AeroMACS

An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems
 
 
Standards Information Network (Verlag)
  • 1. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 27. September 2018
  • |
  • 480 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe-DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-28112-2 (ISBN)
 
This is a pioneering textbook on the comprehensive description of AeroMACS technology. It also presents the process of developing a new technology based on an established standard, in this case IEEE802.16 standards suite. The text introduces readers to the field of airport surface communications systems and provides them with comprehensive coverage of one the key components of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen); i.e., AeroMACS. It begins with a critical review of the legacy aeronautical communications system and a discussion of the impetus behind its replacement with network-centric digital technologies. It then describes wireless mobile channel characteristics in general, and focuses on the airport surface channel over the 5GHz band. This is followed by an extensive coverage of major features of IEEE 802.16-2009 Physical Layer (PHY)and Medium Access Control (MAC) Sublayer. The text then provides a comprehensive coverage of the AeroMACS standardization process, from technology selection to network deployment. AeroMACS is then explored as a short-range high-data-throughput broadband wireless communications system, with concentration on the AeroMACS PHY layer and MAC sublayer main features, followed by making a strong case in favor of the IEEE 802.16j Amendment as the foundational standard for AeroMACS networks. AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems covers topics such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), coded OFDMA, scalable OFDMA, Adaptive Modulation-Coding (AMC), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, Error Control Coding (ECC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) techniques, Time Division Duplexing (TDD), Inter-Application Interference (IAI), and so on. It also looks at future trends and developments of AeroMACS networks as they are deployed across the world, focusing on concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity. In addition, this text: * Discusses the challenges posed by complexities of airport radio channels as well as those pertaining to broadband transmissions * Examines physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer protocols and signal processing techniques of AeroMACS inherited from IEEE 802.16 standard and WiMAX networks * Compares AeroMACS and how it relates to IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based WiMAX AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems will appeal to engineers and technical professionals involved in the research and development of AeroMACS, technical staffers of government agencies in aviation sectors, and graduate students interested in standard-based wireless networking analysis, design, and development.
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BEHNAM KAMALI, Ph.D., is Sam Nunn Eminent Scholar of Telecommunications and a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Mercer University, USA. Dr. Kamali has over 40 years of industry and academic experience in analysis, design, and implementation of digital communications systems, wireless networks, and digital storage devices. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.Dr. Kamali has published over 100 journal and magazine papers, conference articles, and research reports, several of them on AeroMACS and WiMAX technologies. He has taught at, or worked for, 10 major universities across the globe. Dr. Kamali is a seven-time NASA visiting Summer Research Fellow at Glenn Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems
