3 Norms Findings
  • 3.5.4 Authority Dynamics Findings
  • Establishing Appropriate Authority
  • 3.6 Organizational Shells
  • 3.7 Implications for Effective Crew Leadership
  • 3.7.1 Undermining
  • 3.7.2 Abdicating
  • 3.7.3 Affirming
  • 3.7.4 Elaborating and Expanding
  • 3.8 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 4 Communication and Crew Resource Management
  • Introduction
  • 4.1 Historical View of Communication and Flight Safety
  • 4.1.1 NTSB Accident Reports
  • 4.1.2 Incident Reports
  • 4.1.3 Early Communication Research
  • Accident Cockpit Voice Recorder Transcripts
  • Field Studies
  • Simulation Studies
  • 4.1.4 The Communication Concept
  • 4.2 Functions of Communication
  • 4.2.1 Information Transfer
  • 4.2.2 Interpersonal/Team Relationships
  • 4.2.3 Predictable Behavior
  • 4.2.4 Task Monitoring and Situation Awareness
  • 4.2.5 Crew and Workload Management
  • 4.3 Issues and Advances in Communication
  • 4.3.1 Communication Research
  • 4.3.2 Communication and Investigation
  • Pegasus Launch Procedures Anomaly
  • Communication Context
  • 4.3.3 Communication and CRM Training
  • 4.3.4 Communication and CRM Evaluation
  • 4.3.5 Cross-Functional Communication
  • 4.3.6 Effect of Digital Technologies on Communication
  • 4.3.7 Organizational Communication Concepts
  • 4.4 Summary
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 5 Flight Crew Decision-Making
  • Introduction
  • 5.1 Naturalistic Decision-Making-A Theoretical Framework for Aeronautical Decision-Making
  • 5.1.1 The Role of Expertise
  • 5.1.2 Domain-Specific Models
  • 5.1.3 Methods for Conducting Naturalistic Decision-Making Research
  • 5.2 A Naturalistic Aeronautical Decision-Making Model (NADM)
  • 5.2.1 NDM Methodology and Data Sources for NADM
  • 5.2.2 An Updated Aeronautical Decision-Making Model
  • Front-End Processing: Situation Assessment
  • Back-End Processing: Choosing a Course of Action
  • Rule-based or RPD Decisions
  • Multiple-Option Decisions
  • Ill-Defined Problems
  • 5.3 What Factors Make Decisions Difficult?
  • 5.3.1 Decision Errors: Outcome Versus Process
  • 5.3.2 How Can Decision Processes Go Wrong?
  • Faulty Situation Assessment
  • Susceptibility to Automation Bias
  • Faulty Selection of Course of Action
  • Inadequate Risk Assessment
  • Plan Continuation Errors
  • 5.3.3 Error Inducing Contexts
  • Information Quality
  • Organizational Pressures
  • Environmental Threats and Stressors
  • 5.3.4 Cognitive Factors in Decision Errors
  • Lack of Knowledge
  • Schema-Based Decisions or Habit Capture
  • Navigating the Hybrid Ecology
  • 5.3.5 Personal and Social Factors
  • 5.4 Behaviors That Characterize Effective Crew Decision-Making
  • 5.4.1 Taskwork Skills
  • 5.4.2 Teamwork Skills
  • 5.5 Training Crews to Make Better Decisions
  • 5.5.1 Aeronautical Decision-Making Training
  • 5.5.2 NDM-Based Training
  • Situation Assessment
  • Selecting a Course of Action
  • Metacognitive Training
  • 5.5.3 Monitoring Skills
  • 5.5.4 Communication Training
  • Build Shared Situation Models
  • Establish a Positive Crew Climate Through Briefings
  • Monitor and Challenge Threats and Errors
  • 5.5.5 Develop Accurate System Mental Models
  • 5.6 Conclusions: The Future of Aviation Decision-Making
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 6 CRM (Nontechnical) Skills: A European Perspective
  • Introduction
  • 6.1 CRM Training
  • 6.1.1 Content of CRM Training
  • Automation
  • Monitoring and Intervention
  • Resilience Development
  • Surprise and Startle Effects
  • Operator's Safety Culture and Company Culture
  • 6.1.2 CRM Trainers
  • 6.1.3 Evidence-Based Training
  • 6.2 Nontechnical (CRM) Skills Assessment
  • 6.2.1 Nontechnical Skills Assessment Within Competency Frameworks
  • 6.2.2 The Assessment of NTS Using the NOTECHS System
  • 6.2.3 Failing an Assessment of Nontechnical Skills
  • 6.3 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • 7 Crew Resource Management and Individual Resilience
  • Introduction
  • 7.1 The Nature of "Resilience"
  • 7.2 Is Resilience Just Threat and Error Management?
