Organic Coatings

Science and Technology
 
 
Wiley (Verlag)
  • 4. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. August 2017
  • |
  • 512 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-1-119-33721-8 (ISBN)
 
The definitive guide to organic coatings, thoroughly revised and updated--now with coverage of a range of topics not covered in previous editions
Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition offers unparalleled coverageof organic coatings technology and its many applications. Written by three leading industry experts (including a new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist) it presents a systematic survey of the field, revises and updates the material from the previous edition, and features new or additional treatment of such topics as superhydrophobic, ice-phobic, antimicrobial, and self-healing coatings; sustainability, artist paints, and exterior architectural primers. making it even more relevant and useful for scientists and engineers in the field, as well as for students in coatings courses.
The book incorporates up-to-date coverage of recent developments in the field with detailed discussions of the principles underlying the technology and their applications in the development, production, and uses of organic coatings. All chapters in this new edition have been updated to assure consistency and to enable extensive cross-referencing. The material presented is also applicable to the related areas of printing inks and adhesives, as well as areas within the plastics industry.
This new edition
* Completely revises outdated chapters to ensure consistency and to enable extensive cross-referencing
* Correlates the empirical technology of coatings with the underlying science throughout
* Provides expert troubleshooting guidance for coatings scientists and technologists
* Features hundreds of illustrative figures and extensive references to the literature
* A new, internationally-recognized coatings scientist brings fresh perspective to the content.
Providing a broad overview for beginners in the field of organic coatings and a handy reference for seasoned professionals, Organic Coatings: Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, gives you the information and answers you need, when you need them.
4. Auflage
  • Englisch
  • Newark
  • |
  • USA
John Wiley & Sons
  • 23,18 MB
978-1-119-33721-8 (9781119337218)
1119337216 (1119337216)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
FRANK N. JONES is a consultant and an Emeritus Professor at Eastern Michigan University, where he was Director, of the National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center in Coatings. Previously he was Professor and Chair of the Department of Polymers and Coatings at North Dakota State University.
MARK E. NICHOLS is currently Technical Leader, Paint and Corrosion Research at the Ford Motor Company and the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Coatings Technology and Research. He is the recipient of the Industry Excellence Award from the ACA as well as a Roon Award.
SOCRATES PETER PAPPAS is a consultant. Previously he was Corporate Scientist at Kodak Polychrome Graphics, Director of Chemical Imaging at Polychrome Corporation, Scientific Fellow at Loctite Corporation, and Professor at North Dakota State University in the Departments of Chemistry, as well as Polymers and Coatings.
  • Intro
  • Title Page
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface
  • Chapter 1 Introduction to Coatings
  • 1.1 Definitions and Scope
  • 1.2 Types of Coatings
  • 1.3 Composition of Coatings
  • 1.4 Coating History