  • Table of Contents
  • Preface
  • Acronyms
  • Chapter 1: Airport Communications from Analog AM to AeroMACS
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Conventional Aeronautical Communication Domains (Flight Domains)
  • 1.3 VHF Spectrum Depletion
  • 1.4 The ACAST Project
  • 1.5 Early Digital Communication Technologies for Aeronautics
  • 1.5.1 ACARS
  • 1.5.2 VHF Data Link (VDL) Systems
  • 1.5.2.1 Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN)
  • 1.5.2.2 VDL Systems
  • 1.5.3 Overlay Broadband Alternatives for Data Transmission
  • 1.5.3.1 Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum Overlay
  • 1.5.3.2 Broadband VHF (B-VHF)
  • 1.5.4 Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC)
  • 1.6 Selection of a Communications Technology for Aeronautics
  • 1.7 The National Airspace System (NAS)
  • 1.7.1 Flight Control
  • 1.7.2 United States Civilian Airports
  • 1.8 The Next Generation Air Transportation Systems (NextGen)
  • 1.8.1 The NextGen Vision
  • 1.8.2 NextGen Key Components and Functionalities
  • 1.9 Auxiliary Wireless Communications Systems Available for the Airport Surface
  • 1.9.1 Public Safety Mobile Radio for Airport Incidents
  • 1.9.1.1 Public Safety Communications (PSC) Systems Architecture and Technologies
  • 1.9.1.2 Public Safety Allocated Radio Spectrum
  • 1.9.1.3 700 MHz Band and the First Responder Network Authority (FirstNet)
  • 1.9.2 Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) Systems Applications for Airport Surface
  • 1.10 Airport Wired Communications Systems
  • 1.10.1 Airport Fiber-Optic Cable Loop System
  • 1.10.2 Applications of CLCS in Airport Surface Communications and Navigation
  • 1.11 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 2: Cellular Networking and Mobile Radio Channel Characterization
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Crux of the Cellular Concept
  • 2.2.1 The ``Precellular´´ Wireless Mobile Communications Systems
  • 2.2.2 The Core of the Cellular Notion
  • 2.2.3 Frequency Reuse and Radio Channel Multiplicity
  • 2.2.3.1 Co-Channel Reuse Ratio (CCRR), Cluster Size, and Reuse Factor
  • 2.2.3.2 Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio (SIR)
  • 2.2.3.3 Channel Allocation
  • 2.2.4 Erlang Traffic Theory and Cellular Network Design
  • 2.2.4.1 Trunking, Erlang, and Traffic
  • 2.2.4.2 The Grade of Service
  • 2.2.4.3 Blocked Calls Handling Strategies
  • 2.2.4.4 Trunking Efficiency
  • 2.2.4.5 Capacity Enhancement through Cell Splitting
  • 2.2.4.6 Capacity Enhancement via Sectorization
  • 2.3 Cellular Radio Channel Characterization
  • 2.3.1 Cellular Link Impairments
  • 2.3.2 Path Loss Computation and Estimation
  • 2.3.2.1 Free-Space Propagation and Friis Formula
  • 2.3.2.2 The Key Mechanisms Affecting Radio Wave Propagation
  • 2.3.2.3 The Ray Tracing Technique
  • 2.3.2.4 Ground Reflection and Double-Ray Model
  • 2.3.2.5 Empirical Techniques for Path Loss (Large-Scale Attenuation) Estimation
  • 2.3.2.6 Okumura-Hata Model for Outdoor Median Path Loss Estimation
  • 2.3.2.7 COST 231-Hata Model
  • 2.3.2.8 Stanford University Interim (SUI) Model: Erceg Model
  • 2.3.2.9 ECC-33 Model
  • 2.3.3 Large-Scale Fading: Shadowing and Foliage
  • 2.3.3.1 Log-Normal Shadowing
  • 2.3.3.2 Estimation of Useful Coverage Area (UCA) within a Cell Footprint
  • 2.3.4 Small-Scale Fading: Multipath Propagation and Doppler Effect
  • 2.3.4.1 Multipath Propagation
  • 2.3.4.2 Double Path Example
  • 2.3.4.3 Doppler Shift
  • 2.3.4.4 Impulse Response of Multipath Channels
  • 2.3.4.5 Delay Spread and Fading Modes
  • 2.3.4.6 Methods of Combating Frequency-Selective Fading