  • 7.3 The Consequences of Resilience Failures
  • 7.4 Resilience Success Stories in Aviation
  • 7.4.1 Qantas Flight QF 32
  • 7.4.2 US Airways Flight 1549
  • 7.4.3 United Airlines Flight 232
  • 7.5 Startle, Surprise, and Resilience
  • 7.6 Individual Versus Team Resilience
  • 7.7 CRM Skills and Their Relationship to Resilience
  • 7.8 Developing Individual and Crew Resilience Through Effective CRM Skills
  • 7.8.1 Situational Awareness
  • 7.8.2 Decision-Making
  • 7.8.3 Communication
  • 7.8.4 Workload Management
  • 7.8.5 Stress Management
  • 7.8.6 Fatigue Management
  • 7.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • 8 Crew Resource Management, Risk, and Safety Management Systems
  • 8.1 Safety Management Systems
  • 8.2 CRM Interfaces With SMS
  • 8.3 Incorporating Risk and Response Into CRM Training
  • 8.4 Expectations About SMS and CRM in the Future
  • 8.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • II. CRM Training Applications
  • 9 The Design, Delivery, and Evaluation of Crew Resource Management Training
  • Introduction
  • 9.1 What Is Training Evaluation?
  • 9.1.1 Training Evaluation
  • 9.1.2 Training Effectiveness
  • 9.1.3 Merging Training Evaluation & Training Effectiveness
  • 9.2 Why Is Evaluation of CRM Training Necessary?
  • 9.3 How Has CRM Training Been Evaluated in the Past?
  • 9.3.1 CRM Training Evaluation
  • 9.3.2 Reactions
  • 9.3.3 Learning
  • 9.3.4 Behaviors
  • 9.3.5 Results
  • 9.3.6 CRM Training Effectiveness
  • 9.4 Summary
  • 9.5 How Should CRM Training Be Assessed in the Future?
  • 9.5.1 A Framework for CRM Training Design, Development, & Evaluation
  • 9.5.2 Guidelines for CRM Training Evaluation
  • 9.6 Summary
  • 9.7 Concluding Remarks
  • Acknowledgement
  • References
  • 10 Line Oriented Flight Training: A Practical Guide for Developers
  • Introduction
  • 10.1 Basic Definitions
  • 10.2 History and Context: Simulation and CRM Come of Age at the Same Time
  • 10.2.1 Simulation
  • 10.2.2 CRM Is Integrated With Technical Skills
  • 10.2.3 A Standardized Approach
  • 10.3 Practical Guide to LOFT and LOE Development Using the Instructional Systems Development Process
  • 10.3.1 Analysis
  • Prerequisite Skills
  • Learning Goals and Objectives
  • Learning Goals
  • Learning Objectives
  • To Summarize
  • 10.3.2 Design
  • Event Sets
  • Other Characteristics of Event Sets
  • General Scripting Considerations
  • How Many Event Sets in a LOS?