  • 1.5 Commercial Considerations
  • References
  • Chapter 2 Polymerization and Film Formation
  • 2.1 Polymers
  • 2.1.1 Molecular Weight (MW)
  • 2.1.2 Morphology and Glass Transition Temperature, Tg
  • 2.2 Polymerization
  • 2.2.1 Chain-Growth Polymerization
  • 2.2.2 Step-Growth Polymerization
  • 2.3 Film Formation
  • 2.3.1 Film Formation by Solvent Evaporation from Solutions of Thermoplastic Binders
  • 2.3.2 Film Formation from Solutions of Thermosetting Resins
  • 2.3.3 Film Formation by Coalescence of Polymer Particles
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 3 Flow
  • 3.1 Shear Flow
  • 3.2 Types of Shear Flow
  • 3.3 Determination of Shear Viscosity
  • 3.3.1 Capillary Viscometers
  • 3.3.2 Rheometers
  • 3.3.3 Rotating Disk Viscometers
  • 3.3.4 Bubble Viscometers
  • 3.3.5 Efflux Cups
  • 3.3.6 Paddle Viscometers
  • 3.4 Shear Viscosity of Resin Solutions
  • 3.4.1 Temperature Dependence of Viscosity
  • 3.4.2 Dilute Polymer Solution Viscosity
  • 3.4.3 Concentrated Polymer Solution Viscosity
  • 3.5 Viscosity of Liquids With Dispersed Phases
  • 3.5.1 Thickeners for Latex Coatings
  • 3.6 Other Modes of Flow
  • 3.6.1 Turbulent Flow
  • 3.6.2 Normal Force Flow
  • 3.6.3 Extensional Flow
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 4 Mechanical Properties
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Basic Mechanical Properties
  • 4.2.1 Glass Transition Temperature (Tg)
  • 4.2.2 Viscoelasticity
  • 4.2.3 Dynamic Mechanical Behavior
  • 4.3 Fracture Mechanics
  • 4.4 Abrasion, Scratch, and Mar Resistance
  • 4.4.1 Abrasion Resistance
  • 4.4.2 Scratch and Mar Resistance
  • 4.5 Measurement of Mechanical Properties
  • 4.6 Tests of Coatings on Substrates
  • 4.6.1 Field Exposure Tests
  • 4.6.2 Laboratory Simulation Tests
  • 4.6.3 Empirical Tests
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 5 Exterior Durability
  • 5.1 Photoinitiated Oxidative Degradation
  • 5.2 Photostabilization
  • 5.2.1 UV Absorbers and Excited State Quenchers
  • 5.2.2 Antioxidants
  • 5.2.3 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers
  • 5.2.4 Pigmentation Effects
  • 5.3 Degradation of Chlorinated Resins
  • 5.4 Hydrolytic Degradation
  • 5.5 Other Modes of Failure on Exterior Exposure
  • 5.6 Testing For Exterior Durability
  • 5.6.1 Natural Weathering
  • 5.6.2 Accelerated Outdoor Exposure
  • 5.6.3 Accelerated Laboratory Weathering Devices
  • 5.6.4 Analysis of Coating Changes during Weathering
  • 5.7 Service Life Prediction
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 6 Adhesion
  • 6.1 Mechanisms of Adhesion
  • 6.1.1 Surface Mechanical Effects on Adhesion
  • 6.1.2 Relationships between Wetting and Adhesion
  • 6.1.3 Chemical Interactions between Coatings and Surfaces
  • 6.2 Mechanical Stresses and Adhesion
  • 6.3 Adhesion to Metal Surfaces
  • 6.3.1 Conversion Coating and Pretreatment of Metal Substrates
  • 6.4 Characterization of Surfaces
  • 6.5 Organic Chemical Treatment of Substrates to Enhance Adhesion
  • 6.6 Covalent Bonding To Glass and Metal Substrates
  • 6.7 Adhesion to Plastics and to Coatings
  • 6.8 Testing for Adhesion
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 7 Corrosion Protection by Coatings
  • 7.1 Corrosion Basics
  • 7.2 Corrosion of Uncoated Steel
  • 7.3 Corrosion Protection of Metals
  • 7.3.1 Passivation: Anodic Protection
  • 7.3.2 Cathodic Protection
  • 7.3.3 Barrier Protection and Inhibition
  • 7.4 Corrosion Protection by Intact Coatings
  • 7.4.1 Critical Factors
  • 7.4.2 Adhesion for Corrosion Protection
  • 7.4.3 Factors Affecting Oxygen and Water Permeability