  • 2.3.4.7 Coherence Bandwidth and Power Delay Profiles (PDPs)
  • 2.3.4.8 Frequency Flat Fading versus Frequency-Selective Fading
  • 2.3.4.9 Frequency Dispersion and Coherence Time
  • 2.3.4.10 Classification of Multipath Fading Channels
  • 2.3.4.11 Probabilistic Models for Frequency Flat Fading Channels
  • 2.3.4.12 Rayleigh Fading Channels
  • 2.3.4.13 Rician Fading Channels
  • 2.4 Challenges of Broadband Transmission over the Airport Surface Channel
  • 2.5 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 3: Wireless Channel Characterization for the 5 GHz Band Airport Surface Area*
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.1.1 Importance of Channel Characterization
  • 3.1.2 Channel Definitions
  • 3.1.3 Airport Surface Area Channel
  • 3.2 Statistical Channel Characterization Overview
  • 3.2.1 The Channel Impulse Response and Transfer Function
  • 3.2.2 Statistical Channel Characteristics
  • 3.2.3 Common Channel Parameters and Statistics
  • 3.3 Channel Effects and Signaling
  • 3.3.1 Small-Scale and Large-Scale Fading
  • 3.3.2 Channel Parameters and Signaling Relations
  • 3.4 Measured Airport Surface Area Channels
  • 3.4.1 Measurement Description and Example Results
  • 3.4.2 Path Loss Results
  • 3.5 Airport Surface Area Channel Models
  • 3.5.1 Large/Medium-Sized Airports
  • 3.5.2 Small Airports
  • 3.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 4: Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing and Multiple Access
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Fundamental Principles of OFDM Signaling
  • 4.2.1 Parallel Transmission, Orthogonal Multiplexing, Guard Time, and Cyclic Extension
  • 4.2.1.1 Cyclic Prefix and Guard Time
  • 4.2.2 Fourier Transform-Based OFDM Signal
  • 4.2.3 Windowing, Filtering, and Formation of OFDM Signal
  • 4.2.4 OFDM System Implementation
  • 4.2.5 Choice of Modulation Schemes for OFDM
  • 4.2.6 OFDM Systems Design: How the Key Parameters are Selected
  • 4.3 Coded Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing: COFDM
  • 4.3.1 Motivation
  • 4.3.2 System-Level Functional Block Diagram of a Fourier-Based COFDM
  • 4.3.3 Some Classical Applications of COFDM
  • 4.3.3.1 COFDM Applied in Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB)
  • 4.3.3.2 COFDM Applied in Wireless LAN (Wi-Fi): The IEEE 802.11 Standard
  • 4.4 Performance of Channel Coding in OFDM Networks
  • 4.5 Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access: OFDMA
  • 4.5.1 Multiple Access Technologies: FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, and OFDMA
  • 4.5.2 Incentives behind Widespread Applications of OFDMA in Wireless Networks
  • 4.5.3 Subchannelization and Symbol Structure
  • 4.5.4 Permutation Modes for Configuration of Subchannels
  • 4.5.4.1 The Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Problem
  • 4.6 Scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA)
  • 4.6.1 How to Select the OFDMA Basic Parameters vis-à-vis Scalability
  • 4.6.2 Options in Scaling
  • 4.7 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 5: The IEEE 802.16 Standards and the WiMAX Technology
  • 5.1 Introduction to the IEEE 802.16 Standards for Wireless MAN Networks
  • 5.2 The Evolution and Characterization of IEEE 802.16 Standards
  • 5.2.1 IEEE 802.16-2004 Standard
  • 5.2.2 IEEE 802.16e-2005 Standard
  • 5.2.3 IEEE 802.16-2009 Standard
  • 5.2.4 IEEE 802.16j Amendment
  • 5.2.5 The Structure of a WirelessMAN Cell
  • 5.2.6 Protocol Reference Model (PRM) for the IEEE 802.16-2009 Standard
  • 5.3 WiMAX: an IEEE 802.16-Based Technology
  • 5.3.1 Basic Features of WiMAX Systems
  • 5.3.2 WiMAX Physical Layer Characterization
  • 5.3.2.1 OFDMA and SOFDMA for WiMAX