  • Recurrent Training Versus Qualification Training
  • Level of Difficulty
  • Multiple Branches for Each Scenario
  • Available Resources and Limitations
  • Documenting Event Sets, Objectives, and Observable Behaviors
  • 10.3.3 Development
  • Training Device Considerations
  • Preposition, Reposition, and Repeat Points
  • Systems Malfunctions
  • Weather
  • Communications
  • ATC Modeling
  • Preprogramming Triggers
  • Flight Papers and Documents to Support the Simulated World
  • Real World Changes That May Impact Your Scenario
  • A Note About LOE Versus LOFT
  • Instructor Materials
  • Developing Grade Forms
  • Grade Forms Assist in Data Mining and Analysis
  • Electronic Forms
  • Beta Testing: Evaluate and Revise
  • Paperwork Delivery
  • Consider FAA and Management Requirements
  • Line Pilot Review
  • 10.3.4 Implementation
  • Organizational Expectations
  • Train the Trainer
  • Training the Debrief
  • Training the Grade Forms
  • LOS Development as a Driver for Procedural Quality
  • 10.3.5 Evaluation
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis
  • 10.4 Customizing LOS Production for Different Organizations
  • 10.5 An Argument in Favor of LOS as a Continued, Valuable Training Strategy
  • 10.5.1 The Paradox of Success
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 11 Line Operations Simulation Development Tools
  • Introduction
  • 11.1 Flight Training
  • 11.1.1 Line Operational Simulations
  • 11.1.2 Types of LOS
  • LOS for Training
  • LOS for Performance Evaluation
  • Summary of LOS Types
  • 11.2 Developing LOS Scenarios
  • 11.2.1 Objective Identification
  • Identifying Target Skills
  • Identifying Aviation Events
  • Summary
  • 11.2.2 Scenario Building
  • Combining Events
  • Instructor Workload
  • Summary
  • 11.2.3 Scenario Assessment
  • Assessment of LOS
  • Assessment of Performance
  • Summary
  • 11.3 Need for Developmental Tools
  • 11.3.1 Safety Report Databases
  • 11.3.2 RRLOS
  • 11.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • 12 Crew Resource Management and Line Operations Safety Audit
  • Introduction
  • 12.1 CRM Description
  • 12.2 Company Operations Plan
  • 12.3 LOSA Definition
  • 12.4 Line Operations Safety Audit
  • 12.4.1 The LOSA History
  • 12.4.2 The LOSA Process
  • 12.4.3 Synthesis of the TEM Framework from the LOSA Data Tsunami
  • 12.5 Flight Crew Performance and Procedural Drift
  • 12.6 The Safety Change Process and Safety Management Systems
  • 12.7 Summary
  • 12.8 Questions and Answers
  • Author's Perspective (2010)
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 13 Maintenance Resource Management for Technical Operations
  • Introduction
  • 13.1 Historical Overview
  • 13.1.1 First Generation
  • 13.1.2 Second Generation
  • 13.1.3 Third Generation
  • 13.1.4 Fourth Generation
  • 13.1.5 Fifth Generation
  • 13.1.6 Sixth Generation
  • 13.2 MRM Research Program
  • 13.2.1 FAA-TC-UK CAA
  • 13.2.2 Government-Academia-Industry
  • 13.3 MRM Training Content and Delivery
  • 13.3.1 MRM Training Content
  • 13.3.2 Delivery Options
  • 13.4 Results of MRM Training
  • 13.4.1 Key Findings Across all Generations of this Research Program
  • MRM Training Programs, in General, Are Effective in Raising Awareness About Human Performance Limitations and Have Been Cor...
