This is a pioneering textbook on the comprehensive description of AeroMACS technology. It also presents the process of developing a new technology based on an established standard, in this case IEEE802.16 standards suite.
The text introduces readers to the field of airport surface communications systems and provides them with comprehensive coverage of one the key components of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen); i.e., AeroMACS. It begins with a critical review of the legacy aeronautical communications system and a discussion of the impetus behind its replacement with network-centric digital technologies. It then describes wireless mobile channel characteristics in general, and focuses on the airport surface channel over the 5GHz band. This is followed by an extensive coverage of major features of IEEE 802.16-2009 Physical Layer (PHY)and Medium Access Control (MAC) Sublayer. The text then provides a comprehensive coverage of the AeroMACS standardization process, from technology selection to network deployment. AeroMACS is then explored as a short-range high-data-throughput broadband wireless communications system, with concentration on the AeroMACS PHY layer and MAC sublayer main features, followed by making a strong case in favor of the IEEE 802.16j Amendment as the foundational standard for AeroMACS networks.
AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems covers topics such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA), coded OFDMA, scalable OFDMA, Adaptive Modulation-Coding (AMC), Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, Error Control Coding (ECC) and Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) techniques, Time Division Duplexing (TDD), Inter-Application Interference (IAI), and so on. It also looks at future trends and developments of AeroMACS networks as they are deployed across the world, focusing on concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity. In addition, this text:
* Discusses the challenges posed by complexities of airport radio channels as well as those pertaining to broadband transmissions
* Examines physical layer (PHY) and Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer protocols and signal processing techniques of AeroMACS inherited from IEEE 802.16 standard and WiMAX networks
* Compares AeroMACS and how it relates to IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based WiMAX
AeroMACS: An IEEE 802.16 Standard-Based Technology for the Next Generation of Air Transportation Systems will appeal to engineers and technical professionals involved in the research and development of AeroMACS, technical staffers of government agencies in aviation sectors, and graduate students interested in standard-based wireless networking analysis, design, and development.
BEHNAM KAMALI, Ph.D., is Sam Nunn Eminent Scholar of Telecommunications and a Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Mercer University, USA. Dr. Kamali has over 40 years of industry and academic experience in analysis, design, and implementation of digital communications systems, wireless networks, and digital storage devices. He is a Senior Member of the IEEE.Dr. Kamali has published over 100 journal and magazine papers, conference articles, and research reports, several of them on AeroMACS and WiMAX technologies. He has taught at, or worked for, 10 major universities across the globe. Dr. Kamali is a seven-time NASA visiting Summer Research Fellow at Glenn Research Center and Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
Civil aviation plays a major role in driving sustainable global and national economic and social development. During the year 2015, civil aviation created 9.9 million jobs inside the industry, and directly and indirectly supported the employment of 62.7 million people around the world. The total global economic impact of civil aviation was $2.7 trillion (including the effects of tourism). In the same year, approximately 3.6 billion passengers were transported through air. The volume of freight carried via air reached 51.2 million tons. Today, the value of air-transported goods stands at $17.5 billion per day. Accordingly, in the year 2015, approximately 3.5% of global GDP was supported by civil aviation. Research conducted in the United States suggests that every $100 million dollars invested in aerospace yields an extra $70 million in GDP year after year1. In addition to economic prosperity, civil aviation brings about a number of social and human relation benefits, ranging from swift delivery of health care, emergency services, and humanitarian aid, to the promotion of peace and friendship among various groups of people through trade, leisure, and cultural experiences and exchanges.
The global air transportation system is a worldwide network, consisting of four components of airport and airport infrastructures, commercial aircraft operators, air navigation service providers, and the manufacturers of aircraft and associated components. The airport component plays a central role in air traffic management, air traffic control, and the management of national and global airspace systems. From the technical point of view air transportation operation is centered around three elements of communications, navigation, and surveillance. The safety of air transportation is critically linked to the availability of reliable aeronautical communication systems that support all aspects of air operations and air traffic management, including navigation and surveillance. Owing to the fact that flight safety is the highest priority in aviation, extreme measures must be taken to protect the aeronautical communication systems against harmful interference, malfunction, and capacity limitation.
In the early days of commercial aviation, the 1940s, analog AM radio over VHF band was adopted for aeronautical communications. This selection was made mostly for the reason that analog AM was the only fully developed and proven radio communications technology at the time. However, by the late 1980s, spectrum congestion in aeronautical VHF band, due to rapid growth in both commercial and general sectors of civil aviation, became a concern for the aviation community in the United States and in Europe. The concerns about inability of the legacy system to safely manage future levels of air traffic, called for modernization of air transportation systems. This in turn led to the initiatives of Next Generation Air Transportation System Integrated Plan (NextGen) in the United States, and European Commission Single European Sky ATM Research (SESAR) in Europe. A joint FAA-EUROCONTROL technology assessment study on communications for future aviation systems had already come to the conclusion that no single communication technology could satisfy all physical, operational, and functional requirements of various aeronautical transmission domains. Based on recommendations made by that study, a broadband wireless mobile communications technology based on IEEE 802.16e (Mobile WiMAX) was selected for airport surface domain, leading to the advent of aeronautical mobile airport communications system, AeroMACS, the subject of focus in this book.