  • 5.3.2.2 Comparison of Duplexing Technologies: TDD versus FDD
  • 5.3.2.3 Subchannelization for Mobile WiMAX
  • 5.3.2.4 WiMAX TDD Frame Structure
  • 5.3.2.5 Adaptive (Advanced) Modulation and Coding (AMC)
  • 5.3.2.6 ARQ and Hybrid ARQ: Multilayer Error Control Schemes
  • 5.3.2.7 Multiple Antenna Techniques, MIMO, and Space-Time Coding
  • 5.3.2.8 Fractional Frequency Reuse Techniques for Combating Intercell Interference and to Boost Spectral Efficiency
  • 5.3.2.9 Power Control and Saving Modes in WiMAX Networks
  • 5.3.3 WiMAX MAC Layer Description
  • 5.3.3.1 WiMAX MAC CS
  • Connections and Service Flows
  • 5.3.3.2 The MAC CPS Functionalities
  • 5.3.3.3 WiMAX Security Sublayer
  • 5.3.3.4 WiMAX MAC Frame and MAC Header Format
  • 5.3.3.5 Quality of Service (QoS), Scheduling, and Bandwidth Allocation
  • 5.3.4 WiMAX Forum and WiMAX Profiles
  • 5.3.4.1 WiMAX System Profiles and Certification Profiles
  • 5.3.4.2 WiMAX Mobile System Profiles
  • 5.3.5 WiMAX Network Architecture
  • 5.3.5.1 WiMAX Network Reference Model as Presented by WiMAX Forum
  • 5.3.5.2 Characterization of Major Logical and Physical Components of WiMAX NRM
  • 5.3.5.3 Visual Depiction of WiMAX NRM
  • 5.3.5.4 The Description of WiMAX Reference Points
  • 5.3.6 Mobility and Handover in WiMAX Networks
  • 5.3.7 Multicast and Broadcast with WiMAX
  • 5.4 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 6: Introduction to AeroMACS
  • 6.1 The Origins of the AeroMACS Concept
  • 6.1.1 WiMAX Salient Features and the Genealogy of AeroMACS
  • 6.2 Defining Documents in the Making of AeroMACS Technology
  • 6.3 AeroMACS Standardization
  • 6.3.1 AeroMACS Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPS)
  • 6.3.2 Harmonization Document
  • 6.3.3 Overview of Most Recent AeroMACS Profile
  • 6.3.3.1 The AeroMACS Profile Background and Concept of Operations
  • 6.3.3.2 AeroMACS Profile Technical Aspects
  • 6.3.3.3 Profile's Key Assumptions for AeroMACS System Design
  • 6.3.3.4 AeroMACS Radio Profile Requirements and Restrictions
  • 6.3.3.5 AeroMACS Profile Common Part and TDD Format
  • 6.3.4 AeroMACS Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS)
  • 6.3.4.1 AeroMACS Capabilities and Operational Applications
  • 6.3.4.2 MOPS Equipment Test Procedures
  • 6.3.4.3 Minimum Performance Standard
  • 6.3.5 AeroMACS Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards (MASPS)
  • 6.3.6 AeroMACS Technical Manual
  • 6.4 AeroMACS Services and Applications
  • 6.5 AeroMACS Prototype Network and Testbed
  • 6.5.1 Testbed Configuration
  • 6.5.2 Early Testing Procedures and Results
  • 6.5.2.1 Mobile Application Testing with ARV
  • 6.5.2.2 The Results of AeroMACS Mobile Tests with Boeing 737-700
  • 6.5.2.3 AeroMACS Performance Validation
  • 6.6 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 7: AeroMACS Networks Characterization
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 AeroMACS Physical Layer Specifications
  • 7.2.1 OFDM and OFDMA for AeroMACS
  • 7.2.2 AeroMACS OFDMA TDD Frame Configuration
  • 7.2.3 AeroMACS Modulation Formats
  • 7.2.3.1 How to Select a Modulation Technique for a Specific Application
  • 7.2.3.2 General Characteristics of Modulation Schemes Supported by AeroMACS
  • 7.2.4 AeroMACS Channel Coding Schemes
  • 7.2.4.1 Mandatory Channel Coding for AeroMACS
  • 7.2.4.2 Optional CC-RS Code Concatenated Scheme
  • 7.2.4.3 Convolutional Turbo Coding (CTC) Technique
  • 7.2.5 Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) for AeroMACS Link Adaptation
  • 7.2.6 AeroMACS Frame Structure
  • 7.2.7 Computation of AeroMACS Receiver Sensitivity
  • 7.2.8 Fractional Frequency Reuse for WiMAX and AeroMACS Networks
  • 7.2.9 Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Configurations for AeroMACS
