Multilayer Flexible Packaging

 
 
William Andrew (Verlag)
  • 2. Auflage
  • |
  • erschienen am 29. März 2016
  • |
  • 410 Seiten
 
E-Book | ePUB mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
E-Book | PDF mit Adobe DRM | Systemvoraussetzungen
978-0-323-47718-5 (ISBN)
 

Multilayer Flexible Packaging, Second Edition, provides a thorough introduction to the manufacturing and applications of flexible plastic films, covering materials, hardware and processes, and multilayer film designs and applications. The book gives engineers and technicians a better understanding of the capability and limitations of multilayer flexible films and how to use them to make effective packaging.

It includes contributions from world renowned experts and is fully updated to reflect the rapid advances made in the field since 2009, also including an entirely new chapter on the use of bio-based polymers in flexible packaging. The result is a practical, but detailed reference for polymeric flexible packaging professionals, including product developers, process engineers, and technical service representatives.

The materials coverage includes detailed sections on polyethylene, polypropylene, and additives. The dies used to produce multilayer films are explored in the hardware section, and the process engineering of film manufacture is explained, with a particular focus on meeting specifications and targets. In addition, a new chapter has been added on regulations for food packaging - including both FDA and EU regulations.


  • Provides a complete introduction to multilayer flexible packaging, assisting plastics practitioners with the development, design, and manufacture of flexible packaging for food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and more
  • Presents thorough, well-written, and up-to-date reviews of the current technology by experts in the field, making this an essential reference for any engineer or manager
  • Includes discussion and analysis of the latest rules and regulations governing food packaging
  • Englisch
  • San Diego
  • |
  • USA
Elsevier Science
  • 25,42 MB
978-0-323-47718-5 (9780323477185)
0323477186 (0323477186)
weitere Ausgaben werden ermittelt
  • Front Cover
  • Multilayer Flexible Packaging
  • Copyright Page
  • Contents
  • Preface to the First Edition
  • Preface to the Second Edition
  • Acknowledgments
  • List of Contributors
  • Contributors
  • I. INTRODUCTION
  • 1 Introduction
  • 1.1 Materials: A Historical Perspective
  • 1.2 Markets: A Global Economy
  • 1.3 Processes, Materials, Needs
  • 1.4 Materials and Barrier
  • 1.5 Materials and Sealing
  • 1.6 Bringing Things Together
  • References
  • II. RESINS
  • 2 Polyethylene
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Polyethylene History and Basic Characterization
  • 2.3 Melt Index
  • 2.4 Density
  • 2.5 Gel Permeation Chromatography
  • 2.6 Low-Density Polyethylene
  • 2.7 Free Radical Polymerization Processes
  • 2.8 Autoclave Reactor
  • 2.9 Tubular Reactor
  • 2.10 Polar Ethylene Copolymers
  • 2.11 Low-Pressure Polymerization Processes
  • 2.12 Gas-Phase Process
  • 2.13 Solution Process
  • 2.14 Slurry Processes
  • 2.15 Catalyst Chemistry
  • 2.15.1 Ziegler-Natta
  • 2.16 Chrome Oxide-Based Catalyst
  • 2.17 Single-Site (Metallocene) catalyzed Polyethylene
  • 2.18 Tie Chain Molecules
  • 2.19 Summary
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • 3 Polypropylene
  • 3.1 Managerial Overview
  • 3.1.1 Describing Polymers
  • 3.1.1.1 Polypropylene Molecular Weight Characterization
  • 3.1.1.2 Characterizing Polypropylene Tacticity
  • 3.1.2 Polymerization
  • 3.1.2.1 Ziegler-Natta Catalysis
  • 3.1.2.2 Slurry Process Polymerization
  • 3.1.2.3 Liquid Propylene Polymerization
  • 3.1.2.4 Solution Polymerization
  • 3.1.2.5 Gas-Phase Polymerization
  • 3.1.2.6 Metallocene Catalyzed Polymerization
  • 3.1.3 General Polypropylene Resin Classes
  • 3.1.3.1 Atactic Polypropylene
  • 3.1.3.2 Isotactic Polypropylene
  • 3.1.3.2.1 Alpha Crystallinity
  • 3.1.3.2.2 Beta Crystallinity
  • 3.1.3.2.3 Gamma Crystallinity
  • 3.1.3.2.4 Smectic or Mesomorphic Crystallinity
  • 3.1.3.3 Syndiotactic Polypropylene
  • 3.1.3.4 Polypropylene Copolymers
  • 3.1.3.5 EPR or EPDM Elastomers
  • 3.1.3.5.1 Processing
  • 3.1.3.6 Polypropylene Use Challenges