  • Individual Professionalism and Interpersonal Trust Are Two Key Indicators of Safety Climate/Culture in Aviation Maintenance
  • Aircraft Maintenance Engineers/Technicians Are Among the Most Individualistic People in Aviation
  • Return-On-Investment (ROI) for MRM Training Can Be Demonstrated
  • MRM Programs Have Had a Profound Impact on the Safety Culture Across the Global Aviation Maintenance Community
  • 13.4.2 Implications for the Future
  • 13.5 Incident Review Tools and Taxonomies
  • 13.5.1 Maintenance Error Decision Aid
  • 13.5.2 HFACS for Maintenance
  • 13.5.3 LOSA in Maintenance and Ramp Operations
  • 13.6 Influence on Safety Culture in Technical Operations
  • 13.6.1 Shared Values, Beliefs, and Assumptions
  • 13.6.2 Role of Leaders and Influencers
  • 13.6.3 MRM as a Planned Intervention
  • 13.6.4 Performance Outcomes
  • 13.6.5 Artifacts
  • 13.7 Conclusions
  • References
  • 14 Flight and Cabin Crew Teamwork: Improving Safety in Aviation
  • 14.1 CRM in the Cabin
  • 14.2 Two Cultural and Geographical Environments
  • 14.3 September 11 Security Measures Added
  • 14.4 Training Trends
  • 14.5 Joint CRM Training
  • 14.6 A Caveat to Joint Training
  • 14.7 Delivery of Joint Training
  • 14.8 Other Joint Team CRM Building Concepts
  • 14.8.1 Observation Flights
  • 14.8.2 Preflight Briefings
  • 14.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • 15 The Migration of Crew Resource Management Training
  • 15.1 Beyond the Flight Deck
  • 15.2 The Maritime Industry
  • 15.2.1 Rationale for CRM Training in the Maritime Industry
  • 15.2.2 Development of Maritime CRM
  • 15.2.3 Aim of Bridge Resource Management Training
  • 15.2.4 Maritime Resource Management (MRM) Training
  • 15.2.5 MRM Training Delivery
  • 15.2.6 Competency Standards for Nontechnical Skills
  • 15.3 CRM in Health Care
  • 15.3.1 Rationale for CRM in Health Care
  • 15.3.2 Anaesthesia Crisis Resource Management (ACRM)
  • 15.3.3 Effectiveness of Anaesthesia Crisis Resource Management
  • 15.3.4 Other Adaptations of CRM in Health Care
  • 15.3.5 Emergency Team Coordination Course
  • 15.3.6 NeoSim
  • 15.3.7 Team Resource Management
  • 15.3.8 Other Developments in Health Care
  • 15.3.9 The Use of Behavioral Markers in Health Care
  • 15.4 The Rail Industry
  • 15.4.1 Rationale for CRM in the Rail Industry
  • 15.4.2 Development of CRM in the Rail Industry
  • 15.4.3 Current Adaptations of CRM in the Rail Industry
  • Canadian Pacific Railway
  • Federal Railroad Administration
  • Texas Transportation Institute
  • 15.4.4 Developments in the Australian Rail Industry
  • The Australian National Rail Resource Management Project
  • Queensland Rail's Confidential Observations of Rail Safety (CORS) Program
  • Developments in the UK
  • 15.5 Offshore Industry
  • 15.5.1 Rationale for CRM in the Offshore Industry
  • 15.5.2 Adaptations of CRM to the Offshore Industry
  • CRM for Offshore Control Room Operators
  • CRM for Offshore Installation Managers and Emergency Response Teams
  • Emergency Resource Management-Elf Norge
  • CRM for Offshore Production Installation Crews
  • The Use of Behavioral Markers
  • 15.6 Future Migration
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • III. CRM Perspectives
  • 16 A Regulatory Perspective
  • Introduction
  • 16.1 Aviation Regulation-A Brief Primer
  • 16.2 Regulatory Requirements and Guidance for Crew Resource Management-Flight Deck
  • 16.2.1 Airworthiness Requirements for Equipment Design-Examples
  • 16.2.2 Flight Crew Training and Qualification Requirements
  • 16.2.3 Flight Crew Procedures
  • 16.3 Future Considerations