  • 7.3 Spectrum Considerations
  • 7.4 Spectrum Sharing and Interference Compatibility Constraints
  • 7.5 AeroMACS Media Access Control (MAC) Sublayer
  • 7.5.1 Quality of Service for AeroMACS Networks
  • 7.5.2 Scheduling, Resource Allocation, and Data Delivery
  • 7.5.3 Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) Protocols
  • 7.5.4 Handover (HO) Procedures in AeroMACS Networks
  • 7.5.4.1 MS-Initiated Handover Process
  • 7.6 AeroMACS Network Architecture and Reference Model
  • 7.6.1 AeroMACS Network Architecture
  • 7.6.2 AeroMACS Network Reference Model (NRM)
  • 7.7 Aeronautical Telecommunications Network Revisited
  • 7.8 AeroMACS and the Airport Network
  • 7.9 Summary
  • References
  • Chapter 8: AeroMACS Networks Fortified with Multihop Relays
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 IEEE 802.16j Amendment Revisited
  • 8.3 Relays: Definitions, Classification, and Modes of Operation
  • 8.3.1 A Double-Hop Relay Configuration: Terminologies and Definitions
  • 8.3.2 Relay Modes: Transparent versus Non-Transparent
  • 8.3.3 Time Division Transmit and Receive Relays (TTR) and Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Relays (STR)
  • 8.3.4 Further Division of Relay Modes of Operation
  • 8.3.5 Relay Classification Based on MAC Layer Functionalities: Centralized and Distributed Modes
  • 8.3.6 Physical Classification of IEEE 802.16j Relays: Relay Types
  • 8.3.6.1 Relay Type and Latency
  • 8.3.7 Modes of Deployment of IEEE 802.16j Relays in Wireless Networks
  • 8.3.8 Frame Structure for Double-Hop IEEE 802.16j TDD TRS
  • 8.3.8.1 The Detail of IEEE 802-16j Operation with Transparent Relays
  • 8.3.9 The Frame Structure for TTR-NTRS
  • 8.3.10 The Frame Structure for STR-NTRS
  • 8.3.10.1 STR Implementation in Different Layers
  • 8.4 Regarding MAC Layers of IEEE 802.16j and NRTS
  • 8.4.1 Data Forwarding Schemes
  • 8.4.1.1 Routing Selection and Path Management
  • 8.4.1.2 Initial Ranging and Network Entry
  • 8.4.2 Scheduling
  • 8.4.3 Security Schemes
  • 8.4.4 Quality of Service (QoS) in Relay-Augmented Networks
  • 8.4.4.1 The Impact of Scheduling and Relay Mode on AeroMACS Network Parameters
  • 8.5 Challenges and Practical Issues in IEEE 802.16j-Based AeroMACS
  • 8.5.1 Latency
  • 8.5.2 The Number of Hops
  • 8.5.3 The Output Power and Antenna Selection
  • 8.6 Applications and Usage Scenarios for Relay-Augmented Broadband Cellular Networks
  • 8.6.1 Some Applications of Relay-Fortified Systems
  • 8.6.1.1 The European REWIND Project
  • 8.6.1.2 Vehicular Networks
  • 8.6.1.3 4G and 5G Cellular Networks
  • 8.6.1.4 Cognitive Femtocell
  • 8.6.2 Potential Usage Scenarios of IEEE 802.16j
  • 8.6.2.1 Radio Outreach Extension
  • 8.6.2.2 The Concept of ``Filling a Coverage Hole´´
  • 8.6.2.3 Relays for Capacity and Throughput Improvement
  • 8.6.2.4 The Case of Cooperative Relaying
  • 8.6.2.5 Reliable Coverage for In-Building and In-Door Scenarios
  • 8.6.2.6 The Mobile Relays
  • 8.6.2.7 The Temporary Relay Stations
  • 8.7 IEEE 802.16j-Based Relays for AeroMACS Networks
  • 8.7.1 Airport Surface Radio Coverage Situations for which IEEE 802.16j Offers a Preferred Alternative
  • 8.8 Radio Resource Management (RRM) for Relay-Fortified Wireless Networks
  • 8.9 The Multihop Gain
  • 8.9.1 Computation of Multihop Gain for the Simplest Case
  • 8.10 Interapplication Interference (IAI) in Relay-Fortified AeroMACS
  • 8.11 Making the Case for IEEE 802.16j-Based AeroMACS
  • 8.11.1 The Main Arguments
  • 8.11.1.1 Supporting and Drawback Instants
  • 8.11.2 The Second Argument
  • 8.11.3 How to Select a Relay Configuration
  • 8.11.4 A Note on Cell Footprint Extension
  • 8.12 Summary
  • References
  • Index
  • End User License Agreement