  • 7.5 Corrosion Protection by Nonintact Films
  • 7.5.1 Minimizing Growth of Imperfections: Cathodic Delamination
  • 7.5.2 Primers with Passivating Pigments
  • 7.5.3 Cathodic Protection by Zinc-Rich Primers
  • 7.5.4 Smart Corrosion Control Coatings
  • 7.6 Evaluation and Testing
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 8 Acrylic Resins
  • 8.1 Thermoplastic Acrylic Resins
  • 8.2 Thermosetting Acrylic Resins
  • 8.2.1 Hydroxy-Functional Acrylic Resins
  • 8.2.2 Acrylics Having Other Functional Groups
  • 8.3 Water-Reducible Thermosetting Acrylic Resins
  • References
  • Chapter 9 Latexes
  • 9.1 Emulsion Polymerization
  • 9.1.1 Raw Materials for Emulsion Polymerization
  • 9.1.2 Emulsion Polymerization Variables
  • 9.1.3 Sequential Polymerization
  • 9.2 Acrylic Latexes
  • 9.3 Vinyl Ester Latexes
  • 9.4 Thermosetting Latexes
  • 9.4.1 One-Package Thermosetting Latex Coatings That Require Baking for Cure
  • 9.4.2 Two-Package (2?K) Thermosetting Latex Coatings That Do Not Require Baking
  • 9.4.3 One-Package Thermosetting Latex Coatings That Do Not Require Baking
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 10 Polyester Resins
  • 10.1 Hydroxy-Terminated Polyester Resins for Conventional Solids Coatings
  • 10.1.1 Selection of Polyols
  • 10.1.2 Selection of Polyacids
  • 10.2 Polyester Resins for High Solids Coatings
  • 10.3 Carboxylic Acid-Terminated Polyester Resins
  • 10.4 Carbamate-Functional Polyester Resins
  • 10.5 Water-Reducible Polyester Resins
  • 10.6 Polyester Resins for Powder Coatings
  • References
  • Chapter 11 Amino Resins
  • 11.1 Synthesis Of Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins
  • 11.1.1 The Methylolation Reaction
  • 11.1.2 The Etherification Reaction
  • 11.1.3 Self-Condensation Reactions
  • 11.2 Types of Mf Resins
  • 11.3 Mf-Polyol Reactions in Coatings
  • 11.3.1 Catalysis of MF-Polyol Reactions
  • 11.3.2 Kinetics and Mechanism of MF-Polyol Co-condensation
  • 11.3.3 Package Stability Considerations
  • 11.3.4 MF Resin Reactions with Carboxylic Acids, Urethanes, Carbamates, and Malonate-Blocked Isocyanates
  • 11.4 Other Amino Resins
  • 11.4.1 Urea-Formaldehyde Resins
  • 11.4.2 Benzoguanamine-Formaldehyde Resins
  • 11.4.3 Glycoluril-Formaldehyde Resins
  • 11.4.4 Poly(meth)acrylamide- Formaldehyde Resins
  • References
  • Chapter 12 Polyurethanes and Polyisocyanates
  • 12.1 Reactions of Isocyanates
  • 12.2 Kinetics of Reactions of Isocyanates with Alcohols
  • 12.2.1 Noncatalyzed Reactions
  • 12.2.2 Catalysts
  • 12.2.3 Interrelationships in Catalysis
  • 12.3 Isocyanates Used in Coatings
  • 12.3.1 Aromatic Isocyanates
  • 12.3.2 Aliphatic Isocyanates
  • 12.4 Two-Package (2K) Solventborne Urethane Coatings
  • 12.4.1 2K Polyurea Coatings
  • 12.5 Blocked Isocyanates
  • 12.5.1 Principles of Blocking and Deblocking
  • 12.5.2 Blocking Groups
  • 12.5.3 Catalysis of Blocked Isocyanate Coatings
  • 12.6 Moisture-Curable Urethane Coatings
  • 12.7 Waterborne Polyurethane Coatings
  • 12.7.1 Polyurethane Dispersions
  • 12.7.2 Acrylic/Polyurethane Blends and Hybrid Dispersions
  • 12.7.3 2K Waterborne Urethanes
  • 12.8 Hydroxy-Terminated Polyurethanes
  • References
  • Chapter 13 Epoxy and Phenolic Resins
  • 13.1 Epoxy Resins
  • 13.1.1 Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins
  • 13.1.2 Other Epoxy Resins
  • 13.2 Amine Cross-Linked Epoxy Resins
  • 13.2.1 Pot Life and Cure Time Considerations
  • 13.2.2 Toxicity and Stoichiometric Considerations
  • 13.2.3 Graininess and Blushing
  • 13.2.4 Tg Considerations
  • 13.2.5 Other Formulating Considerations
  • 13.2.6 Waterborne Epoxy-Amine Systems