  • 3.2 Summary
  • References
  • 4 Introduction to Bio-Based Polymers
  • 4.1 Commercially Important Novel Biopolymer
  • 4.1.1 Polylactic Acid
  • 4.1.1.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.1.2 Performance
  • 4.1.1.3 Application
  • 4.1.1.4 Players
  • 4.1.2 Polybutylene Succinate
  • 4.1.2.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.2.2 Performance
  • 4.1.2.3 Application
  • 4.1.2.4 Players
  • 4.1.3 Polyhydroxyalkanoate
  • 4.1.3.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.3.2 Performance
  • 4.1.3.3 Application
  • 4.1.3.4 Players
  • 4.1.4 Polyethylene Furanoate
  • 4.1.4.1 Introduction
  • 4.1.4.2 Performance
  • 4.1.4.3 Application
  • 4.1.4.4 Players
  • References
  • 5 Additives to Design and Improve the Performance of Multilayer Flexible Packaging
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Overview
  • 5.3 Additive Handling, Addition, and Dosing
  • 5.4 Additive Types and Principal Mode of Action
  • 5.4.1 Antioxidants and Other Stabilizers
  • 5.4.1.1 Effect
  • 5.4.1.2 Principle
  • 5.4.1.3 Influencing the Substrate Stability During Processing or Conversion
  • 5.4.1.4 Influencing the Substrate Stability During Service Life
  • 5.4.1.5 Polyolefins (Polypropylene and Polyethylene)
  • 5.4.1.5.1 Requirements
  • 5.4.1.5.2 Antioxidant Chemistry
  • 5.4.1.5.3 Influencing the Antioxidant Effect
  • 5.4.1.5.4 Incorporation
  • 5.4.1.6 Polyester
  • 5.4.1.6.1 Requirements
  • 5.4.1.6.2 Incorporation
  • 5.4.1.7 Polyvinylchloride
  • 5.4.1.7.1 Incorporation
  • 5.4.1.8 Polyamide
  • 5.4.1.8.1 Incorporation
  • 5.4.2 UV Stabilizers
  • 5.4.2.1 Effect
  • 5.4.2.2 Principle
  • 5.4.2.3 Requirements
  • 5.4.2.4 Chemistry
  • 5.4.2.5 Influencing the Stability Against Photooxidation
  • 5.4.2.6 Incorporation
  • 5.4.3 Optical Brighteners
  • 5.4.3.1 Effect and Principle
  • 5.4.3.2 Requirements
  • 5.4.3.3 Chemistry
  • 5.4.3.4 Influencing the Effect
  • 5.4.3.5 Incorporation
  • 5.4.4 Slip Additives
  • 5.4.4.1 Principle
  • 5.4.4.2 Requirements
  • 5.4.4.3 Chemistry of Slip Additives
  • 5.4.4.4 Influencing the Slip Effect
  • 5.4.4.5 Incorporation
  • 5.4.5 Antiblock Additives
  • 5.4.5.1 Effect
  • 5.4.5.2 Principle
  • 5.4.5.3 Requirements
  • 5.4.5.4 Chemistry
  • 5.4.5.5 Influencing the Antiblock Effect
  • 5.4.5.6 Incorporation
  • 5.4.6 Antistats
  • 5.4.6.1 Effect
  • 5.4.6.2 Principle
  • 5.4.6.3 Requirement
  • 5.4.6.4 Chemistry
  • 5.4.6.5 Influencing the Antistatic Effect
  • 5.4.6.6 Incorporation
  • 5.4.7 Others
  • 5.5 Suppliers and Contacts
  • Appendix 5.1
  • Appendix 5.2
  • References
  • 6 Rheology of Molten Polymers
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 Viscosity and Melt Flow Index
  • 6.3 Mathematical Relations
  • 6.4 Extensional Viscosity and Melt Strength
  • 6.5 Normal Stress Differences and Extrudate Swell
  • 6.6 Stress Relaxation and Dynamic Measurements
  • 6.7 Constitutive Equations
  • 6.8 Sharkskin, Melt Fracture, and Die Lip Buildup
  • 6.9 Rheological Problems in Coextrusion
  • 6.10 Rheology of Filled Polymers
  • 6.11 Rheology of Nanocomposites
  • 6.12 Rheometers
  • 6.13 Concluding Remarks
  • References
  • III. TECHNOLOGIES
  • 7 Coextrusion Equipment for Multilayer Flat Films and Sheets
  • 7.1 Designing and Manufacturing Multilayer Flexible Plastic Films with Multilayer Coextrusion Die Technology
  • 7.1.1 Overview
  • 7.1.2 Introduction
  • 7.1.3 General Coextrusion Equipment Overview
  • 7.1.3.1 The Adapter
  • 7.1.3.2 The Feedblock
  • 7.1.3.3 The Die
  • 7.1.4 Theoretical Understanding of Die and Feedblock Design Parameters
  • 7.1.4.1 Rheological Background
  • 7.1.5 Feedblock Designs
  • 7.1.6 Die Designs
  • 7.1.7 Coextrusion Systems for Flat Films and Sheet
  • 7.1.8 Layer Instabilities, Causes, and Prevention
  • 7.1.9 Practical Examples
  • 7.1.9.1 Example 1
  • 7.1.9.2 Example 2
  • 7.1.9.3 Example 3: Production of a Three- to Seven-Layer Sheet for Thermoforming
  • 7.2 Summary
  • References
  • 8 Multilayer Blown (Tubular) Film Dies
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Conventional Coextrusion Dies
  • 8.3 Stacked Dies
  • 8.4 Interfacial Instability
  • References
  • 9 Process Engineering
  • 9.1 Managerial Summary
  • 9.2 Process Engineering: What Is It and Why Is It Essential?