Preface


Civil aviation plays a major role in driving sustainable global and national economic and social development. During the year 2015, civil aviation created 9.9 million jobs inside the industry, and directly and indirectly supported the employment of 62.7 million people around the world. The total global economic impact of civil aviation was $2.7 trillion (including the effects of tourism). In the same year, approximately 3.6 billion passengers were transported through air. The volume of freight carried via air reached 51.2 million tons. Today, the value of air-transported goods stands at $17.5 billion per day. Accordingly, in the year 2015, approximately 3.5% of global GDP was supported by civil aviation. Research conducted in the United States suggests that every $100 million dollars invested in aerospace yields an extra $70 million in GDP year after year1. In addition to economic prosperity, civil aviation brings about a number of social and human relation benefits, ranging from swift delivery of health care, emergency services, and humanitarian aid, to the promotion of peace and friendship among various groups of people through trade, leisure, and cultural experiences and exchanges.

The global air transportation system is a worldwide network, consisting of four components of airport and airport infrastructures, commercial aircraft operators, air navigation service providers, and the manufacturers of aircraft and associated components. The airport component plays a central role in air traffic management, air traffic control, and the management of national and global airspace systems. From the technical point of view air transportation operation is centered around three elements of communications, navigation, and surveillance. The safety of air transportation is critically linked to the availability of reliable aeronautical communication systems that support all aspects of air operations and air traffic management, including navigation and surveillance. Owing to the fact that flight safety is the highest priority in aviation, extreme measures must be taken to protect the aeronautical communication systems against harmful interference, malfunction, and capacity limitation.

In the early days of commercial aviation, the 1940s, analog AM radio over VHF band was adopted for aeronautical communications. This selection was made mostly for the reason that analog AM was the only fully developed and proven radio communications technology at the time. However, by the late 1980s, spectrum congestion in aeronautical VHF band, due to rapid growth in both commercial and general sectors of civil aviation, became a concern for the aviation community in the United States and in Europe. The concerns about inability of the legacy system to safely manage future levels of air traffic, called for modernization of air transportation systems. This in turn led to the initiatives of Next Generation Air Transportation System Integrated Plan (NextGen) in the United States, and European Commission Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) in Europe. A joint FAA-EUROCONTROL technology assessment study on communications for future aviation systems had already come to the conclusion that no single communication technology could satisfy all physical, operational, and functional requirements of various aeronautical transmission domains. Based on recommendations made by that study, a broadband wireless mobile communications technology based on IEEE 802.16e (Mobile WiMAX) was selected for airport surface domain, leading to the advent of aeronautical mobile airport communications system, AeroMACS, the subject of focus in this book.

Over the past few years AeroMACS has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed operating communications network over a number of major U.S. airports. Projections are that AeroMACS will be deployed across the globe by the year 2020. It is worth noting that AeroMACS, as a new broadband data link able to support the ever-expanding air traffic management communications requirements, is emerging out of the modernization initiatives of NextGen and SESAR, and therefore should be considered to be an integral and enabling part of both NextGen and SESAR visions.