  • 13.3 Other Cross-Linking Agents for Epoxy Resins
  • 13.3.1 Phenols
  • 13.3.2 Carboxylic Acids and Anhydrides
  • 13.3.3 Hydroxyl Groups
  • 13.3.4 Mercaptans
  • 13.3.5 Homopolymerization
  • 13.4 Water-Reducible Epoxy/Acrylic Graft Copolymers: Epoxy/Acrylic Hybrids
  • 13.5 Epoxy Resin Phosphate Esters
  • 13.6 Phenolic Resins
  • 13.6.1 Resole Phenolic Resins
  • 13.6.2 Novolac Phenolic Resins
  • 13.6.3 Ether Derivatives of Phenolic Resins
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 14 Drying Oils
  • 14.1 Compositions of Natural Oils
  • 14.2 Autoxidation and Cross-Linking
  • 14.2.1 Nonconjugated Drying Oils
  • 14.2.2 Catalysis of Autoxidation and Cross-Linking
  • 14.2.3 Conjugated Drying Oils
  • 14.3 Synthetic and Modified Drying Oils
  • 14.3.1 Heat Bodied Oils, Blown Oils, and Dimer Acids
  • 14.3.2 Varnishes
  • 14.3.3 Synthetic Conjugated Oils
  • 14.3.4 Esters of Higher Functionality Polyols
  • 14.3.5 Maleated Oils
  • 14.3.6 Vinyl-Modified Oils
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 15 Alkyd Resins
  • 15.1 Oxidizing Alkyds
  • 15.1.1 Monobasic Acid Selection
  • 15.1.2 Polyol Selection
  • 15.1.3 Dibasic Acid Selection
  • 15.2 High Solids Oxidizing Alkyds
  • 15.3 Waterborne Oxidizing Alkyds
  • 15.3.1 Water-Reducible Alkyds
  • 15.3.2 Alkyd Emulsions
  • 15.4 Nonoxidizing Alkyds
  • 15.5 Synthetic Procedures for Alkyd Resins
  • 15.5.1 Synthesis from Oils or Fatty Acids
  • 15.5.2 Process Variations
  • 15.6 Modified Alkyds
  • 15.7 Uralkyds and Other Autoxidizable Urethanes
  • 15.7.1 Uralkyds
  • 15.7.2 Autoxidizable Polyurethane Dispersions
  • 15.8 Epoxy Esters
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 16 Silicon Derivatives
  • 16.1 Silicones
  • 16.1.1 Silicone Rubbers and Resins
  • 16.1.2 Modified Silicone Resins
  • 16.1.3 Silicone-Modified Resins
  • 16.2 Reactive Silanes
  • 16.3 Orthosilicates
  • 16.3.1 Sol-Gel Coatings
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 17 Other Resins and Cross-Linkers
  • 17.1 Halogenated Polymers
  • 17.1.1 Solution-Grade Thermoplastic Vinyl Chloride Copolymers
  • 17.1.2 Vinyl Chloride Dispersion Copolymers
  • 17.1.3 Chlorinated Rubber, Chlorinated Ethylene/Vinyl Acetate Copolymers, and Chlorinated Polyolefins
  • 17.1.4 Fluorinated Polymers
  • 17.2 Cellulose Derivatives
  • 17.2.1 Nitrocellulose
  • 17.2.2 Cellulose Acetobutyrate
  • 17.3 Unsaturated Polyester Resins
  • 17.4 (Meth)Acrylated Oligomers
  • 17.5 2-Hydroxyalkylamide Cross-Linkers
  • 17.6 Acetoacetate Cross-Linking Systems
  • 17.7 Polyaziridine Cross-Linkers
  • 17.8 Polycarbodiimide Cross-Linkers
  • 17.9 Polycarbonates
  • 17.10 Non-Isocyanate Two-Package Binders
  • 17.10.1 Carbamate-Aldehyde Chemistry
  • 17.10.2 Michael Addition Chemistry
  • 17.11 Dihydrazides
  • References
  • Chapter 18 Solvents
  • 18.1 Solvent Composition
  • 18.2 Solubility
  • 18.2.1 Solubility Parameters
  • 18.2.2 Three-Dimensional Solubility Parameters
  • 18.2.3 Other Solubility Theories
  • 18.2.4 Practical Considerations
  • 18.3 Solvent Evaporation Rates
  • 18.3.1 Evaporation of Single Solvents
  • 18.3.2 Relative Evaporation Rates
  • 18.3.3 Evaporation of Mixed Solvents
  • 18.3.4 Evaporation of Solvents from Coating Films
  • 18.3.5 Evaporation of Solvents from High Solids Coatings
  • 18.3.6 Volatile Loss from Waterborne Coatings
  • 18.4 Viscosity Effects
  • 18.5 Flammability
  • 18.6 Other Physical Properties
  • 18.7 Toxic Hazards
  • 18.8 Atmospheric Photochemical Effects
  • 18.9 Regulation of Solvent Emissions From Coatings
  • 18.9.1 Determination of VOC
  • 18.9.2 Regulations