Over the past few years AeroMACS has evolved from a technology concept to a deployed operating communications network over a number of major U.S. airports. Projections are that AeroMACS will be deployed across the globe by the year 2020. It is worth noting that AeroMACS, as a new broadband data link able to support the ever-expanding air traffic management communications requirements, is emerging out of the modernization initiatives of NextGen and SESAR, and therefore should be considered to be an integral and enabling part of both NextGen and SESAR visions.
The main feature of this book is its pioneering focus on AeroMACS, representing, perhaps, the first text written entirely on the technology and how it relates to its parental standards (although book chapters on the subject have been published previously). The text is prepared, by and large, from a system engineering perspective, however, it also places emphasis on the description of IEEE 802.16e standards and how they can be tied up with communications requirements on the airport surface. A second contribution that this book aspires to make; when viewed on the whole, is to provide a complete picture of the overall process of how a new technology is developed based on an already established standard, in this case IEEE 802.16e standards. AeroMACS, like its parent standards, mobile WiMAX and IEEE 802.16-2009 WirelessMAN, is a complex technology that is impossible to fully describe in a few hundred pages. Nonetheless, it is hoped that this book will be able to provide an overall understanding of several facets of this fascinating technology that will be a key component of modern global air transportation systems. Another feature of this text is the simplicity of the language that is used for the description of complicated concepts. Efforts have also been made, to the extent possible and despite all the challenges, to make this book self-contained. To this end, review chapters are included and a large number of footnotes are provided in each chapter.
1 Synopsis of Chapters
This book, for the most part, reflects the results of the author's research activities in the field of aeronautical communications in conjunction with several summer research fellowships at NASA Glenn Research Center. The book consists of eight chapters. Chapter 1 presents an introduction to the applications of wireless communications in the airport environment. The chapter portrays a continuous picture of the evolution of airport surface communications techniques from the legacy VHF analog AM radio, to the appearance of digital communications schemes for various airport surface functionalities, and to the making of the AeroMACS concept. The rationales and the reasons behind the emergence of AeroMACS technology are described. The large arenas over which AeroMACS will operate, that is, the National Airspace System (NAS) and the International Airspace System, are concisely overviewed. The Federal Aviation Administration's NextGen and European SESAR programs, planned to transform and modernize air transportation, are discussed as well. Auxiliary wireless and wireline systems for airport surface communications, including airport fiber optic cable loop system, are briefly covered in the conclusion.
In modern wireless communication theory, a formidable challenge is the integration of an astonishing breath of topics that are tied together to provide the necessary background for thorough understanding of a wireless technology such as AeroMACS. It is no longer possible to separate signal processing techniques, such as modulation and channel coding, from antenna systems (traditionally studied as a topic in electromagnetic theory), and from networking issues involving physical layer and medium access control sublayer protocols. To this end, Chapter 2 is the first of the three review chapters in which two topics of cellular networking and wireless channel characterizations are addressed. The main objective for this and other review chapters is to ensure, as much as possible, that the text is self-contained. This approach is conducive to the understanding of the cellular architecture of the network and the challenges posed by airport surface radio channel in design, implementation, and deployment stages of AeroMACS systems.
Chapter 3, authored by Dr. David Matolak of the University of South Carolina, is dedicated to the airport surface radio channel characterization over the 5 GHz band. The chapter commences with describing the motivation and the need for this topic, followed by some background on wireless channels and modeling, and specific results for the airport surface channel. An extensive airport surface area channel measurement campaign is summarized. Example measurement results for RMS delay spread, coherence bandwidth, and small-scale fading Rician K-factors are provided. Detailed airport surface area channel models over the 5 GHz band, in the form of tapped-delay lines, are then presented.
Chapter 4 is the second review chapter, focusing on orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM), coded OFDM, orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA), and scalable OFDMA (SOFDMA). OFDMA is an access technology that offers significant advantages for broadband wireless transmission over its rival technologies such as CDMA. Accordingly, it is shared by a number of contemporary wireless telecommunication networks, including IEEE 802.16-Std-based networks such as WiMAX and AeroMACS. The primary advantage of OFDMA over rival access technologies is the ability of OFDM to convert a wideband frequency selective fading channel to a series of narrowband flat fading channels. This is the mechanism by which frequency selective fading effects of hostile multipath environments, such as the airport surface channel, are mitigated or eliminated altogether. Performance of channel coding in OFDM, that is, modulation-coding combination, is explored in this chapter, providing some background for understanding of adaptive modulation coding (AMC) scheme discussed in later...