  • 9.3 Some Process Engineer Tools
  • 9.3.1 Histogram
  • 9.3.2 Scatter Diagram
  • 9.3.3 Design of Experiments
  • 9.3.4 Statistical Process Control
  • 9.3.4.1 Univariate Control Charts
  • 9.3.4.2 Multivariate Statistical Process Control
  • 9.4 Examples of How Process Engineers Can Save Time and Money
  • 9.5 Conclusion
  • 10 Blown Film, Cast Film, and Lamination Processes
  • 10.1 Blown Film
  • 10.2 Cast Film
  • 10.3 Extrusion Coating and Lamination
  • References
  • 11 Machine Direction-Oriented Film Technology
  • 11.1 Managerial Summary
  • 11.2 Description of MDO Hardware and Technology
  • 11.3 How a Machine Direction Orientor Works
  • 11.3.1 Preheat
  • 11.3.2 Drawing
  • 11.3.3 Annealing
  • 11.3.4 Cooling
  • 11.4 The Process and Its Effect on the Film
  • 11.5 Properties of MD-Oriented Films
  • 11.5.1 Improved Optics
  • 11.5.2 Increased Tensiles
  • 11.5.3 Improved Stiffness
  • 11.5.4 Improved Barrier Properties
  • 11.5.5 Recent MDO Advances
  • 11.6 Summary
  • References
  • 12 Oriented Film Technology
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Orienting Technologies
  • 12.3 Oriented Film Types-Applications
  • 12.3.1 Films Oriented Biaxially
  • 12.3.1.1 BOPP Films
  • 12.3.1.2 BOPET Films
  • 12.3.1.3 BOPA Films
  • 12.3.1.4 BOPS Films
  • 12.3.1.5 Other BO Films
  • 12.3.2 Film Oriented in Machine Direction
  • 12.3.3 Film Oriented in Transverse Direction
  • 12.4 Trends for Oriented Films
  • References
  • 13 Polymer Blending for Packaging Applications
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Why Blend?