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 19 Color and Appearance
  • 19.1 Light
  • 19.2 Light-Object Interactions
  • 19.2.1 Surface Reflection
  • 19.2.2 Absorption Effects
  • 19.2.3 Scattering
  • 19.2.4 Multiple Interaction Effects
  • 19.3 Hiding
  • 19.4 Metallic and Interference Colors
  • 19.5 The Observer
  • 19.6 Interactions of Light Source, Object, and Observer
  • 19.7 Color Systems
  • 19.8 Color Mixing
  • 19.9 Color Matching
  • 19.9.1 Information Requirements
  • 19.9.2 Color Matching Procedures
  • 19.9.3 Rendering of Color
  • 19.10 Gloss
  • 19.10.1 Variables in Specular Gloss
  • 19.10.2 Gloss Measurement
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 20 Pigments
  • 20.1 White Pigments
  • 20.1.1 Titanium Dioxide
  • 20.1.2 Other White Pigments
  • 20.2 Color Pigments
  • 20.2.1 Yellow and Orange Pigments
  • 20.2.2 Red Pigments
  • 20.2.3 Blue and Green Pigments
  • 20.2.4 Black Pigments
  • 20.2.5 Effect Pigments: Metallic, Interference, and Cholesteric Pigments
  • 20.3 Inert Pigments
  • 20.4 Functional Pigments
  • 20.5 Nano-Pigments
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 21 Pigment Dispersion
  • 21.1 Dispersion in Organic Media
  • 21.1.1 Wetting
  • 21.1.2 Separation
  • 21.1.3 Stabilization
  • 21.2 Formulation of Nonaqueous Mill Bases
  • 21.2.1 Daniel Flow Point Method
  • 21.2.2 Oil Absorption Values
  • 21.3 Dispersion in Aqueous Media
  • 21.3.1 Stabilization of Aqueous Dispersions
  • 21.4 Dispersion Equipment and Processes
  • 21.4.1 High-Speed Disk (HSD) Dispersers
  • 21.4.2 Rotor/Stator Mixers
  • 21.4.3 Ball Mills
  • 21.4.4 Media Mills
  • 21.4.5 Three Roll and Two Roll Mills
  • 21.4.6 Extruders
  • 21.4.7 Ultrasound
  • 21.4.8 Stir-in Pigments
  • 21.5 Evaluation of Dispersions
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 22 Effect of Pigments on Coating Properties
  • 22.1 PVC and CPVC
  • 22.1.1 Factors Controlling CPVC
  • 22.1.2 Determination of CPVC
  • 22.1.3 CPVC of Latex Coatings: LCPVC
  • 22.2 Relationships Between Film Properties and PVC
  • 22.2.1 Mechanical Properties
  • 22.2.2 Effects of Film Porosity
  • 22.2.3 Effects on Curing and Film Formation
  • References
  • Chapter 23 Application Methods
  • 23.1 Brushes, PADS, and HAND Rollers
  • 23.1.1 Brush and Pad Application
  • 23.1.2 Hand Roller Application
  • 23.2 Spray Application
  • 23.2.1 Air Spray Guns
  • 23.2.2 Airless Spray Guns
  • 23.2.3 Electrostatic Spraying
  • 23.2.4 Hot Spray
  • 23.2.5 Supercritical Fluid Spray
  • 23.2.6 Formulation Considerations for Spray-Applied Coatings
  • 23.2.7 Overspray Disposal
  • 23.3 DIP and FLOW Coating
  • 23.4 Roll Coating
  • 23.5 Curtain Coating
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 24 Film Defects
  • 24.1 Surface Tension
  • 24.2 Leveling
  • 24.3 Sagging and Drip Marks
  • 24.4 Crawling, Cratering, and Related Defects
  • 24.5 Floating and Flooding: Hammer Finishes
  • 24.6 Wrinkling: Wrinkle Finishes
  • 24.7 Bubbling and Popping
  • 24.8 Foaming
  • 24.9 DIRT
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 25 Solventborne and High Solids Coatings
  • 25.1 Primers
  • 25.1.1 Binders for Primers
  • 25.1.2 Pigmentation of Primers
  • 25.1.3 High Solids Primers
  • 25.2 Top Coats
  • 25.2.1 Binders for Top Coats
  • 25.2.2 Formulating Solventborne Coatings for Low VOC
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 26 Waterborne Coatings
  • 26.1 Water-Reducible Coatings
  • 26.2 Latex-based Coatings
  • 26.3 Emulsion Coatings
  • Chapter 27 Electrodeposition Coatings
  • 27.1 Anionic Electrodeposition Coatings
  • 27.2 Cationic Electrodeposition Coatings
  • 27.3 Effect of Variables on Electrodeposition