  • 16.4 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • 17 A Regulatory Perspective II
  • Introduction
  • 17.1 Historical Perspective
  • 17.2 From Assessment to Evaluation
  • 17.3 Measuring and Grading CRM
  • 17.4 The Role of the Regulator
  • 17.4.1 Regulatory Flexibility
  • 17.4.2 Rules
  • 17.4.3 Policy
  • 17.4.4 Rewarding Best Practices
  • Voluntary Safety Programs
  • 17.5 Funding Research
  • 17.5.1 Human Factors Research
  • 17.5.2 Crew Resource Management
  • Evaluator Calibration
  • Leadership/Followership
  • Advanced Crew Resource Management (ACRM)
  • Facilitated Debriefing Techniques
  • 17.6 The CRM Frameworks
  • 17.6.1 The Six CRM Frameworks
  • Building the CRM toolbox
  • 17.6.2 The Air Carrier Training Aviation Rule-making Committee (ACT-ARC)
  • 17.6.3 The State-of-the-Art Study (1999-2014)
  • 17.7 Future Trends
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 18 The Accident Investigator's Perspective
  • 18.1 Introduction and Background Information
  • 18.1.1 Background Information
  • 18.1.2 The Accident Investigator's Perspective
  • 18.2 Leadership, Communications, and Following SOPs
  • 18.2.1 Leadership
  • 18.2.2 Communication
  • 18.2.3 Adherence to Standard Operating Procedures
  • 18.3 Situation Awareness
  • 18.3.1 Monitoring of the Aircraft Flight Path
  • 18.3.2 Workload Management
  • 18.3.3 Managing Flight Deck Automation
  • 18.4 More to be Done
  • 18.5 Summary
  • References
  • 19 The Military Perspective
  • Introduction
  • 19.1 Civilian Versus Military CRM training
  • 19.2 Current Military Approaches to CRM Training
  • 19.2.1 United States Navy-Marine Corps
  • 19.2.2 United States Air Force
  • 19.2.3 United States Army
  • 19.2.4 United States Coast Guard
  • 19.2.5 Non-US Military
  • 19.3 The Effectiveness of Military CRM Training
  • 19.4 The Future of CRM Training in the Military
  • 19.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • 20 Cultural Issues and Crew Resource Management Training
  • Introduction
  • 20.1 Cultural Issues in Crew Resource Management
  • 20.1.1 The Use of Line Pilots as CRM Facilitators
  • 20.1.2 Strengthening the Role of the First Officer
  • 20.1.3 CRM Cultural Adaptations
  • 20.1.4 Integration of CRM Into Checking and Training
  • 20.1.5 Cultural Mistakes About Extending CRM Training
  • 20.1.6 Cultural Experiences About the Introduction of Threat & Error Management
  • 20.2 Conclusion
  • 20.2.1 The Future of CRM Outside the United States
  • References
  • 21 Airline Pilots, Training, and CRM in Today's Environment
  • Introduction
  • 21.1 Today's Environment and Market for Pilots
  • 21.2 Some Effects of the Colgan 3407 Accident and Investigation
  • 21.3 Regulations, Advisory Circulars, ICAO Guidance
  • 21.4 Handling Big Data and Voluntary Reporting Systems
  • 21.5 Unexpected Cultural Factors
  • 21.6 Training-The Primary Interface
  • 21.7 Selection of Training Devices
  • 21.8 Training Automation
  • 21.9 Automation Surprises
  • 21.10 Automation Does Not Reduce Training Requirements
  • 21.11 Reducing Levels of Automation-What's Changed?
  • 21.12 Implications of Design Philosophies
  • 21.13 The Manufacturer's Challenge of Understanding the Operational Environment
  • 21.14 Cockpit Workload
  • 21.15 Maintenance of Manual Flying Skills-Do All Have the Same Foundation?
  • 21.16 Pilots Want and Need More System Knowledge
  • 21.17 Intentional Noncompliance With Procedures
  • 21.18 Current CRM and Human Factors Airline Programs
  • 21.19 Final Thoughts
  • References
  • 22 The Future of CRM
  • References
  • Further Reading
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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