  • 13.3 Blending Processes
  • 13.3.1 Pellet Premixing
  • 13.3.2 Melt Blending
  • 13.4 Physics of Blending
  • 13.4.1 Thermodynamics
  • 13.4.2 Morphology Development in Immiscible Blends
  • 13.5 Morphology Development in Blown Film
  • 13.5.1 Viscosity Ratio
  • 13.5.2 Interfacial Tension
  • 13.5.3 Minor Phase Concentration in Blend
  • 13.5.4 Polymer Elasticity (non-Newtonian behavior)
  • 13.5.5 Extruder RPM
  • 13.5.6 Extruder Temperature
  • 13.5.7 Shear Stress in Extruder, Adaptor, and Die
  • 13.5.8 Screw Design
  • 13.5.9 Draw Ratio
  • 13.5.10 Frost Line Height and Process Time
  • 13.6 Dispersion of Rigid Particles and Nanocomposites
  • 13.7 Rheology of Polymer Blends
  • 13.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • 14 Water- and Solvent-Based Coating Technology
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.1.1 Coating Uniformity
  • 14.2 Coating Structures
  • 14.3 Web-Coating Machine Hardware and Functions
  • 14.4 Coating Applicators
  • 14.4.1 Classification of Applicators
  • 14.4.2 Role of Substrate
  • 14.4.3 Coatability Limits
  • 14.4.4 Description of Coating Methods
  • 14.4.4.1 Self-Metered Methods
  • 14.4.4.2 Doctored Methods
  • 14.4.4.3 Premetered Methods
  • 14.4.4.4 Hybrid Methods
  • 14.5 Effect of Solvent
  • 14.6 Hot Melt Coaters
  • 14.7 Selecting a Coating Method
  • 14.8 Drying and Solidification
  • 14.8.1 Constant Rate and Falling Rate Drying
  • 14.8.2 Pollution Considerations in Drying
  • 14.8.2.1 Online Quality Control Systems
  • 14.8.2.1.1 Introduction
  • 14.8.2.1.2 Traditional Quality Control Systems
  • 14.8.2.2 Online Defect Characterization
  • 14.8.2.2.1 Basic Principles
  • 14.8.2.2.2 Surface Inspection System
  • 14.8.2.2.3 Defect Detection Capability
  • 14.8.2.2.4 Online Coating Weight Measurement
  • References
  • 15 Vacuum Metallizing for Flexible Packaging
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Decorative Coatings
  • 15.3 Barrier Coatings
  • 15.3.1 Light Barrier
  • 15.3.2 Oxygen Barrier
  • 15.3.3 Water Vapor Barrier
  • 15.3.4 Gas Barrier
  • 15.4 Functional Coatings
  • 15.5 Security Applications
  • 15.6 Metallization Basics
  • 15.7 Pattern Metallization
  • 15.8 Trends
  • 15.9 Summary
  • References
  • 16 Web Handling and Winding
  • 16.1 Web Handling Essentials
  • 16.2 Rollers
  • 16.3 Tension Control
  • 16.4 Nip Control
  • 16.5 Temperature Control
  • 16.6 Guiding and Path Control
  • 16.7 Wrinkles and Spreading
  • 16.8 A Word About Slitting and Other Converting Processes
  • 16.9 Winding Is Essential
  • 16.10 Winding Tightness and the TNT's
  • 16.11 Winding Classes and Arrangements
  • 16.12 Theory Applied
  • 16.13 Other Common Wound Roll Defects
  • References
  • IV. MULTILAYER FILMS - DESCRIPTIONS, PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS, USES, CONSIDERATIONS, PROPERTIES
  • 17 PE-Based Multilayer Film Structures
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Polymer Selection
  • 17.3 Mechanical Properties
  • 17.4 Barrier Properties
  • 17.5 Polymer Sealability
  • 17.6 Adhesive Polymers
  • 17.7 Applications for Flexible Packaging Film Structures
  • 17.7.1 Medical Packaging
  • 17.7.2 Food Packaging
  • 17.7.2.1 Primal Meat Packaging (Shrink)
  • 17.7.2.2 Processed Meat Packaging
  • 17.7.2.3 Poultry/Fish Packaging
  • 17.7.2.4 Cereal Box Liners
  • 17.7.2.5 Snack Food Packaging
  • 17.7.2.6 Salty Snack Packaging
  • 17.7.2.7 Bakery
  • 17.7.2.8 Cheese Packaging
  • 17.7.2.9 Milk Pouches
  • 17.7.2.10 Frozen Food
  • 17.7.2.11 Fresh-Cut Produce
  • 17.7.2.12 Retortable Pouches
  • 17.7.2.13 Edible Oil Packaging
  • 17.7.2.14 Bag-in-Box
  • 17.7.3 Industrial/Consumer Films
  • 17.7.3.1 Stretch Wrap
  • 17.7.3.2 Heavy-Duty Bags (Shipping Bags)
  • 17.7.3.3 Trash Bags
  • 17.7.3.4 Grocery Sacks (Merchandise Bags)
  • 17.7.3.5 High-Clarity Shrink Film (Oriented)
  • 17.8 Summary
  • References
  • 18 Multilayer-Oriented Films
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 Technology for Multilayer-Oriented Films
  • 18.3 Structures
  • 18.4 Trends for Multilayer-Oriented Films