  • 27.4 Application of Electrodeposition Coatings
  • 27.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Electrodeposition
  • 27.6 Autodeposition Coatings
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 28 Powder Coatings
  • 28.1 Binders for Thermosetting Powder Coatings
  • 28.1.1 Epoxy Binders
  • 28.1.2 Hybrid Binders
  • 28.1.3 Polyester Binders
  • 28.1.4 Acrylic Binders
  • 28.1.5 Silicon-Containing Binders
  • 28.1.6 UV Cure and Hot Press Powder Coatings
  • 28.2 Binders for Thermoplastic Powder Coatings
  • 28.3 Formulation of Thermosetting Powder Coatings
  • 28.3.1 Low Gloss Powder Coatings
  • 28.4 Manufacture of Powder Coatings
  • 28.4.1 Production
  • 28.4.2 Quality Control
  • 28.5 Application Methods
  • 28.5.1 Electrostatic Spray Application
  • 28.5.2 Other Application Methods
  • 28.6 Advantages and Limitations
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 29 Radiation Cure Coatings
  • 29.1 UV Curing
  • 29.1.1 Absorption: The Primary Process
  • 29.2 Free Radical-Initiated UV Cure
  • 29.2.1 Unimolecular (Type I or PI1) Photoinitiators
  • 29.2.2 Bimolecular (Type II or PI2) Photoinitiators
  • 29.2.3 Macromolecular Photoinitiators
  • 29.2.4 Oxygen Inhibition
  • 29.2.5 Vehicles for Free Radical-Initiated UV Cure
  • 29.2.6 Waterborne UV Cure Coatings
  • 29.3 Cationic UV Cure
  • 29.3.1 Vehicles for Cationic UV Cure
  • 29.4 Hybrid Free Radical/Cationic Polymerization
  • 29.5 Effects Of Pigmentation
  • 29.6 Electron Beam Cure Coatings
  • 29.7 Dual UV/Thermal Cure
  • 29.8 Selected Applications
  • 29.9 Advantages, Disadvantages, and Selected Advances
  • References
  • Chapter 30 Product Coatings for Metal Substrates
  • 30.1 OEM Automotive Coatings
  • 30.1.1 Automotive Paint Process
  • 30.1.2 Electrodeposition Coating Formulation
  • 30.1.3 Automotive Primers
  • 30.1.4 Automotive Base Coats
  • 30.1.5 Automotive Clear Coats
  • 30.1.6 Factory Repair Procedures
  • 30.2 Appliance Coatings
  • 30.3 Container Coatings
  • 30.3.1 Interior Can Linings
  • 30.3.2 Exterior Can Coatings
  • 30.4 Coil Coating
  • 30.4.1 Advantages and Limitations of Coil Coating
  • 30.5 Coatings for Aircraft
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 31 Product Coatings for Nonmetallic Substrates
  • 31.1 Coatings for Wood
  • 31.1.1 Coatings for Wood Furniture
  • 31.1.2 Waterborne Wood finishes
  • 31.1.3 UV Cure Furniture Finishes
  • 31.1.4 Panel, Siding, and Flooring Finishes
  • 31.2 Coating of Plastics
  • 31.2.1 In-Mold Coating
  • 31.2.2 Post-Mold Coating
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 32 Architectural Coatings
  • 32.1 Exterior House Paints and Primers
  • 32.2 Flat and Semigloss Interior Paints
  • 32.3 Gloss Enamels
  • 32.3.1 Alkyd Gloss Enamels
  • 32.3.2 Latex Gloss Enamels
  • General References
  • References
  • Chapter 33 Special Purpose Coatings
  • 33.1 Maintenance Paints
  • 33.1.1 Barrier Coating Systems
  • 33.1.2 Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers
  • 33.1.3 Systems with Passivating Pigment Containing Primers
  • 33.1.4 Overcoating Existing Industrial Maintenance Paints
  • 33.2 Marine Coatings
  • 33.2.1 Above the Water Line and Interior
  • 33.2.2 At and Below the Water Line
  • 33.2.3 Other Types of Marine Coatings
  • 33.3 Automobile Refinish Paints
  • 33.4 Traffic Striping Paints
  • References
  • Chapter 34 Functional Coatings
  • 34.1 Superhydrophobic and Superhydrophilic Coatings
  • 34.2 Ice-Phobic Coatings
  • 34.3 Self-Healing Coatings
  • 34.4 Environmentally Sensing Coatings
  • 34.5 Antimicrobial Coatings
  • References
  • Index
  • EULA