The main feature of this book is its pioneering focus on AeroMACS, representing, perhaps, the first text written entirely on the technology and how it relates to its parental standards (although book chapters on the subject have been published previously). The text is prepared, by and large, from a system engineering perspective, however, it also places emphasis on the description of IEEE 802.16e standards and how they can be tied up with communications requirements on the airport surface. A second contribution that this book aspires to make; when viewed on the whole, is to provide a complete picture of the overall process of how a new technology is developed based on an already established standard, in this case IEEE 802.16e standards. AeroMACS, like its parent standards, mobile WiMAX and IEEE 802.16-2009 WirelessMAN, is a complex technology that is impossible to fully describe in a few hundred pages. Nonetheless, it is hoped that this book will be able to provide an overall understanding of several facets of this fascinating technology that will be a key component of modern global air transportation systems. Another feature of this text is the simplicity of the language that is used for the description of complicated concepts. Efforts have also been made, to the extent possible and despite all the challenges, to make this book self-contained. To this end, review chapters are included and a large number of footnotes are provided in each chapter.

1 Synopsis of Chapters


This book, for the most part, reflects the results of the author's research activities in the field of aeronautical communications in conjunction with several summer research fellowships at NASA Glenn Research Center. The book consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the applications of wireless communications in the airport environment. The chapter portrays a continuous picture of the evolution of airport surface communications techniques from the legacy VHF analog AM radio, to the appearance of digital communications schemes for various airport surface functionalities, and to the making of the AeroMACS concept. The rationales and the reasons behind the emergence of AeroMACS technology are described. The large arenas over which AeroMACS will operate, that is, the National Airspace System (NAS) and the International Airspace System, are concisely overviewed. The Federal Aviation Administration's NextGen and European SESAR programs, planned to transform and modernize air transportation, are discussed as well. Auxiliary wireless and wireline systems for airport surface communications, including airport fiber optic cable loop system, are briefly covered in the conclusion.

In modern wireless communication theory, a formidable challenge is the integration of an astonishing breath of topics that are tied together to provide the necessary background for thorough understanding of a wireless technology such as AeroMACS. It is no longer possible to separate signal processing techniques, such as modulation and channel coding, from antenna systems (traditionally studied as a topic in electromagnetic theory), and from networking issues involving physical layer and medium access control sublayer protocols. To this end, Chapter 2 is the first of the three review chapters in which two topics of cellular networking and wireless channel characterizations are addressed. The main objective for this and other review chapters is to ensure, as much as possible, that the text is self-contained. This approach is conducive to the understanding of the cellular architecture of the network and the challenges posed by airport surface radio channel in design, implementation, and deployment stages of AeroMACS systems.

Chapter 3, authored by Dr. David Matolak of the University of South Carolina, is dedicated to the airport surface radio channel characterization over the 5 GHz band. The chapter commences with describing the motivation and the need for this topic, followed by some background on wireless channels and modeling, and specific results for the airport surface channel. An extensive airport surface area channel measurement campaign is summarized. Example measurement results for RMS delay spread, coherence bandwidth, and small-scale fading Rician K-factors are provided. Detailed airport surface area channel models over the 5 GHz band, in the form of tapped-delay lines, are then presented.

Chapter 4 is the second review chapter, focusing on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), coded OFDM, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), and scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA). OFDMA is an access technology that offers significant advantages for broadband wireless transmission over its rival technologies such as CDMA. Accordingly, it is shared by a number of contemporary wireless telecommunication networks, including IEEE 802.16-Std-based networks such as WiMAX and AeroMACS. The primary advantage of OFDMA over rival access technologies is the ability of OFDM to convert a wideband frequency selective fading channel to a series of narrowband flat fading channels. This is the mechanism by which frequency selective fading effects of hostile multipath environments, such as the airport surface channel, are mitigated or eliminated altogether. Performance of channel coding in OFDM, that is, modulation-coding combination, is explored in this chapter, providing some background for understanding of adaptive modulation coding (AMC) scheme discussed in later...

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