  • 18.4.1 Cost Efficiency
  • 18.4.2 Consumer Requirements
  • 18.4.3 Sustainability
  • 19 Regulatory Aspects of Food Packaging-A Global Matter
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.1.1 Bisphenol A
  • 19.2 Determining the Regulatory Status of Components of a Food-Contact Material in the United States
  • 19.2.1 Food-Contact Formulation Compliance Notification
  • 19.3 Regulatory Report: FDA's FCS Notification Program
  • 19.3.1 Definitions, History, and Scope
  • 19.3.2 The Notification Process
  • 19.3.3 Increasing the Odds of Success
  • 19.3.4 FCS Formulations
  • 19.4 Preservation of Foods by Irradiation
  • 19.4.1 FDA Regulations for Treatment of Foods with Radiation [26]
  • 19.4.2 Title 21 CFR 179-Subpart B: Radiation and Radiation Sources
  • 19.4.3 Title 21 CFR 179-Subpart C: Packaging Materials for Irradiated Foods
  • 19.5 Regulatory Aspects of Recycled Plastics-US FDA View
  • 19.5.1 Introduction
  • 19.5.2 Use of Recycled Plastics in Food Packaging: Chemistry Considerations [30]
  • 19.5.2.1 Introduction
  • 19.5.2.2 Background
  • 19.5.2.3 Recycling Processes
  • 19.5.2.3.1 Preconsumer Scrap: Primary Recycling
  • 19.5.2.3.2 Physical Reprocessing: Secondary Recycling
  • 19.5.2.3.3 Chemical Reprocessing: Tertiary Recycling
  • 19.5.2.4 Exposure to Chemical Contaminants
  • 19.5.2.5 Surrogate Contaminant Testing
  • 19.5.2.5.1 Choice of Surrogates
  • 19.5.2.5.2 Contamination of the Plastic
  • 19.5.2.5.3 Other Considerations
  • 19.5.2.6 Plastic Containers from Nonfood-Contact Applications as Feedstock
  • 19.5.2.7 The Use of an Effective Barrier
  • 19.5.2.8 Elimination of Data Recommendations for 3° Recycling Processes for PET and PEN
  • 19.5.2.9 Appendix 1: Model of the Sorption of Surrogate Contaminants into Plastic
  • 19.6 EU Legislation on Food-Contact Plastics
  • 19.6.1 EU Regulation No. 10/2011 on Plastic Materials Intended to Come into Contact with Food
  • 19.6.2 Consolidating Paragraphs
  • 19.6.3 Chapter I-General Provisions
  • 19.6.3.1.1 Article 1: Subject Matter
  • 19.6.3.1.2 Article 2: Scope
  • 19.6.3.1.3 Article 3: Definitions
  • 19.6.3.1.4 Article 4: Placing on the Market of Plastic Materials and Articles
  • 19.6.4 Chapter II: Compositional Requirements
  • 19.6.4.1 Section 1: Authorized Substances
  • 19.6.4.1.1 Article 5: Union List of Authorized Substances
  • 19.6.4.1.2 Article 6: Derogations for Substances Not Included in the Union List
  • 19.6.4.1.3 Article 7: Establishment and Management of the Provisional List
  • 19.6.4.2 Section 2: General Requirements, Restrictions, and Specifications
  • 19.6.4.2.1 Article 8: General Requirements on Substances
  • 19.6.4.2.2 Article 9: Specific Requirements on Substances
  • 19.6.4.2.3 Article 10: General Restrictions on Plastic Materials and Articles
  • 19.6.4.2.4 Article 11: Specific Migration Limits
  • 19.6.4.2.5 Article 12: Overall Migration Limit
  • 19.6.5 Chapter III: Specific Provisions for Certain Materials and Articles
  • 19.6.5.1.1 Article 13: Plastic Multilayer Materials and Articles
  • 19.6.5.1.2 Article 14: Multimaterial Multilayer Materials and Articles
  • 19.6.6 Chapter IV: Declaration of Compliance and Documentation
  • 19.6.6.1.1 Article 15: Declaration of Compliance
  • 19.6.6.1.2 Article 16: Supporting Documents
  • 19.6.7 Chapter V: Compliance
  • 19.6.7.1.1 Article 17: Expression of Migration Test Results
  • 19.6.7.1.2 Article 18: Rules for Assessing Compliance with Migration Limits
  • 19.6.7.1.3 Article 19: Assessment of Substances Not Included in the Union List
  • 19.6.8 Chapter VI: Final Provisions
  • 19.6.8.1.1 Article 20: Amendments of EU Acts
  • 19.6.8.1.2 Article 21: Repeal of EU Acts
  • 19.6.8.1.3 Article 22: Transitional Provisions
  • 19.6.8.1.4 Article 23: Entry into Force and Application
  • 19.7 EU Legislation for Recycled Plastics
  • 19.7.1 Questions and Answers on Recycled Plastics in Food-Contact Materials
  • Acknowledgment
  • References
  • Appendix: Writing Guide for Packaging Films and Other Multilayer Structures
  • Index
  • Back Cover

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