Chapter 1
Introduction to Coatings


Coatings have been used since prehistoric times to protect objects and convey information, and they are ubiquitous in modern society as they serve to both protect substrates and impart aesthetic qualities to improve objects' appearance. If you are reading this text in a traditional paper book, the paper is coated. Look up and the walls of your room are coated, as are the windows. If you are wearing glasses, the lenses are likely coated to improve the plastic's scratch resistance and absorb UV radiation. If you are reading this text on a computer screen, the screen is coated to prevent glare and perhaps reduce fingerprints. The CPU inside your computer exists because of coatings used during the printing of nanometer-sized circuits. If you are outside, the buildings, cars, airplanes, roads, and bridges are all coated. Objects without coatings are less common than those with coatings!

Just because coatings science is an ancient technology does not mean that innovation has ceased. Today many coatings scientists and formulators are working diligently to improve the performance of coatings, reduce the environmental impact of their manufacture and application, and create coatings that provide functionality beyond today's coatings.

1.1 DEFINITIONS AND SCOPE


Coatings are typically thought of as thin layers that are applied to an object, which is often referred to as the substrate. Thus, one of the defining characteristics of a coating is its thinness. While the thickness of a coating depends on the purpose it serves, typical coating thicknesses range from a few microns to a few hundred microns, but of course, exceptions to this are common. Historically, the thickness of a coating was often quoted in terms of mils, where 1?mil equals one thousandth of an inch or 25.4?µm.

While coatings can be made from any material, this book is primarily concerned with organic coatings. Thus, we leave for other books coatings such as the zinc coatings used to galvanize steel, ceramic coatings that are formed from metal oxides or when metals such as aluminum are anodized, and the many other inorganic coatings used to impart hardness, scratch resistance, or corrosion protection. While these coatings are both technically and economically important, they lie mostly beyond the scope of this book.

Organic coatings are often composite materials in that they are composed of more than one distinct phase. The matrix, called the binder, holds the other components of the coating composition together and typically forms the continuous phase in the dry coating. As stated previously, we are mostly concerned with organic coatings, where the binder is typically an organic polymer.

A confusing situation results from multiple meanings of the term coating. As a noun coating is used to describe both the material (usually a liquid) that is applied to a substrate and the resultant "dry" film. As a verb, coating means the process of application. Usually, the intended meaning of the word coating can be inferred from the context. The terms paint and finish often mean the same thing as coating and also are used both as nouns and verbs. What is the difference between a coating and a paint? Not much-the terms are often used interchangeably. However, it is fairly common practice to use "coatings" as the broader term and to restrict "paints" to the familiar architectural and household coatings and sometimes to maintenance coatings for bridges and tanks. Some prefer to call sophisticated materials that are used to coat automobiles and computer components "coatings," and others call them "paints." Consumers are often familiar with the terms varnish or stain. These are types of coatings that are used to protect and beautify wood and are certainly within the scope of this book as they are typically made from polymeric binders with or without pigments.

Because we are limiting the scope of this book to organic coatings that are historically associated with paints, we are also choosing not to cover important materials such as coatings applied to paper and fabrics, decals, laminates and cosmetics, and printing inks, even though one could argue that these coatings share much in common with traditional paints. However, readers interested in those materials will find that many of the basic principles discussed in this text are applicable to such materials. Restrictions of scope are necessary if the book is to be kept to a reasonable length, but our restrictions are not entirely arbitrary. The way in which we are defining coatings is based on common usage of the term in worldwide business. For classification purposes, coatings are often divided into three categories: architectural coatings, original equipment manufacturer (OEM) coatings, and special purpose coatings.

As the coatings industry is a relatively mature industry, its growth rate typically paces that of the general economy. Like many other industries, growth has slowed in North America and Europe and has dramatically increased in Asia and South America as those economies have boomed. An estimate of the value of coatings used in each region is shown in Figure 1.1. The total value of the global coatings market was estimated to be approximately $112 billion in 2014 (American Coatings Association and Chemquest Group, 2015).

Figure 1.1 The value of coatings used in 2014.

Source: Reproduced with permission of American Coatings Association.

Figure 1.2 summarizes the estimated value and volume of coating shipments in the United States for a recent 10-year period. The effect of the economic downturn in 2008-2009 is evident (Data from American Coatings Association and Chemquest Group, 2015).

Figure 1.2 Ten-year trend in coating shipments in the United States (both gallons and dollar value).

Source: Reproduced with permission of American Coatings Association.

1.2 TYPES OF COATINGS


Architectural coatings include paints and varnishes (transparent paints) used to decorate and protect buildings, outside and inside. They also include other paints and varnishes sold for use in the home and by small businesses for application to such things as cabinets and household furniture (not those sold to furniture factories). Architectural coatings are often called trade sales paints. They are sold directly to painting contractors and do-it-yourself users through paint stores and other retail outlets. In 2014 in the United States, architectural coatings accounted for about 60% of the total volume of coatings; however, the unit value of these coatings was lower than for the other categories, so they made up about 49% of the total value. This market is the least cyclical of the three categories. While the annual amount of new construction drops during recessions, the resulting decrease in paint requirements tends to be offset by increased repainting of older housing, furniture, and so forth during at least mild recessions. Latex-based coatings make up about 77% of architectural coatings. Interior paints are approximately 2/3 of all architectural coatings, exterior paints 23%, and stains 7%, with the remained split among varnishes, clear coats, and others.

OEM coatings are applied in factories on products such as automobiles, appliances, magnet wire, aircraft, furniture, metal cans, and chewing gum wrappers-the list is almost endless. In 2014 in the United States, product coatings were about 29% of the volume and 31% of the value of all coatings. The volume of product coatings depends directly on the level of manufacturing activity. This category of the business is cyclical, varying with OEM cycles. Often, product coatings are custom designed for a particular customer's manufacturing conditions and performance requirements. The number of different types of products in this category is much larger than in the others; research and development (R&D) requirements are also high.

Special purpose coatings are industrial coatings that are applied outside a factory, along with a few miscellaneous coatings, such as coatings packed in aerosol containers. This category includes refinish coatings for cars and trucks that are applied outside the OEM factory (usually in body repair shops), marine coatings for ships (they are too big to fit into a factory), and striping on highways and parking lots. It also includes maintenance paints for steel bridges, storage tanks, chemical factories, and so forth. In 2012 in the United States, special purpose coatings made up about 11% of the total volume and 20% of the total value of all coatings, making them the most valuable class. Many of today's special purpose coatings are the product of sophisticated R&D, and investment in further improvements remains substantial.

Coatings are used for one or more of three reasons: (1) for decoration, (2) for protection, and/or (3) for some functional purpose. The low gloss paint on the ceiling of a room not only fills a decorative need but also has a function. It reflects and diffuses light to help provide even illumination. The coating on the outside of an automobile adds beauty to a car and also helps protect it from rusting. The coating on the inside of a beverage can have little or no decorative value, but it protects the beverage from the can. (Contact with metal affects flavor.) In some cases, the interior...

Dateiformat: EPUB
Kopierschutz: Adobe-DRM (Digital Rights Management)

Systemvoraussetzungen:

Computer (Windows; MacOS X; Linux): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose Software Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

Tablet/Smartphone (Android; iOS): Installieren Sie bereits vor dem Download die kostenlose App Adobe Digital Editions (siehe E-Book Hilfe).

E-Book-Reader: Bookeen, Kobo, Pocketbook, Sony, Tolino u.v.a.m. (nicht Kindle)

Das Dateiformat EPUB ist sehr gut für Romane und Sachbücher geeignet - also für "fließenden" Text ohne komplexes Layout. Bei E-Readern oder Smartphones passt sich der Zeilen- und Seitenumbruch automatisch den kleinen Displays an. Mit Adobe-DRM wird hier ein "harter" Kopierschutz verwendet. Wenn die notwendigen Voraussetzungen nicht vorliegen, können Sie das E-Book leider nicht öffnen. Daher müssen Sie bereits vor dem Download Ihre Lese-Hardware vorbereiten.

Weitere Informationen finden Sie in unserer E-Book Hilfe.


Download (sofort verfügbar)

150,99 €
inkl. 19% MwSt.
Download / Einzel-Lizenz
ePUB mit Adobe DRM
siehe Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book bestellen

Unsere Web-Seiten verwenden Cookies. Mit der Nutzung dieser Web-Seiten erklären Sie sich damit einverstanden. Mehr Informationen finden Sie in unserem Datenschutzhinweis. Ok